|Classification and external resources|
Prostate cancer is a form of cancer that develops in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. Most prostate cancers are slow growing; however, there are cases of aggressive prostate cancers. The cancer cells may metastasize (spread) from the prostate to other parts of the body, particularly the bones and lymph nodes. Prostate cancer may cause pain, difficulty in urinating, problems during sexual intercourse, erectile dysfunction, or death. Other symptoms can potentially develop during later stages of the disease.
Rates of detection of prostate cancers vary widely across the world, with South and East Asia detecting less frequently than in Europe, and especially the United States. Prostate cancer tends to develop in men over the age of fifty. Globally it is the sixth leading cause of cancer-related death in men (it is now the first in the UK and second in the United States). Prostate cancer is most common in the developed world with increasing rates in the developing world. However, many men with prostate cancer never have symptoms, undergo no therapy, and eventually die of other unrelated causes. Many factors, including genetics and diet, have been implicated in the development of prostate cancer. Recently the prevalence of light pollution has been implicated in the development of prostate cancer.
The presence of prostate cancer may be indicated by symptoms, physical examination, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), or biopsy. Prostate-specific antigen testing increases cancer detection but does not decrease mortality. The United States Preventive Services Task Force in 2012 recommended against screening for prostate cancer using the PSA testing, due to the risk of over-diagnosis and over-treatment with most prostate cancer remaining asymptomatic. The USPSTF concludes that the potential benefit of testing does not outweigh the expected harms.
Management strategies for prostate cancer should be guided by the severity of the disease. Many low-risk tumors can be safely followed with active surveillance. Curative treatment generally involves surgery, various forms of radiation therapy, proton therapy or, less commonly, cryosurgery; hormonal therapy and chemotherapy are generally reserved for cases of advanced disease (although hormonal therapy may be given with radiation in some cases). Several studies suggest that masturbation reduces the risk of prostate cancer, but the results are controversial.
The age and underlying health of the man, the extent of metastasis, appearance under the microscope and response of the cancer to initial treatment are important in determining the outcome of the disease. The decision whether or not to treat localized prostate cancer (a tumor that is contained within the prostate) with curative intent is a patient trade-off between the expected beneficial and harmful effects in terms of patient survival and quality of life.
- 1 Signs and symptoms
- 2 Risk factors
- 3 Pathophysiology
- 4 Diagnosis
- 5 Prevention
- 6 Screening
- 7 Management
- 8 Prognosis
- 9 Epidemiology
- 10 History
- 11 Society and culture
- 12 Research
- 13 References
- 14 External links
Signs and symptoms
Early prostate cancer usually causes no symptoms. Sometimes, however, prostate cancer does cause symptoms, often similar to those of diseases such as benign prostatic hyperplasia. These include frequent urination, nocturia (increased urination at night), difficulty starting and maintaining a steady stream of urine, hematuria (blood in the urine), and dysuria (painful urination). About a third of patients diagnosed with prostate cancer have one or more such symptoms, while two thirds have no symptoms.
Prostate cancer is associated with urinary dysfunction as the prostate gland surrounds the prostatic urethra. Changes within the gland, therefore, directly affect urinary function. Because the vas deferens deposits seminal fluid into the prostatic urethra, and secretions from the prostate gland itself are included in semen content, prostate cancer may also cause problems with sexual function and performance, such as difficulty achieving erection or painful ejaculation.
Advanced prostate cancer can spread to other parts of the body, possibly causing additional symptoms. The most common symptom is bone pain, often in the vertebrae (bones of the spine), pelvis, or ribs. Spread of cancer into other bones such as the femur is usually to the proximal part of the bone. Prostate cancer in the spine can also compress the spinal cord, causing leg weakness and urinary and fecal incontinence.
A complete understanding of the causes of prostate cancer remains elusive. The primary risk factors are obesity, age and family history. Prostate cancer is very uncommon in men younger than 45, but becomes more common with advancing age. The average age at the time of diagnosis is 70. However, many men never know they have prostate cancer. Autopsy studies of Chinese, German, Israeli, Jamaican, Swedish, and Ugandan men who died of other causes have found prostate cancer in 30% of men in their 50s, and in 80% of men in their 70s. Men who have first-degree family members with prostate cancer appear to have double the risk of getting the disease compared to men without prostate cancer in the family. This risk appears to be greater for men with an affected brother than for men with an affected father. In the United States in 2005, there were an estimated 230,000 new cases of prostate cancer and 30,000 deaths due to prostate cancer. Men with high blood pressure are more likely to develop prostate cancer. There is a small increased risk of prostate cancer associated with lack of exercise. A 2010 study found that prostate basal cells were the most common site of origin for prostate cancers.
Genetic background may contribute to prostate cancer risk, as suggested by associations with race, family, and specific gene variants. Men who have a first-degree relative (father or brother) with prostate cancer have twice the risk of developing prostate cancer, and those with two first-degree relatives affected have a fivefold greater risk compared with men with no family history. In the United States, prostate cancer more commonly affects black men than white or Hispanic men, and is also more deadly in black men.  In contrast, the incidence and mortality rates for Hispanic men are one third lower than for non-Hispanic whites. Studies of twins in Scandinavia suggest that 40% of prostate cancer risk can be explained by inherited factors.
No single gene is responsible for prostate cancer; many different genes have been implicated. Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2, important risk factors for ovarian cancer and breast cancer in women, have also been implicated in prostate cancer. Other linked genes include the Hereditary Prostate cancer gene 1 (HPC1), the androgen receptor, and the vitamin D receptor. TMPRSS2-ETS gene family fusion, specifically TMPRSS2-ERG or TMPRSS2-ETV1/4 promotes cancer cell growth.
Two large genome-wide association studies linking single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to prostate cancer were published in 2008. These studies identified several SNPs which substantially affect the risk of prostate cancer. For example, individuals with TT allele pair at SNP rs10993994 were reported to be at 1.6 times higher risk of prostate cancer than those with the CC allele pair. This SNP explains part of the increased prostate cancer risk of African American men as compared to American men of European descent, since the C allele is much more prevalent in the latter; this SNP is located in the promoter region of the MSMB gene, thus affects the amount of MSMB protein synthesized and secreted by epithelial cells of the prostate.
While some dietary factors have been associated with prostate cancer the evidence is still tentative. Evidence supports little role for dietary fruits and vegetables in prostate cancer occurrence. Red meat and processed meat also appear to have little effect in human studies. Higher meat consumption has been associated with a higher risk in some studies.
There are also some links between prostate cancer and medications, medical procedures, and medical conditions. Use of the cholesterol-lowering drugs known as the statins may also decrease prostate cancer risk.
Infection or inflammation of the prostate (prostatitis) may increase the chance for prostate cancer while another study shows infection may help prevent prostate cancer by increasing blood to the area. In particular, infection with the sexually transmitted infections chlamydia, gonorrhea, or syphilis seems to increase risk. Finally, obesity and elevated blood levels of testosterone may increase the risk for prostate cancer. There is an association between vasectomy and prostate cancer however more research is needed to determine if this is a causative relationship.
In 2006, a previously unknown retrovirus, Xenotropic MuLV-related virus or XMRV, was associated with human prostate tumors, but subsequent reports on the virus were contradictory, and the original 2006 finding was instead due to a previously undetected contamination. The journals Science and PlosONE both retracted XMRV related articles.
Several case-control studies have shown that having many lifetime sexual partners or starting sexual activity early in life substantially increases the risk of prostate cancer. This correlation suggests a sexually transmissible infection (STI) may cause some prostate cancer cases; however, many studies have unsuccessfully attempted to find such a link, especially when testing for STIs shortly before or after prostate cancer diagnosis. Studies testing for STIs a decade or more prior to prostate cancer diagnosis find a significant link between prostate cancer and various STIs (HPV-16, HPV-18 and HSV-2). This evidence could be explained by a yet-to-be-identified sexually transmissible infection and a long latency period between onset of infection and prostate cancer.
The prostate is a part of the male reproductive system that helps make and store seminal fluid. In adult men, a typical prostate is about 3 centimeters long and weighs about 20 grams. It is located in the pelvis, under the urinary bladder and in front of the rectum. The prostate surrounds part of the urethra, the tube that carries urine from the bladder during urination and semen during ejaculation. Because of its location, prostate diseases often affect urination, ejaculation, and rarely defecation. The prostate contains many small glands which make about 20 percent of the fluid constituting semen. In prostate cancer, the cells of these prostate glands mutate into cancer cells. The prostate glands require male hormones, known as androgens, to work properly. Androgens include testosterone, which is made in the testes; dehydroepiandrosterone, made in the adrenal glands; and dihydrotestosterone, which is converted from testosterone within the prostate itself. Androgens are also responsible for secondary sex characteristics such as facial hair and increased muscle mass.
Prostate cancer is classified as an adenocarcinoma, or glandular cancer, that begins when normal semen-secreting prostate gland cells mutate into cancer cells. The region of prostate gland where the adenocarcinoma is most common is the peripheral zone. Initially, small clumps of cancer cells remain confined to otherwise normal prostate glands, a condition known as carcinoma in situ or prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN). Although there is no proof that PIN is a cancer precursor, it is closely associated with cancer. Over time, these cancer cells begin to multiply and spread to the surrounding prostate tissue (the stroma) forming a tumor. Eventually, the tumor may grow large enough to invade nearby organs such as the seminal vesicles or the rectum, or the tumor cells may develop the ability to travel in the bloodstream and lymphatic system. Prostate cancer is considered a malignant tumor because it is a mass of cells that can invade other parts of the body. This invasion of other organs is called metastasis. Prostate cancer most commonly metastasizes to the bones, lymph nodes, and may invade rectum, bladder and lower ureters after local progression. The route of metastasis to bone is thought to be venous as the prostatic venous plexus draining the prostate connects with the vertebral veins.
The prostate is a zinc accumulating, citrate producing organ. The protein ZIP1 is responsible for the active transport of zinc into prostate cells. One of zinc's important roles is to change the metabolism of the cell in order to produce citrate, an important component of semen. The process of zinc accumulation, alteration of metabolism, and citrate production is energy inefficient, and prostate cells sacrifice enormous amounts of energy (ATP) in order to accomplish this task. Prostate cancer cells are generally devoid of zinc. This allows prostate cancer cells to save energy not making citrate, and utilize the new abundance of energy to grow and spread. The absence of zinc is thought to occur via a silencing of the gene that produces the transporter protein ZIP1. ZIP1 is now called a tumor suppressor gene product for the gene SLC39A1. The cause of the epigenetic silencing is unknown. Strategies which transport zinc into transformed prostate cells effectively eliminate these cells in animals. Zinc inhibits NF-κB pathways, is anti-proliferative, and induces apoptosis in abnormal cells. Unfortunately, oral ingestion of zinc is ineffective since high concentrations of zinc into prostate cells is not possible without the active transporter, ZIP1.
Loss of cancer suppressor genes, early in the prostatic carcinogenesis, have been localized to chromosomes 8p, 10q, 13q, and 16q. P53 mutations in the primary prostate cancer are relatively low and are more frequently seen in metastatic settings, hence, p53 mutations are late event in pathology of prostate cancer. Other tumor suppressor genes that are thought to play a role in prostate cancer include PTEN (gene) and KAI1. "Up to 70 percent of men with prostate cancer have lost one copy of the PTEN gene at the time of diagnosis" Relative frequency of loss of E-cadherin and CD44 has also been observed.
The PI3k/Akt signaling cascade works with the transforming growth factor beta/SMAD signaling cascade to ensure prostate cancer cell survival and protection against apoptosis. X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) is hypothesized to promote prostate cancer cell survival and growth and is a target of research because if this inhibitor can be shut down then the apoptosis cascade can carry on its function in preventing cancer cell proliferation. Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1) stimulates the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling pathway which leads to prostate cancer cell growth and survival.
The androgen receptor helps prostate cancer cells to survive and is a target for many anti cancer research studies; so far, inhibiting the androgen receptor has only proven to be effective in mouse studies. Prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) stimulates the development of prostate cancer by increasing folate levels for the cancer cells to use to survive and grow; PSMA increases available folates for use by hydrolyzing glutamated folates.
The American Cancer Society's position regarding early detection is "Research has not yet proven that the potential benefits of testing outweigh the harms of testing and treatment. The American Cancer Society believes that men should not be tested without learning about what we know and don’t know about the risks and possible benefits of testing and treatment. Starting at age 50, (45 if African American or brother or father suffered from condition before age 65) talk to your doctor about the pros and cons of testing so you can decide if testing is the right choice for you."
The only test that can fully confirm the diagnosis of prostate cancer is a biopsy, the removal of small pieces of the prostate for microscopic examination. However, prior to a biopsy, less invasive testing can be conducted.
There are also several other tests that can be used to gather more information about the prostate and the urinary tract. Digital rectal examination (DRE) may allow a doctor to detect prostate abnormalities. Cystoscopy shows the urinary tract from inside the bladder, using a thin, flexible camera tube inserted down the urethra. Transrectal ultrasonography creates a picture of the prostate using sound waves from a probe in the rectum.
Ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the two main imaging methods used for prostate cancer detection. Urologists use transrectal ultrasound during prostate biopsy and can sometimes see a hypoechoic area (tissues or structures that reflect relatively less of the ultrasound waves directed at them). But US has poor tissue resolution and thus, is generally not clinically used.
Prostate MRI has better soft tissue resolution than ultrasound.
MRI in those who are at low risk might help people choose active surveillance, in those who are at intermediate risk it may help with determining the stage of disease, while in those who are at high risk it might help find bone disease.
Currently, MRI is used to identify targets for prostate biopsy using fusion MRI with ultrasound (US) or MRI-guidance alone. In men who are candidates for active surveillance, fusion MR/US guided prostate biopsy detected 33% of cancers compared to 7% with standard ultrasound guided biopsy.
Prostate MRI is also used for surgical planning for men undergoing robotic prostatectomy. It has also shown to help surgeons decide whether to resect or spare the neurovascular bundle, determine return to urinary continence, and help assess surgical difficulty.
If cancer is suspected, a biopsy is offered expediently. During a biopsy a urologist or radiologist obtains tissue samples from the prostate via the rectum. A biopsy gun inserts and removes special hollow-core needles (usually three to six on each side of the prostate) in less than a second. Prostate biopsies are routinely done on an outpatient basis and rarely require hospitalization. Fifty-five percent of men report discomfort during prostate biopsy.
The tissue samples are then examined under a microscope to determine whether cancer cells are present, and to evaluate the microscopic features (or Gleason score) of any cancer found. Prostate specific membrane antigen is a transmembrane carboxypeptidase and exhibits folate hydrolase activity. This protein is overexpressed in prostate cancer tissues and is associated with a higher Gleason score.
Small cell carcinoma is a very rare (1%) type of prostate cancer that cannot be diagnosed using the PSA. As of 2009[update] researchers are trying to determine the best way to screen for this type of prostate cancer because it is a relatively unknown and rare type of prostate cancer but very serious and quick to spread to other parts of the body. Possible methods include chromatographic separation methods by mass spectrometry, or protein capturing by immunoassays or immunized antibodies. The test method will involve quantifying the amount of the biomarker PCI, with reference to the Gleason Score. Not only is this test quick, it is also sensitive. It can detect patients in the diagnostic grey zone, particularly those with a serum free to total Prostate Specific Antigen ratio of 10-20%.
The oncoprotein BCL-2, has been associated with the development of androgen-independent prostate cancer due to its high levels of expression in androgen-independent tumours in advanced stages of the pathology. The upregulation of BCL-2 after androgen ablation in prostate carcinoma cell lines and in a castrated-male rat model further established a connection between BCL-2 expression and prostate cancer progression.
The expression of Ki-67 by immunohistochemistry may be a significant predictor of patient outcome for men with prostate cancer.
ERK5 is a protein that may be used as a marker. ERK5 is present in abnormally high levels of prostate cancer, including invasive cancer which has spread to other parts of the body. It is also present in relapsed cancer following previous hormone therapy. Research shows that reducing the amount of ERK5 found in cancerous cells reduces their invasiveness.
An important part of evaluating prostate cancer is determining the stage, or how far the cancer has spread. Knowing the stage helps define prognosis and is useful when selecting therapies. The most common system is the four-stage TNM system (abbreviated from Tumor/Nodes/Metastases). Its components include the size of the tumor, the number of involved lymph nodes, and the presence of any other metastases.
The most important distinction made by any staging system is whether or not the cancer is still confined to the prostate. In the TNM system, clinical T1 and T2 cancers are found only in the prostate, while T3 and T4 cancers have spread elsewhere. Several tests can be used to look for evidence of spread. Medical specialty professional organizations recommend against the use of PET scans, CT scans, or bone scans when a physician stages early prostate cancer with low risk for metastasis. Those tests would be appropriate in such cases as when a CT scan evaluates spread within the pelvis, a bone scan look for spread to the bones, and endorectal coil magnetic resonance imaging to closely evaluate the prostatic capsule and the seminal vesicles. Bone scans should reveal osteoblastic appearance due to increased bone density in the areas of bone metastasis—opposite to what is found in many other cancers that metastasize.
After a prostate biopsy, a pathologist looks at the samples under a microscope. If cancer is present, the pathologist reports the grade of the tumor. The grade tells how much the tumor tissue differs from normal prostate tissue and suggests how fast the tumor is likely to grow. The Gleason system is used to grade prostate tumors from 2 to 10, where a Gleason score of 10 indicates the most abnormalities. The pathologist assigns a number from 1 to 5 for the most common pattern observed under the microscope, then does the same for the second-most-common pattern. The sum of these two numbers is the Gleason score. The Whitmore-Jewett stage is another method sometimes used.
Diet and lifestyle
The data on the relationship between diet and prostate cancer is poor. In light of this the incidence of prostate cancer is correlated with the consumption of the Western diet. Trans fats, saturated fats, and carbohydrates may be associated with an increased risk, and while Omega-3 fatty acids may result in some benefit, the evidence is inconclusive. Vitamin supplements appear to have no effect and some may increase the risk. High calcium intake has been linked to advanced prostate cancer. Consuming fish may lower prostate cancer deaths but does not appear to affect its occurrence. Some evidence supports lower rates of prostate cancer with a vegetarian diet. There is some tentative evidence for foods containing lycopene and selenium. Diets rich in cruciferous vegetables, soy, beans and other legumes may be associated with a lower risk of prostate cancer, especially more advanced cancers.
While the available evidence is weak, tentative results suggest that frequent ejaculation may decrease the risk of prostate cancer. Men who get regular exercise may have a slightly lower risk, especially vigorous activity and the risk of advanced prostate cancer.
In those who are being regularly screened 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor (finasteride and dutasteride) reduce the overall risk of being diagnosed with prostate cancer however there is insufficient data to determine if they have an effect on the risk of death and may increase the chance of more serious cases.
Prostate cancer screening is an attempt to find unsuspected cancers, and may lead to more invasive follow-up tests such as a biopsy, with cell samples taken for closer study. Options include the digital rectal exam (DRE) and the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test. Such screening is controversial and, in some people, may lead to unnecessary, possibly harmful, consequences. Routine screening with either a DRE or PSA is not supported by the evidence as there is no mortality benefit from screening.
The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends against the PSA test for prostate cancer screening in healthy men regardless of age. They conclude that the potential benefit of testing does not outweigh the expected harms. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention shared that conclusion. The American Society of Clinical Oncology and the American College of Physicians recommends screening be discouraged in those who are expected to live less than ten to fifteen years, while in those with a greater life expectancy a decision should be made by the person in question based on the potential risks and benefits. In general, they conclude that based on recent research, "it is uncertain whether the benefits associated with PSA testing for prostate cancer screening are worth the harms associated with screening and subsequent unnecessary treatment." American Urological Association (AUA 2013) guidelines call for weighing the benefits of preventing prostate cancer mortality in 1 man for every 1,000 men screened over a ten year period against the known harms associated with diagnostic tests and treatment. The AUA recommends screening decisions in those 55 to 69 be based on shared decision making, and that if screening is performed it should occur no more often than every two years.
The first decision to be made in managing prostate cancer is whether treatment is needed. Prostate cancer, especially low-grade forms found in the elderly, often grows so slowly that no treatment is required. Treatment may also be inappropriate if a person has other serious health problems or is not expected to live long enough for symptoms to appear.
Which option is best depends on the stage of the disease, the Gleason score, and the PSA level. Other important factors are age, general health, and a person's views about potential treatments and their possible side effects. Because all treatments can have significant side effects, such as erectile dysfunction and urinary incontinence, treatment discussions often focus on balancing the goals of therapy with the risks of lifestyle alterations. A combination of the treatment options is often recommended for managing prostate cancer.
Guidelines for treatment for specific clinical situations requires a good estimation of a person's long-term life expectancy. People can also use an 18-item questionnaire to learn whether they have good knowledge and understanding about their treatment options before they choose. Most of those who are newly diagnosed and made a treatment choice can not correctly answer over half of the questions.
If radiation therapy is done first, and fails, then radical prostatectomy is very technically challenging surgery and may not be feasible. On the other hand, radiation therapy done after surgical failure may have many complications.
In localized disease it is unknown if radical prostatectomy is better or worse than watchful waiting.
Many men diagnosed with low-risk prostate cancer are eligible for active surveillance. This term implies careful observation of the tumor over time, with the intention of treatment for cure if there are signs of cancer progression. Active surveillance is not synonymous with watchful waiting, an older term which implies no treatment or specific program of monitoring, with the assumption that palliative, not curative, treatment would be used if advanced, symptomatic disease develops.
Active surveillance involves monitoring the tumor for signs of growth or the appearance of symptoms. The monitoring process may involve serial PSA, physical examination of the prostate, and/or repeated biopsies. The goal of surveillance is to avoid overtreatment and the sometimes serious, permanent side effects of treatment for a slow-growing or self-limited tumor that would never cause any problems for the person. This approach is not used for aggressive cancers, but it may cause anxiety for people who wrongly believe that all cancer is deadly or themselves to have a life-threatening cancer. For 50% to 75% of people with prostate cancer it will cause no harm before a person dies.
Treatment of aggressive prostate cancers may involve surgery (i.e. radical prostatectomy), radiation therapy including brachytherapy (prostate brachytherapy) and external beam radiation therapy, High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), chemotherapy, oral chemotherapeutic drugs (Temozolomide/TMZ), cryosurgery, hormonal therapy, or some combination.
Although the widespread use of prostate specific antigen (PSA) screening in the USA has resulted in diagnosis at earlier age and cancer stage, the vast majority of cases are still diagnosed in men older than 65 years, and approximately 25% of cases are diagnosed in men older than 75 years. Though US National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines recommend using life expectancy greater than or less than 10 years to help make treatment decisions, in practice, many elderly patients are not offered curative treatment options such as radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy and are instead treated with hormonal therapy or watchful waiting. This pattern can be attributed to factors such as medical co-morbidity and patient preferences is regard to quality of life in addition to prostate cancer specific risk factors such as pretreatment PSA, Gleason score and clinical stage. As the average life expectancy increases due to advances in treatment of cardiovascular, pulmonary and other chronic disease, it is likely that more elderly patients will be living long enough to suffer the consequences of their prostate cancer. Therefore, there is currently much interest in the role of aggressive prostate cancer treatment modalities such as with surgery or radiation in the elderly population who have localized disease.
If the cancer has spread beyond the prostate, treatment options significantly change, so most doctors that treat prostate cancer use a variety of nomograms to predict the probability of spread. Treatment by watchful waiting/active surveillance, external beam radiation therapy, brachytherapy, cryosurgery, HIFU, and surgery are, in general, offered to men whose cancer remains within the prostate. Hormonal therapy and chemotherapy are often reserved for disease that has spread beyond the prostate. However, there are exceptions: radiation therapy may be used for some advanced tumors, and hormonal therapy is used for some early stage tumors. Cryotherapy (the process of freezing the tumor), hormonal therapy, and chemotherapy may also be offered if initial treatment fails and the cancer progresses.
Most hormone dependent cancers become refractory after one to three years and resume growth despite hormone therapy. Previously considered "hormone-refractory prostate cancer" or "androgen-independent prostate cancer", the term castration-resistant has replaced "hormone refractory" because while they are no longer responsive to castration treatment (reduction of available androgen/testosterone/DHT by chemical or surgical means), these cancers still show reliance upon hormones for androgen receptor activation. Before 2004, all treatments for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) were considered[who?] palliative and not shown to prolong survival. However, there are now several treatments available to treat CRPC that improve survival.
The cancer chemotherapic docetaxel has been used as treatment for CRPC with a median survival benefit of 2 to 3 months. A second-line chemotherapy treatment is cabazitaxel. A combination of bevacizumab, docetaxel, thalidomide and prednisone appears effective in the treatment of CRPC.
The immunotherapy treatment with sipuleucel-T in CRPC increases survival by 4 months. The second line hormonal therapy abiraterone increases survival by 4.6 months when compared to placebo. Enzalutamide is another second line hormonal agent with a 5 month survival advantage over placebo. Both abiraterone and enzalutamide are currently being tested in clinical trials in those with CRPC who have not previously received chemotherapy.
Only a subset of a people respond to androgen signaling blocking drugs and certain cells with characteristics resembling stem cells remain unaffected. Therefore, the desire to improve outcome of people with CRPC has resulted into the claims of increasing doses further or combination therapy with synergistic androgen signaling blocking agents. But even these combination will not affect stem -like cells that do not exhibit androgen signaling. It is possible that for further advances, a combination of androgen signaling blocking agent with stem-like cell directed differentiation therapy drug would prove ideal.
Prostate cancer rates are higher and prognoses are poorer in developed countries than in the rest of the world. Many of the risk factors for prostate cancer are more prevalent in the developed world, including longer life expectancy and diets high in red meat. (People who consume larger amounts of meat and dairy also tend to consume fewer portions of fruits and vegetables. It is not currently clear whether both of these factors, or just one of them, contribute to the occurrence of prostate cancer.) Also, where there is more access to screening programs, there is a higher detection rate. Prostate cancer is the ninth-most-common cancer in the world, but is the number-one non-skin cancer in men from the United States. Prostate cancer affected 18 percent of American men and caused death in three percent in 2005. In Japan, death from prostate cancer was one-fifth to one-half the rates in the United States and Europe in the 1990s. In India in the 1990s, half of the people with prostate cancer confined to the prostate died within ten years. African-American men have 50–60 times more prostate cancer and prostate cancer deaths than men in Shanghai, China. In Nigeria, two percent of men develop prostate cancer, and 64% of them are dead after two years.
In patients who undergo treatment, the most important clinical prognostic indicators of disease outcome are stage, pre-therapy PSA level, and Gleason score. In general, the higher the grade and the stage, the poorer the prognosis. Nomograms can be used to calculate the estimated risk of the individual patient. The predictions are based on the experience of large groups of patients suffering from cancers at various stages.
In 1941, Charles Huggins reported that androgen ablation therapy causes regression of primary and metastatic androgen-dependent prostate cancer. He was awarded the 1966 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for this discovery. Androgen ablation therapy causes remission in 80-90% of patients undergoing therapy, resulting in a median progression-free survival of 12 to 33 months. After remission, an androgen-independent phenotype typically emerges, wherein the median overall survival is 23–37 months from the time of initiation of androgen ablation therapy. It is not clear how the prostate cancer becomes androgen-independent or how it reestablishes progression, although a few possibilities (on how) have been proposed. And the way the cancer changes, to overcome the lack of androgen, may vary between individual patients.
Many prostate cancers are not destined to be lethal, and most men will ultimately die from causes other than of the disease. Decisions about treatment type and timing may, therefore, be informed by an estimation of the risk that the tumor will ultimately recur after treatment and/or progress to metastases and mortality. Several tools are available to help predict outcomes, such as pathologic stage and recurrence after surgery or radiation therapy. Most combine stage, grade, and PSA level, and some also add the number or percent of biopsy cores positive, age, and/or other information.
- The D'Amico classification stratifies men by low, intermediate, or high risk based on stage, grade, and PSA. It is used widely in clinical practice and research settings. The major downside to the 3-level system is that it does not account for multiple adverse parameters (e.g., high Gleason score and high PSA) in stratifying patients.
- The Partin tables  predict pathologic outcomes (margin status, extraprostatic extension, and seminal vesicle invasion) based on the same three variables and are published as lookup tables.
- The Kattan nomograms predict recurrence after surgery and/or radiation therapy, based on data available either at time of diagnosis or after surgery. The nomograms can be calculated using paper graphs or software available on a website or for handheld computers. The Kattan score represents the likelihood of remaining free of disease at a given time interval following treatment.
- The UCSF Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment (CAPRA) score predicts both pathologic status and recurrence after surgery. It offers comparable accuracy as the Kattan preoperative nomogram, and can be calculated without paper tables or a calculator. Points are assigned based on PSA, Grade, stage, age, and percent of cores positive; the sum yields a 0–10 score, with every 2 points representing roughly a doubling of risk of recurrence. The CAPRA score was derived from community-based data in the CaPSURE database. It has been validated among over 10,000 prostatectomy patients, including patients from CaPSURE; the SEARCH registry, representing data from several Veterans Administration and active military medical centers; a multi-institutional cohort in Germany; and the prostatectomy cohort at Johns Hopkins University. More recently, it has been shown to predict metastasis and mortality following prostatectomy, radiation therapy, watchful waiting, or androgen deprivation therapy.
As of 2011, prostate cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer and the sixth leading cause of cancer death in males worldwide. In 2010 it resulted in 256,000 deaths up from 156,000 deaths in 1990. Rates of prostate cancer vary widely across the world. Although the rates vary widely between countries, it is least common in South and East Asia, and more common in Europe, North America, Australia and New Zealand. Prostate cancer is least common among Asian men and most common among black men, with figures for white men in between. The average annual incidence rate of prostate cancer between 1988 and 1992 among Chinese men in the United States was 15 times higher than that of their counterparts living in Shanghai and Tianjin. However, these high rates may be affected by increasing rates of detection. Many suggest that prostate cancer may be under reported, yet BPH incidence in China and Japan is similar to rates in Western countries. In Europe in 2012 it was the 3rd most diagnosed cancer after breast and colorectal at 417,000 cases.
Prostate cancer develops primarily in men over fifty. It is the most common type of cancer in men in the United States, with 186,000 new cases in 2008 and 28,600 deaths. It is the second leading cause of cancer death in U.S. men after lung cancer. In the United Kingdom it is also the second most common cause of cancer death after lung cancer, where around 35,000 cases are diagnosed every year and of which around 10,000 die of it.
More than 80% of men will develop prostate cancer by the age of 80. However, in the majority of cases, it will be slow-growing and harmless. In such men, diagnosing prostate cancer is overdiagnosis—the needless identification of a technically aberrant condition that will never harm the patient—and treatment in such men exposes them to all of the adverse effects, with no possibility of extending their lives.
Although the prostate was first described by Venetian anatomist Niccolò Massa in 1536, and illustrated by Flemish anatomist Andreas Vesalius in 1538, prostate cancer was not identified until 1853. Prostate cancer was initially considered a rare disease, probably because of shorter life expectancies and poorer detection methods in the 19th century. The first treatments of prostate cancer were surgeries to relieve urinary obstruction. Removal of the entire gland (radical perineal prostatectomy) was first performed in 1904 by Hugh H. Young at Johns Hopkins Hospital. Surgical removal of the testes (orchiectomy) to treat prostate cancer was first performed in the 1890s, but with limited success. Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) replaced radical prostatectomy for symptomatic relief of obstruction in the middle of the 20th century because it could better preserve penile erectile function. Radical retropubic prostatectomy was developed in 1983 by Patrick Walsh. This surgical approach allowed for removal of the prostate and lymph nodes with maintenance of penile function.
In 1941, Charles B. Huggins published studies in which he used estrogen to oppose testosterone production in men with metastatic prostate cancer. This discovery of "chemical castration" won Huggins the 1966 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. The role of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in reproduction was determined by Andrzej W. Schally and Roger Guillemin, who both won the 1977 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for this work. GnRH receptor agonists, such as leuprolide and goserelin, were subsequently developed and used to treat prostate cancer.
Radiation therapy for prostate cancer was first developed in the early 20th century and initially consisted of intraprostatic radium implants. External beam radiotherapy became more popular as stronger [X-ray] radiation sources became available in the middle of the 20th century. Brachytherapy with implanted seeds (for prostate cancer) was first described in 1983.
Systemic chemotherapy for prostate cancer was first studied in the 1970s. The initial regimen of cyclophosphamide and 5-fluorouracil was quickly joined by multiple regimens using a host of other systemic chemotherapy drugs.
A series of studies published in Science involved introduced viruses known to cause cancerous mutation in prostate cells: AKT, ERG, and AR into isolated samples of basal and luminal cells and grafted the treated tissue into mice. After 16 weeks, none of the luminal samples had undergone malignant mutation, while the basal samples had mutated into prostate-like tubules which had then developed malignancy and formed cancerous tumors, which appeared identical to human samples under magnification. This led to the conclusion that the prostate basal cell may be the most likely "site of origin" of prostate cancer.
Society and culture
People with prostate cancer generally encounter significant disparities in awareness, funding, media coverage, and research—and therefore, inferior treatment and poorer outcomes—compared to other cancers of equal prevalence. In 2001, The Guardian noted that Britain had 3,000 nurses specializing in breast cancer, compared to only one for prostate cancer. It also discovered that the waiting time between referral and diagnosis was two weeks for breast cancer but three months for prostate cancer. A 2007 report by the U.S.-based National Prostate Cancer Coalition stated that for every prostate cancer drug on the market, there were seven used to treat breast cancer. The Times also noted an "anti-male bias in cancer funding" with a four to one discrepancy in the United Kingdom by both the government and by cancer charities such as Cancer Research UK. Equality campaigners such as author Warren Farrell cite such stark spending inequalities as a clear example of governments unfairly favouring women's health over men's health.
Disparities also extend into areas such as detection, with governments failing to fund or mandate prostate cancer screening while fully supporting breast cancer programs. For example, a 2007 report found 49 U.S. states mandate insurance coverage for routine breast cancer screening, compared to 28 for prostate cancer. Prostate cancer also experiences significantly less media coverage than other, equally prevalent cancers, with a study by Prostate Coalition showing 2.6 breast cancer stories for each one covering cancer of the prostate.
MDV3100 was in phase III trials for HRPC (chemo-naive and post-chemo patient populations). and gained FDA approval in 2012 as enzalutamide for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Alpharadin completed a phase 3 trial for CRPC patients with bone metastasis. A pre-planned interim analysis showed improved survival and quality of life. The study was stopped for ethical reasons to give the placebo group the same treatment. Alpharadin uses bone targeted Radium-223 isotopes to kill cancer cells by alpha radiation. It was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on May, 15th 2013 ahead of schedule under the priority review program. Alpharadin still waits for approval by the European Medicines Agency (EMA).
Prostate cancer models
Scientists have established a few prostate cancer cell lines to investigate the mechanism involved in the progression of prostate cancer. LNCaP, PC-3 (PC3), and DU-145 (DU145) are commonly used prostate cancer cell lines. The LNCaP cancer cell line was established from a human lymph node metastatic lesion of prostatic adenocarcinoma. PC-3 and DU-145 cells were established from human prostatic adenocarcinoma metastatic to bone and to brain, respectively. LNCaP cells express androgen receptor (AR); however, PC-3 and DU-145 cells express very little or no AR. AR, an androgen-activated transcription factor, belongs to the steroid nuclear receptor family. Development of the prostate is dependent on androgen signaling mediated through AR, and AR is also important during the development of prostate cancer. The proliferation of LNCaP cells is androgen-dependent but the proliferation of PC-3 and DU-145 cells is androgen-insensitive. Elevation of AR expression is often observed in advanced prostate tumors in patients. Some androgen-independent LNCaP sublines have been developed from the ATCC androgen-dependent LNCaP cells after androgen deprivation for study of prostate cancer progression. These androgen-independent LNCaP cells have elevated AR expression and express prostate specific antigen upon androgen treatment. The paradox is that androgens inhibit the proliferation of these androgen-independent prostate cancer cells.
At present, an active area of research and non-clinically applied investigations involve non-invasive methods of prostate tumor detection. Adenoviruses modified to transfect tumor cells with harmless yet distinct genes (such as luciferase) have proven capable of early detection. So far, however, this area of research has been tested only in animal and LNCaP cell models.
Another potential non-invasive method of early prostate tumor detection is through a molecular test that detects the presence of cell-associated PCA3 mRNA in fluid massaged from the prostate by the doctor and first-void urinated out within a limited amount of urine into the specimen container. PCA3 mRNA is expressed almost exclusively by prostate cells and has been shown to be highly over-expressed in prostate cancer cells. The test result is currently reported as a specimen ratio of PCA3 mRNA to PSA mRNA. Although not a replacement for serum PSA level, the PCA3 test is an additional tool to help decide whether, in men suspected of having prostate cancer (especially if an initial biopsy fails to explain the elevated serum PSA), a biopsy/rebiopsy is really needed. The higher the expression of PCA3 in the sample, the greater the likelihood of a positive biopsy; i.e., the presence of cancer cells in the prostate.
- Early prostate cancer antigen-2
Thrombophlebitis is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer and may be a good way for physicians to remind themselves to screen patients with thrombophlebitis for prostate cancer as well since these two are closely linked.
Epithelial cells of the prostate secrete prostasomes as well as PSA. Prostasomes are membrane–surrounded, prostate-derived organelles that appear extracellularly, and one of their physiological functions is to protect the sperm from attacks by the female immune system. Cancerous prostate cells continue to synthesize and secrete prostasomes, and may be shielded against immunological attacks by these prostasomes. Research of several aspects of prostasomal involvement in prostate cancer has been performed.
- Sam Lister (February 11, 2009). "Urine test could speed treatment of prostate cancer". London: The Sunday Times. Retrieved 9 August 2010.
- "ACS :: What Is Prostate Cancer?" American Cancer Society :: Information and Resources for Cancer: Breast, Colon, Prostate, Lung and Other Forms. Web. 15 June 2010. "?". Retrieved 9 August 2010.
- "IARC Worldwide Cancer Incidence Statistics—Prostate". JNCI Cancer Spectrum. Oxford University Press. December 19, 2001. Archived from the original on February 5, 2006. Retrieved on 5 April 2007 through the Internet Archive
- Siegel R, (2011). "Cancer statistics, 2011: the impact of eliminating socioeconomic and racial disparities on premature cancer deaths". CA Cancer J Clin 61 (4): 212–36. doi:10.3322/caac.20121. PMID 21685461.
- Baade, PD; Youlden, DR; Krnjacki, LJ (February 2009). "International epidemiology of prostate cancer: geographical distribution and secular trends". Molecular nutrition & food research 53 (2): 171–84. doi:10.1002/mnfr.200700511. PMID 19101947.
- Haim, Abraham (2013). Light Pollution as new risk factor for human Breast and Prostate cancers. ISBN 978-94-007-6220-6.
- Djulbegovic M, Beyth RJ, Neuberger MM, Stoffs TL, Vieweg J, Djulbegovic B, Dahm P (2010). "Screening for prostate cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials". BMJ 341: c4543. doi:10.1136/bmj.c4543. PMC 2939952. PMID 20843937.
- "Talking With Your Patients About Screening for Prostate Cancer". Retrieved 2012-07-02.
- Leitzmann, MF; Platz, EA; Stampfer, MJ; Willett, WC; Giovannucci, E (Apr 7, 2004). "Ejaculation frequency and subsequent risk of prostate cancer.". JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association 291 (13): 1578–86. doi:10.1001/jama.291.13.1578. PMID 15069045.
- Giles, G.G.; Severi, G.; English, D.R.; McCredie, M.R.E.; Borland, R.; Boyle, P.; Hopper, J.L. (23 July 2003). "Sexual factors and prostate cancer". BJU International 92 (3): 211–216. doi:10.1046/j.1464-410X.2003.04319.x. PMID 12887469.
- Dimitropoulou, P; Lophatananon, A; Easton, D; Pocock, R; Dearnaley, DP; Guy, M; Edwards, S; O'Brien, L; Hall, A; Wilkinson, R; Eeles, R; Muir, KR; UK Genetic Prostate Cancer Study, Collaborators; British Association of Urological Surgeons Section of, Oncology (Jan 2009). "Sexual activity and prostate cancer risk in men diagnosed at a younger age.". BJU international 103 (2): 178–85. doi:10.1111/j.1464-410X.2008.08030.x. PMID 19016689.
- Miller DC, Hafez KS, Stewart A, Montie JE, Wei JT (September 2003). "Prostate carcinoma presentation, diagnosis, and staging: an update form the National Cancer Data Base". Cancer 98 (6): 1169–78. doi:10.1002/cncr.11635. PMID 12973840.
- van der Cruijsen-Koeter IW, Vis AN, Roobol MJ, Wildhagen MF, de Koning HJ, van der Kwast TH, Schroder FH (July 2005). "Comparison of screen detected and clinically diagnosed prostate cancer in the European randomized study of screening for prostate cancer, section rotterdam". Urol 174 (1): 121–5. doi:10.1097/01.ju.0000162061.40533.0f. PMID 15947595.
- Hsing AW, Chokkalingam AP (2006). "Prostate cancer epidemiology". Frontiers in Bioscience 11: 1388–413. doi:10.2741/1891. PMID 16368524.
- Hankey BF, Feuer EJ, Clegg LX, Hayes RB, Legler JM, Prorok PC, Ries LA, Merrill RM, Kaplan RS (June 16, 1999). "Cancer surveillance series: interpreting trends in prostate cancer—part I: Evidence of the effects of screening in recent prostate cancer incidence, mortality, and survival rates". J Natl Cancer Inst 91 (12): 1017–24. doi:10.1093/jnci/91.12.1017. PMID 10379964.
- Breslow N, Chan CW, Dhom G, Drury RA, Franks LM, Gellei B, Lee YS, Lundberg S, Sparke B, Sternby NH, Tulinius H. (November 15, 1977). "Latent carcinoma of prostate at autopsy in seven areas. The International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyons, France". Int J Cancer 20 (5): 680–8. doi:10.1002/ijc.2910200506. PMID 924691.
- Zeegers MP (2003). "Empiric risk of prostate carcinoma for relatives of patients with prostate carcinoma: a meta-analysis". Cancer 97 (8): 1894–903. doi:10.1002/cncr.11262. PMID 12673715.
- Jemal A, Murray T, Ward E, Samuels A, Tiwari RC, Ghafoor A, Feuer EJ, Thun MJ (2005). "Cancer statistics, 2005". CA Cancer J Clin 55 (1): 10–30. doi:10.3322/canjclin.55.1.10. PMID 15661684.
- Martin RM, Vatten L, Gunnell D, Romundstad P (March 2010). "Blood pressure and risk of prostate cancer: cohort Norway (CONOR)". Cancer Causes Control 21 (3): 463–72. doi:10.1007/s10552-009-9477-x. PMID 19949849.
- Friedenreich CM, Neilson, HK, Lynch, BM (Sep 2010). "State of the epidemiological evidence on physical activity and cancer prevention". European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990) 46 (14): 2593–604. doi:10.1016/j.ejca.2010.07.028. PMID 20843488.
- Goldstein AS, Huang J, Guo C, Garraway IP, Witte ON (July 2010). "Identification of a cell of origin for human prostate cancer". Science 329 (5991): 568–71. doi:10.1126/science.1189992. PMC 2917982. PMID 20671189.
- Steinberg GD, Carter BS, Beaty TH, Childs B, Walsh PC (1990). "Family history and the risk of prostate cancer". Prostate 17 (4): 337–47. doi:10.1002/pros.2990170409. PMID 2251225.
- Gallagher RP, Fleshner N (October 1998). "Prostate cancer: 3. Individual risk factors". CMAJ 159 (7): 807–13. PMC 1232741. PMID 9805030.
- Hoffman RM, Gilliland FD, Eley JW, Harlan LC, Stephenson RA, Stanford JL, Albertson PC, Hamilton AS, Hunt WC, Potosky AL (March 2001). "Racial and ethnic differences in advanced-stage prostate cancer: the Prostate Cancer Outcomes Study". J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 93 (5): 388–95. doi:10.1093/jnci/93.5.388. PMID 11238701.
- Lichtenstein P, Holm NV, Verkasalo PK, Iliadou A, Kaprio J, Koskenvuo M, Pukkala E, Skytthe A, Hemminki K (July 2000). "Environmental and heritable factors in the causation of cancer--analyses of cohorts of twins from Sweden, Denmark, and Finland". N. Engl. J. Med. 343 (2): 78–85. doi:10.1056/NEJM200007133430201. PMID 10891514.
- Struewing JP, Hartge P, Wacholder S, Baker SM, Berlin M, McAdams M, Timmerman MM, Brody LC, Tucker MA (May 1997). "The risk of cancer associated with specific mutations of BRCA1 and BRCA2 among Ashkenazi Jews". N. Engl. J. Med. 336 (20): 1401–8. doi:10.1056/NEJM199705153362001. PMID 9145676.
- Beuzeboc P, Soulié M, Richaud P, Salomon L, Staerman F, Peyromaure M, Mongiat-Artus P, Cornud F, Paparel P, Davin JL, Molinié V (December 2009). "[Fusion genes and prostate cancer. From discovery to prognosis and therapeutic perspectives]". Prog. Urol. (in French) 19 (11): 819–24. doi:10.1016/j.purol.2009.06.002. PMID 19945666.
- Eeles, RA; Kote-Jarai, Z; Giles, GG; Olama, AA; Guy, M; Jugurnauth, SK; Mulholland, S; Leongamornlert, DA; Edwards, SM; Morrison, J; Field, HI; Southey, MC; Severi, G; Donovan, JL; Hamdy, FC; Dearnaley, DP; Muir, KR; Smith, C; Bagnato, M; Ardern-Jones, AT; Hall, AL; O'Brien, LT; Gehr-Swain, BN; Wilkinson, RA; Cox, A; Lewis, S; Brown, PM; Jhavar, SG; Tymrakiewicz, M; Lophatananon, A; Bryant, SL; UK Genetic Prostate Cancer Study, Collaborators; British Association of Urological Surgeons' Section of, Oncology; UK ProtecT Study, Collaborators; Horwich, A; Huddart, RA; Khoo, VS; Parker, CC; Woodhouse, CJ; Thompson, A; Christmas, T; Ogden, C; Fisher, C; Jamieson, C; Cooper, CS; English, DR; Hopper, JL; Neal, DE; Easton, DF (March 2008). "Multiple newly identified loci associated with prostate cancer susceptibility". Nature Genetics 40 (3): 316–21. doi:10.1038/ng.90. PMID 18264097.
- Thomas, G; Jacobs, KB; Yeager, M; Kraft, P; Wacholder, S; Orr, N; Yu, K; Chatterjee, N; Welch, R; Hutchinson, A; Crenshaw, A; Cancel-Tassin, G; Staats, BJ; Wang, Z; Gonzalez-Bosquet, J; Fang, J; Deng, X; Berndt, SI; Calle, EE; Feigelson, HS; Thun, MJ; Rodriguez, C; Albanes, D; Virtamo, J; Weinstein, S; Schumacher, FR; Giovannucci, E; Willett, WC; Cussenot, O; Valeri, A; Andriole, GL; Crawford, ED; Tucker, M; Gerhard, DS; Fraumeni JF, Jr; Hoover, R; Hayes, RB; Hunter, DJ; Chanock, SJ (March 2008). "Multiple loci identified in a genome-wide association study of prostate cancer". Nature Genetics 40 (3): 310–5. doi:10.1038/ng.91. PMID 18264096.
- Whitaker, HC; Kote-Jarai, Z; Ross-Adams, H; Warren, AY; Burge, J; George, A; Bancroft, E; Jhavar, S; Leongamornlert, D; Tymrakiewicz, M; Saunders, E; Page, E; Mitra, A; Mitchell, G; Lindeman, GJ; Evans, DG; Blanco, I; Mercer, C; Rubinstein, WS; Clowes, V; Douglas, F; Hodgson, S; Walker, L; Donaldson, A; Izatt, L; Dorkins, H; Male, A; Tucker, K; Stapleton, A; Lam, J; Kirk, J; Lilja, H; Easton, D; IMPACT Study Steering, Committee; IMPACT Study, Collaborators; UK GPCS, Collaborators; Cooper, C; Eeles, R; Neal, DE (Oct 13, 2010). "The rs10993994 risk allele for prostate cancer results in clinically relevant changes in microseminoprotein-beta expression in tissue and urine". In Vickers, Andrew. PLoS ONE 5 (10): e13363. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0013363. PMC 2954177. PMID 20967219.
- Venkateswaran V, Klotz, LH (Aug 2010). "Diet and prostate cancer: mechanisms of action and implications for chemoprevention". Nature Reviews Urology 7 (8): 442–53. doi:10.1038/nrurol.2010.102. PMID 20647991.
- Key TJ (2011). "Fruit and vegetables and cancer risk". British journal of cancer 104 (1): 6–11. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6606032. PMC 3039795. PMID 21119663. "For other common cancers, including colorectal, breast and prostate cancer, epidemiological studies suggest little or no association between total fruit and vegetable consumption and risk."
- Alexander DD, Mink, PJ, Cushing, CA, Sceurman, B (2010). "A review and meta-analysis of prospective studies of red and processed meat intake and prostate cancer". Nutrition journal 9: 50. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-9-50. PMC 2987772. PMID 21044319.
- "Chemicals in Meat Cooked at High Temperatures and Cancer Risk". National Cancer Institute.
- Wigle DT, Turner MC, Gomes J, Parent ME (March 2008). "Role of hormonal and other factors in human prostate cancer". Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews 11 (3–4): 242–59. doi:10.1080/10937400701873548. PMID 18368555.
- Qin, X; Cui, Y; Shen, L; Sun, N; Zhang, Y; Li, J; Xu, X; Wang, B; Xu, X; Huo, Y; Wang, X (Jan 22, 2013). "Folic acid supplementation and cancer risk: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". International Journal of Cancer. Journal International Du Cancer 133 (5): 1033–41. doi:10.1002/ijc.28038. PMID 23338728.
- Jacobs EJ, Rodriguez C, Mondul AM, Connell CJ, Henley SJ, Calle EE, Thun MJ (July 2005). "A large cohort study of aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and prostate cancer incidence". J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 97 (13): 975–80. doi:10.1093/jnci/dji173. PMID 15998950.
- Shannon J, Tewoderos S, Garzotto M, Beer TM, Derenick R, Palma A, Farris PE (August 2005). "Statins and prostate cancer risk: a case-control study". Am. J. Epidemiol. 162 (4): 318–25. doi:10.1093/aje/kwi203. PMID 16014776.
- Dennis LK, Lynch CF, Torner JC (July 2002). "Epidemiologic association between prostatitis and prostate cancer". Urology 60 (1): 78–83. doi:10.1016/S0090-4295(02)01637-0. PMID 12100928.
- Calle EE, Rodriguez C, Walker-Thurmond K, Thun MJ (April 2003). "Overweight, obesity, and mortality from cancer in a prospectively studied cohort of U.S. adults". N. Engl. J. Med. 348 (17): 1625–38. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa021423. PMID 12711737.
- Gann PH, Hennekens CH, Ma J, Longcope C, Stampfer MJ (August 1996). "Prospective study of sex hormone levels and risk of prostate cancer". J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 88 (16): 1118–26. doi:10.1093/jnci/88.16.1118. PMID 8757191.
- "?". Retrieved 9 August 2010.
- "Veterans exposed to Agent Orange have higher rates of prostate cancer recurrence". Medical College of Georgia News. May 20, 2007.
- Urisman A, Molinaro RJ, Fischer N, Plummer SJ, Casey G, Klein EA, Malathi K, Magi-Galluzzi C, Tubbs RR, Ganem D, Silverman RH, DeRisi JL (March 2006). "Identification of a Novel Gammaretrovirus in Prostate Tumors of Patients Homozygous for R462Q RNASEL Variant". PLoS Pathog. 2 (3): e25. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.0020025. PMC 1434790. PMID 16609730.
- Schlaberg R, Choe DJ, Brown KR, Thaker HM, Singh IR (September 2009). "XMRV is present in malignant prostatic epithelium and is associated with prostate cancer, especially high-grade tumors". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106 (38): 16351–6. doi:10.1073/pnas.0906922106. PMC 2739868. PMID 19805305.
- Hohn O, Krause H, Barbarotto P, Niederstadt L, Beimforde N, Denner J, Miller K, Kurth R, Bannert N (2009). "Lack of evidence for xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) in German prostate cancer patients". Retrovirology 6: 92. doi:10.1186/1742-4690-6-92. PMC 2770519. PMID 19835577.
- Lee, D.; Das Gupta, J.; Gaughan, C.; Steffen, I.; Tang, N.; Luk, K. C.; Qiu, X.; Urisman, A.; Fischer, N.; Molinaro, R.; Broz, M.; Schochetman, G.; Klein, E. A.; Ganem, D.; Derisi, J. L.; Simmons, G.; Hackett Jr, J.; Silverman, R. H.; Chiu, C. Y. (2012). "In-Depth Investigation of Archival and Prospectively Collected Samples Reveals No Evidence for XMRV Infection in Prostate Cancer". In Tachedjian, Gilda. PLoS ONE 7 (9): e44954. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0044954. PMC 3445615. PMID 23028701.
- Alberts, B (Dec 23, 2011). "Retraction". Science 334 (6063): 1636. doi:10.1126/science.334.6063.1636-a. PMID 22194552.
- Urisman, Anatoly; Molinaro, Ross J; Fischer, Nicole; Plummer, Sarah J; Casey, Graham; Klein, Eric A; Malathi, Krishnamurthy; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Tubbs, Raymond R; Ganem, Don; Silverman, Robert H; Derisi, Joseph L (September 2012). "Retraction. Identification of a novel gammaretrovirus in prostate tumors of patients homozygous for R462Q RNASEL variant". In Ross, Susan. PLoS Pathogens 8 (9): 10.1371/annotation/7e2efc01–2e9b–4e9b–aef0–87ab0e4e4732. doi:10.1371/annotation/7e2efc01-2e9b-4e9b-aef0-87ab0e4e4732. PMC 3445601. PMID 23028303.
- Dennis, LK; Dawson, DV (January 2002). "Meta-analysis of measures of sexual activity and prostate cancer". Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.) 13 (1): 72–9. doi:10.1097/00001648-200201000-00012. PMID 11805589.
- Rosenblatt, KA; Wicklund, KG; Stanford, JL (Jun 15, 2001). "Sexual factors and the risk of prostate cancer". American Journal of Epidemiology 153 (12): 1152–8. doi:10.1093/aje/153.12.1152. PMID 11415949.
- Sarma, AV; McLaughlin, JC; Wallner, LP; Dunn, RL; Cooney, KA; Schottenfeld, D; Montie, JE; Wei, JT (September 2006). "Sexual behavior, sexually transmitted diseases and prostatitis: the risk of prostate cancer in black men". The Journal of Urology 176 (3): 1108–13. doi:10.1016/j.juro.2006.04.075. PMID 16890703.
- Strickler, HD; Goedert, JJ (2001). "Sexual behavior and evidence for an infectious cause of prostate cancer". Epidemiologic reviews 23 (1): 144–51. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.epirev.a000781. PMID 11588840.
- Sutcliffe, S; Platz, EA (May 2008). "Inflammation and prostate cancer: a focus on infections". Current urology reports 9 (3): 243–9. doi:10.1007/s11934-008-0042-z. PMID 18765120.
- Hisada, M; Rabkin, CS; Strickler, HD; Wright, WE; Christianson, RE; van den Berg, BJ (Jan 19, 2000). "Human papillomavirus antibody and risk of prostate cancer". JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association 283 (3): 340–1. PMID 10647795.
- Dennis, LK; Coughlin, JA; McKinnon, BC; Wells, TS; Gaydos, CA; Hamsikova, E; Gray, GC (October 2009). "Sexually transmitted infections and prostate cancer among men in the U.S. military". Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology 18 (10): 2665–71. doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-08-1167. PMID 19755645.
- Aumüller, G. (1979). Prostate Gland and Seminal Vesicles. Berlin-Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.
- Moore, K.; Dalley, A. (1999). Clinically Oriented Anatomy. Baltimore, Maryland: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 0-683-06132-1.
- Steive, H. (1930). "Männliche Genitalorgane". Handbuch der mikroskopischen Anatomie des Menschen. Vol. VII Part 2. Berlin: Springer. pp. 1–399.
- "Male Genitals - Prostate Neoplasms". Pathology study images. University of Virginia School of Medicine. Archived from the original on 2011-04-28. Retrieved 2011-04-28. "There are many connections between the prostatic venous plexus and the vertebral veins. The veins forming the prostatic plexus do not contain valves and it is thought that straining to urinate causes prostatic venous blood to flow in a reverse direction and enter the vertebral veins carrying malignant cells to the vertebral column."
- Journal-molecular cancer, review, 2006 5:17, doi:10.1186/1476-4598-5-17
- "Scientists Discover Anti-Cancer Mechanism that Arrests Early Prostate Cancer". August 4, 2005.
- Leav I, Plescia J, Goel HL, Li J, Jiang Z, Cohen RJ, Languino LR, Altieri DC (January 2010). "Cytoprotective Mitochondrial Chaperone TRAP-1 As a Novel Molecular Target in Localized and Metastatic Prostate Cancer". Am. J. Pathol. 176 (1): 393–401. doi:10.2353/ajpath.2010.090521. PMC 2797899. PMID 19948822.
- Zha J, Huang YF (September 2009). "[TGF-beta/Smad in prostate cancer: an update]". Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue (in Chinese) 15 (9): 840–3. PMID 19947572.
- Watanabe SI, Miyata Y, Kanda S, Iwata T, Hayashi T, Kanetake H, Sakai H (November 2009). "Expression of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein in human prostate cancer specimens with and without neo-adjuvant hormonal therapy". J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 136 (5): 787–93. doi:10.1007/s00432-009-0718-x. PMID 19946707.
- Senapati S, Rachagani S, Chaudhary K, Johansson SL, Singh RK, Batra SK (March 2010). "Overexpression of macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 induces metastasis of human prostate cancer cells through the FAK–RhoA signaling pathway". Oncogene 29 (9): 1293–302. doi:10.1038/onc.2009.420. PMC 2896817. PMID 19946339.
- Narizhneva NV, Tararova ND, Ryabokon P, Shyshynova I, Prokvolit A, Komarov PG, Purmal AA, Gudkov AV, Gurova KV (December 2009). "Small molecule screening reveals a transcription-independent pro-survival function of androgen receptor in castration-resistant prostate cancer". Cell Cycle 8 (24): 4155–67. doi:10.4161/cc.8.24.10316. PMC 2896895. PMID 19946220.
- Yao V, Berkman CE, Choi JK, O'Keefe DS, Bacich DJ (February 2010). "Expression of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), increases cell folate uptake and proliferation and suggests a novel role for PSMA in the uptake of the non-polyglutamated folate, folic acid". Prostate 70 (3): 305–16. doi:10.1002/pros.21065. PMID 19830782.
- http://www.cancer.org/Healthy/FindCancerEarly/CancerScreeningGuidelines/american-cancer-society-guidelines-for-the-early-detection-of-cancer American Cancer Society American Cancer Society Guidelines for the early detection of cancer Cited: September 2011
- Bonekamp D, Jacobs MA, El-Khouli R, Stoianovici D, Macura KJ (May–June 2011). "Advancements in MR Imaging of the Prostate: From Diagnosis to Interventions". Radiographics 31 (3 Suppl): 677–703. doi:10.1148/rg.313105139. PMC 3093638. PMID 21571651.
- Barentsz, JO; Richenberg, J; Clements, R; Choyke, P; Verma, S; Villeirs, G; Rouviere, O; Logager, V; Fütterer, JJ; European Society of Urogenital, Radiology (April 2012). "ESUR prostate MR guidelines 2012.". European radiology 22 (4): 746–57. doi:10.1007/s00330-011-2377-y. PMID 22322308.
- Natarajan S, Marks LS, Margolis DJ, Huang J, Macairan ML, Lieu P, Fenster A (May 2011). "Clinical application of a 3D ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy system". Urol Oncol 29 (3 Suppl): 334–42. doi:10.1016/j.urolonc.2011.02.014. PMC 3432280. PMID 21555104.
- Tan N, Margolis DJ, McClure TD, Thomas A, Finley DS, Reiter RE, Huang J, Raman SS (October 2011). "Radical prostatectomy: value of prostate MRI in surgical planning". Abdominal Imaging 37 (4): 664–74. doi:10.1007/s00261-011-9805-y. PMID 21993567.
- Essink-Bot ML, de Koning HJ, Nijs HG, Kirkels WJ, van der Maas PJ, Schröder FH (June 1998). "Short-term effects of population-based screening for prostate cancer on health-related quality of life". J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 90 (12): 925–31. doi:10.1093/jnci/90.12.925. PMID 9637143.
- Figueiredo JC, Grau MV, Haile RW, Sandler RS, Summers RW, Bresalier RS, Burke CA, McKeown-Eyssen GE, Baron JA (March 2009). "Folic Acid and Risk of Prostate Cancer: Results From a Randomized Clinical Trial". J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 101 (6): 432–5. doi:10.1093/jnci/djp019. PMC 2657096. PMID 19276452.
- Chuang AY, DeMarzo AM, Veltri RW, Sharma RB, Bieberich CJ, Epstein JI (August 2007). "Immunohistochemical differentiation of high-grade prostate carcinoma from urothelial carcinoma". Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 31 (8): 1246–55. doi:10.1097/PAS.0b013e31802f5d33. PMID 17667550.
- Nutting C, Horwich A, Fisher C, Parsons C, Dearnaley DP (June 1997). "Small-cell carcinoma of the prostate". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 90 (6): 340–1. PMC 1296316. PMID 9227387.
- Wei ZF, Xu H, Wang H, Wei W, Cheng W, Zhou WQ, Ge JP, Zhang ZY, Gao JP, Yin HL (September 2009). "[Clinicopathological characterization of prostatic small cell carcinoma: a case report and review of the literature]". Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue (in Chinese) 15 (9): 829–32. PMID 19947569.
- "Biomarker for Prostate Cancer". Freepatentsonline.com. Retrieved 2011-08-29.
- Catz SD, Johnson JL (January 2003). "BCL-2 in prostate cancer: a minireview". Apoptosis 8 (1): 29–37. doi:10.1023/A:1021692801278. PMID 12510149.
- Srikumar Chakravarthi, David Low Wee Yang, Thanikachalam P, Nagaraja HS, Nadeem Irfan Bukhari (2009). "Assessment of proliferative index and its association with Ki-67 antigen molecule expression in nodular hyperplasia of prostate". Indian Journal of Science & Technology 2 (8): 1–4.
- British Journal of Cancer - 15 Feb 2011
- BMJ Group (8 December 2009). "Prostate cancer: How far has your cancer spread? The TNM system". London: Guardian.co.uk. Retrieved 9 August 2010.
- American Society of Clinical Oncology. "Five Things Physicians and Patients Should Question". Choosing Wisely: an initiative of the ABIM Foundation (American Society of Clinical Oncology). Retrieved August 14, 2012
- Makarov, D. V.; Desai, R. A.; Yu, J. B.; Sharma, R.; Abraham, N.; Albertsen, P. C.; Penson, D. F.; Gross, C. P. (2012). "The Population Level Prevalence and Correlates of Appropriate and Inappropriate Imaging to Stage Incident Prostate Cancer in the Medicare Population". The Journal of Urology 187 (1): 97–102. doi:10.1016/j.juro.2011.09.042. PMID 22088337.
- National Comprehensive Cancer Network - Prostate (2012). "NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology". nccn.org. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
- Thompson, I.; Thrasher, J. B.; Aus, G.; Burnett, A. L.; Canby-Hagino, E. D.; Cookson, M. S.; d'Amico, A. V.; Dmochowski, R. R.; Eton, D. T.; Forman, J. D.; Goldenberg, S. L.; Hernandez, J.; Higano, C. S.; Kraus, S. R.; Moul, J. W.; Tangen, C. M.; AUA Prostate Cancer Clinical Guideline Update Panel (2007). "Guideline for the Management of Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer: 2007 Update". The Journal of Urology 177 (6): 2106–2131. doi:10.1016/j.juro.2007.03.003. PMID 17509297.
- Masko, EM; Allott, EH; Freedland, SJ (Nov 15, 2012). "The Relationship Between Nutrition and Prostate Cancer: Is More Always Better?". European Urology 63 (5): 810–20. doi:10.1016/j.eururo.2012.11.012. PMC 3597758. PMID 23219353.
- Thompson AK, Shaw, DI, Minihane, AM, Williams, CM (Dec 2008). "Trans-fatty acids and cancer: the evidence reviewed". Nutrition research reviews 21 (2): 174–88. doi:10.1017/S0954422408110964. PMID 19087370.
- Heinze, VM; Actis, AB (February 2012). "Dietary conjugated linoleic acid and long-chain n-3 fatty acids in mammary and prostate cancer protection: a review". International journal of food sciences and nutrition 63 (1): 66–78. doi:10.3109/09637486.2011.598849. PMID 21762028.
- Stratton J, Godwin M (2011). "The effect of supplemental vitamins and minerals on the development of prostate cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis". Family practice 28 (3): 243–52. doi:10.1093/fampra/cmq115. PMID 21273283.
- Datta, M; Schwartz, GG (2012). "Calcium and vitamin D supplementation during androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer: a critical review". The oncologist 17 (9): 1171–9. doi:10.1634/theoncologist.2012-0051. PMC 3448410. PMID 22836449.
- Szymanski KM, Wheeler, DC, Mucci, LA (Nov 2010). "Fish consumption and prostate cancer risk: a review and meta-analysis". The American journal of clinical nutrition 92 (5): 1223–33. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2010.29530. PMID 20844069.
- American Dietetic Association and Dieticians of Canada (June 2003). "Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: Vegetarian diets". Journal of the American Dietetic Association 103 (6): 748–65. doi:10.1053/jada.2003.50142. PMID 12778049.
- Research, World Cancer Research Fund ; American Institute for Cancer (2007). Food, nutrition, physical activity, and the prevention of cancer a global perspective. Washington, D.C.: American Institute for Cancer Research. p. 76. ISBN 978-0-9722522-2-5.
- "American Cancer Society Guidelines on Nutrition and Physical Activity for Cancer Prevention" (pdf). Last Revised: 1/11/2012.
- Male Reproductive Cancers. Springer New York. 2010. p. 27. ISBN 9781441904508.
- Scardino, Peter (2005). Comprehensive textbook of genitourinary oncology (3rd ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 16. ISBN 9780781749848.
- Wilt TJ, MacDonald R, Hagerty K, Schellhammer P, Kramer BS (2008). "Five-alpha-reductase Inhibitors for prostate cancer prevention". In Wilt, Timothy J. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2): CD007091. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007091. PMID 18425978.
- Marcione, Marilyn (12 October 2011). "Prostate testing's dark side: Men who were harmed". Associated Press. Retrieved 2011-10-13.
- Moyer VA, on behalf of the U.S. Preventive Services Task, Force (May 2012). "Screening for Prostate Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement". Annals of Internal Medicine. doi:10.1059/0003-4819-157-2-201207170-00459. PMID 22615453.
- Chou R, Croswell JM, Dana T, Bougatsos C, Blazina I, Fu R, Gleitsmann K, Koenig HC, Lam C, Maltz A, Rugge JB, Lin K (December 2011). "Screening for prostate cancer: a review of the evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force". Annals of Internal Medicine 155 (11): 762–71. doi:10.1059/0003-4819-155-11-201112060-00375. PMID 21984740.
- Prostate Cancer Screening CDC, updated April 6, 2010
- Qaseem A, Barry MJ, Denberg TD, Owens DK, Shekelle P (April 2013). "Screening for Prostate Cancer: A Guidance Statement From the Clinical Guidelines Committee of the American College of Physicians". Annals of Internal Medicine 158 (10): 761–9. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-158-10-201305210-00633. PMID 23567643.
- Basch, E; Oliver, TK; Vickers, A; Thompson, I; Kantoff, P; Parnes, H; Loblaw, DA; Roth, B; Williams, J; Nam, RK (Jul 16, 2012). "Screening for Prostate Cancer With Prostate-Specific Antigen Testing: American Society of Clinical Oncology Provisional Clinical Opinion". Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology 30 (24): 3020–5. doi:10.1200/JCO.2012.43.3441. PMC 3776923. PMID 22802323.
- "EARLY DETECTION OF PROSTATE CANCER: AUA GUIDELINE". American Urological Association. 2013. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
- Kolata, Gina (21 November 2011). "‘Cancer’ or ‘Weird Cells’: Which Sounds Deadlier?". The New York Times.
- Lu-Yao GL, Albertsen PC, Moore DF, Shih W, Lin Y, DiPaola RS, Barry MJ, Zietman A, O'Leary M, Walker-Corkery E, Yao SL (September 2009). "Outcomes of Localized Prostate Cancer Following Conservative Management". The Journal of the American Medical Association 302 (11): 1202–09. doi:10.1001/jama.2009.1348. PMC 2822438. PMID 19755699.
- Mongiat-Artus P, Peyromaure M, Richaud P, Droz JP, Rainfray M, Jeandel C, Rebillard X, Moreau JL, Davin JL, Salomon L, Soulié M (December 2009). "[Recommendations for the treatment of prostate cancer in the elderly man: A study by the oncology committee of the French association of urology]". Prog. Urol. (in French) 19 (11): 810–7. doi:10.1016/j.purol.2009.02.008. PMID 19945664.
- Picard JC, Golshayan AR, Marshall DT, Opfermann KJ, Keane TE (November 2009). "The multi-disciplinary management of high-risk prostate cancer". Urol. Oncol. 30 (1): 3–15. doi:10.1016/j.urolonc.2009.09.002. PMID 19945310.
- Mohan R, Schellhammer PF (August 2011). "Treatment options for localized prostate cancer". Am Fam Physician 84 (4): 413–20. PMID 21842788.
- Mouraviev V, Evans B, Polascik TJ (2006). "Salvage prostate cryoablation after primary interstitial brachytherapy failure: a feasible approach". Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 9 (1): 99–101. doi:10.1038/sj.pcan.4500853. PMID 16314889.
- Hegarty, J; Beirne, PV; Walsh, E; Comber, H; Fitzgerald, T; Wallace Kazer, M (Nov 10, 2010). "Radical prostatectomy versus watchful waiting for prostate cancer". In Hegarty, Josephine. Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) (11): CD006590. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006590.pub2. PMID 21069689.
- "Active Surveillance May Be Preferred Option in Some Men with Prostate Cancer". Cancer.gov. 2011-04-19. Retrieved 2011-08-29.
- Hong H, Zhang Y, Sun J, Cai W (November 2009). "Positron emission tomography imaging of prostate cancer". Amino Acids 39 (1): 11–27. doi:10.1007/s00726-009-0394-9. PMC 2883014. PMID 19946787.
- Peyromaure M, Valéri A, Rebillard X, Beuzeboc P, Richaud P, Soulié M, Salomon L (December 2009). "[Characteristics of prostate cancer in men less than 50-year-old]". Prog. Urol. (in French) 19 (11): 803–9. doi:10.1016/j.purol.2009.04.010. PMID 19945663.
- Fitzpatrick JM (2008). "Management of localized prostate cancer in senior adults: the crucial role of comorbidity". BJU international. 101 Suppl 2: 16–22. doi:10.1111/j.1464-410X.2007.07487.x. PMID 18307688.
- "Evidence-Based Cancer Guidelines, Oncology Drug Compendium, Oncology Continuing Medical Education". NCCN. Retrieved 2011-08-29.
- Hammerstrom, AE; Cauley, DH; Atkinson, BJ; Sharma, P (August 2011). "Cancer immunotherapy: sipuleucel-T and beyond". Pharmacotherapy 31 (8): 813–28. doi:10.1592/phco.31.8.813. PMID 21923608.
- Seruga B, Ocana A, Tannock IF (January 2011). "Drug resistance in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer". Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology 8 (1): 12–23. doi:10.1038/nrclinonc.2010.136. PMID 20859283.
- Clarke NW (2005?). "Docetaxel for the Treatment of Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer".
- "Prostate cancer (hormone-refractory) - docetaxel". National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. 2010-12-10. Retrieved 2011-07-04.
- de Bono JS, Oudard S, Ozguroglu M, Hansen S, Machiels JP, Kocak I, Gravis G, Bodrogi I, Mackenzie MJ, Shen L, Roessner M, Gupta S, Sartor AO (October 2010). "Prednisone plus cabazitaxel or mitoxantrone for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer progressing after docetaxel treatment: a randomised open-label trial". Lancet 376 (9747): 1147–54. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61389-X. PMID 20888992.
- "Avastin, Thalomid, Taxotere, and Prednisone Effective for Men with Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer". March 2010. Retrieved 10 May 2010.
- Kantoff PW, Higano CS, Shore ND, Berger ER, Small EJ, Penson DF, Redfern CH, Ferrari AC, Dreicer R, Sims RB, Xu Y, Frohlich MW, Schellhammer PF (July 2010). "Sipuleucel-T immunotherapy for castration-resistant prostate cancer". N. Engl. J. Med. 363 (5): 411–22. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1001294. PMID 20818862.
- "FDA approves Zytiga for late-stage prostate cancer". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 2011-04-28.
- "FDA approves new treatment for a type of late stage prostate cancer". press release. United States Food and Drug Administration. 2012-08-31.
- Anna Azvolinsky (September 4, 2012). "FDA Approves Enzalutamide (Xtandi) for Late-Stage Prostate Cancer". CancerNetwork.
- Qin, Jichao; Liu, Xin; Laffin, Brian; Chen, Xin; Choy, Grace; Jeter, Collene R.; Calhoun-Davis, Tammy; Li, Hangwen; Palapattu, Ganesh S.; Pang, Shen; Lin, Kevin; Huang, Jiaoti; Ivanov, Ivan; Li, Wei; Suraneni, Mahipal V.; Tang, Dean G. (2012). "The PSA−/lo Prostate Cancer Cell Population Harbors Self-Renewing Long-Term Tumor-Propagating Cells that Resist Castration". Cell Stem Cell 10 (5): 556–69. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2012.03.009. PMC 3348510. PMID 22560078.
- Maitland, N. J.; Collins, A. T. (2008). "Prostate cancer stem cells—a new target for therapy". Journal of Clinical Oncology 26 (17): 2862–70. doi:10.1200/JCO.2007.15.1472. PMID 18539965.
- Attard, G.; Richards, J.; De Bono, J. S. (2011). "New strategies in metastatic prostate cancer: targeting the androgen receptor signaling pathway". Clinical Cancer Research 17 (7): 1649–57. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-10-0567. PMC 3513706. PMID 21372223.
- Rane, Jayant K.; Pellacani, Davide; Maitland, Norman J. (2012). "Advanced prostate cancer—a case for adjuvant differentiation therapy". Nature Reviews Urology 9 (10): 595–602. doi:10.1038/nrurol.2012.157. PMID 22890299.
- ACS :: What Are The Risk Factors for Prostate Cancer?[dead link]
- Wakai K (February 2005). "[Descriptive epidemiology of prostate cancer in Japan and Western countries]". Nippon Rinsho (in Japanese) 63 (2): 207–12. PMID 15714967.
- Jaubert de Beaujeu M, Chavrier Y (January 1976). "[Deformations of the anterior thoracic wall (author's transl)]". Ann Chir Thorac Cardiovasc (in French) 15 (1): 1–6. PMID 1259345.
- Hsing AW, Tsao L, Devesa SS (January 2000). "International trends and patterns of prostate cancer incidence and mortality". Int. J. Cancer 85 (1): 60–7. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0215(20000101)85:1<60::AID-IJC11>3.0.CO;2-B. PMID 10585584.
- Osegbe DN (April 1997). "Prostate cancer in Nigerians: facts and nonfacts". J. Urol. 157 (4): 1340–3. doi:10.1016/S0022-5347(01)64966-8. PMID 9120935.
- Di Blasio CJ, Rhee AC, Cho D, Scardino PT, Kattan MW (October 2003). "Predicting clinical end points: treatment nomograms in prostate cancer". Semin. Oncol. 30 (5): 567–86. doi:10.1016/S0093-7754(03)00351-8. PMID 14571407.
- Huggins C, Steven RE, Hodges CV (1941). "Studies on prostatic cancer". Arch. Surg. 43 (2): 209–223. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1941.01210140043004.
- Hellerstedt BA, Pienta KJ (2002). "The current state of hormonal therapy for prostate cancer". CA Cancer J Clin 52 (3): 154–79. doi:10.3322/canjclin.52.3.154. PMID 12018929.
- Feldman BJ, Feldman D (October 2001). "The development of androgen-independent prostate cancer". Nature Reviews Cancer 1 (1): 34–45. doi:10.1038/35094009. PMID 11900250.
- Eifler, J. B., Feng, Z., Lin, B. M., Partin, M. T., Humphreys, E. B., Han, M., Epstein, J. I., Walsh, P. C., Trock, B. J. and Partin, A. W. (2013), An updated prostate cancer staging nomogram (Partin tables) based on cases from 2006 to 2011. BJU International, 111: 22–29. doi:10.1111/j.1464-410X.2012.11324.x
- Cooperberg MR (June 2005). "The UCSF Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment (CAPRA) Score: a straightforward and reliable preoperative predictor of disease recurrence after radical prostatectomy". J. Urol. 173 (6): 1938–42. doi:10.1097/01.ju.0000158155.33890.e7. PMC 2948569. PMID 15879786.
- Cooperberg MR, Freedland SJ, Pasta DJ, Elkin EP, Presti JC Jr, Amling CL, Terris MK, Aronson WJ, Kane CJ, Carroll PR (November 2006). "Multiinstitutional validation of the UCSF cancer of the prostate risk assessment for prediction of recurrence after radical prostatectomy". Cancer 107 (10): 2384–91. doi:10.1002/cncr.22262. PMID 17039503.
- May M, Knoll N, Siegsmund M, Fahlenkamp D, Vogler H, Hoschke B, Gralla O (November 2007). "Validity of the CAPRA score to predict biochemical recurrence-free survival after radical prostatectomy. Results from a european multicenter survey of 1,296 patients". J. Urol. 178 (5): 1957–62; discussion 1962. doi:10.1016/j.juro.2007.07.043. PMID 17868719.
- Zhao KH, Hernandez DJ, Han M, Humphreys EB, Mangold LA, Partin AW (August 2008). "External validation of University of California, San Francisco, Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment score". Urology 72 (2): 396–400. doi:10.1016/j.urology.2007.11.165. PMID 18372031.
- Cooperberg MR, Broering JM, Carroll PR (June 2009). "Risk Assessment for Prostate Cancer Metastasis and Mortality at the Time of Diagnosis". J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 101 (12): 878–87. doi:10.1093/jnci/djp122. PMC 2697208. PMID 19509351.
- "WHO Disease and injury country estimates". World Health Organization. 2009. Retrieved Nov 11, 2009.
- Jemal A, Bray F, Center MM, Ferlay J, Ward E, Forman D (2011). "Global cancer statistics". CA – A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 61 (2): 69–90. doi:10.3322/caac.20107. PMID 21296855.
- Lozano, R (Dec 15, 2012). "Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010". Lancet 380 (9859): 2095–128. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61728-0. PMID 23245604.
- Prostate Cancer Statistics - Australia. Retrieved on 16 September 2013
- Overview: Prostate Cancer—What Causes Prostate Cancer? American Cancer Society (2 May 2006). Retrieved on 5 April 2007
- Prostate Cancer FAQs. State University of New York School of Medicine Department of Urology (31 August 2006). Retrieved on 5 April 2007
- Lee MM, Gomez SL, Chang JS, Wey M, Wang RT, Hsing AW (Jul 2003). "Soy and isoflavone consumption in relation to prostate cancer risk in China". Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 12 (7): 665–8. PMID 12869409.
- Potosky AL, Miller BA, Albertsen PC, Kramer BS (February 1995). "The role of increasing detection in the rising incidence of prostate cancer". JAMA 273 (7): 548–52. doi:10.1001/jama.273.7.548. PMID 7530782.
- Hanno P.M., Malcowicz S. B., Wein A. J., "Clinical Manual of Urology" McGraw Hill 2001
- Homma Y, Kawabe K, Tsukamoto T, Yamanaka H, Okada K, Okajima E, Yoshida O, Kumazawa J, Gu FL, Lee C, Hsu TC, dela Cruz RC, Tantiwang A, Lim PH, Sheikh MA, Bapat SD, Marshall VR, Tajima K, Aso Y (1997). "Epidemiologic survey of lower urinary tract symptoms in Asia and Australia using the international prostate symptom score". International Journal of Urology 4 (1): 40–46. doi:10.1111/j.1442-2042.1997.tb00138.x. PMID 9179665.
- Ferlay, J; Steliarova-Foucher, E; Lortet-Tieulent, J; Rosso, S; Coebergh, JW; Comber, H; Forman, D; Bray, F (April 2013). "Cancer incidence and mortality patterns in Europe: estimates for 40 countries in 2012". European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990) 49 (6): 1374–403. doi:10.1016/j.ejca.2012.12.027. PMID 23485231.
- Jemal A, Siegel R, Ward E, Hao Y, Xu J, Murray T, Thun MJ (March 2008). "Cancer Statistics, 2008". CA Cancer J Clin 58 (2): 71–96. doi:10.3322/CA.2007.0010. PMID 18287387.
- Bostwick, David G.; Eble, John N. (2007). Urological Surgical Pathology. St. Louis: Mosby. p. 468. ISBN 0-323-01970-6.
- Woloshin, Steve; Schwartz, Lisa A. (2011). Overdiagnosed: Making People Sick in the Pursuit of Health. USA: Beacon Press. pp. 45–60. ISBN 0-8070-2200-4.
- Adams J (1853). "The case of scirrhous of the prostate gland with corresponding affliction of the lymphatic glands in the lumbar region and in the pelvis". Lancet 1.[page needed]
- Lytton B (June 2001). "Prostate cancer: a brief history and the discovery of hormonal ablation treatment". The Journal of Urology 165 (6 Pt 1): 1859–62. doi:10.1016/S0022-5347(05)66228-3. PMID 11371867.
- Young HH (1905). "Four cases of radical prostatectomy". Johns Hopkins Bull. 16.
- Walsh PC, Lepor H, Eggleston JC (1983). "Radical prostatectomy with preservation of sexual function: anatomical and pathological considerations". The Prostate 4 (5): 473–85. doi:10.1002/pros.2990040506. PMID 6889192.
- Huggins CB, Hodges CV (1941). "Studies on prostate cancer: 1. The effects of castration, of estrogen and androgen injection on serum phosphatases in metastatic carcinoma of the prostate". Cancer Res 1.[page needed]
- Schally AV, Kastin AJ, Arimura A (November 1971). "Hypothalamic follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH)-regulating hormone: structure, physiology, and clinical studies". Fertility and Sterility 22 (11): 703–21. PMID 4941683.
- Tolis G, Ackman D, Stellos A, Mehta A, Labrie F, Fazekas AT, Comaru-Schally AM, Schally AV (March 1982). "Tumor growth inhibition in patients with prostatic carcinoma treated with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A 79 (5): 1658–62. doi:10.1073/pnas.79.5.1658. PMC 346035. PMID 6461861.
- Denmeade SR, Isaacs JT (May 2002). "A history of prostate cancer treatment". Nature Reviews Cancer 2 (5): 389–96. doi:10.1038/nrc801. PMID 12044015.
- Scott WW, Johnson DE, Schmidt JE, Gibbons RP, Prout GR, Joiner JR, Saroff J, Murphy GP (December 1975). "Chemotherapy of advanced prostatic carcinoma with cyclophosphamide or 5-fluorouracil: results of first national randomized study". The Journal of Urology 114 (6): 909–11. PMID 1104900.
- Arnst, Catherine (2007-06-13). "A Gender Gap in Cancer". Businessweek.com. Retrieved 2011-08-29.
- Browne, Anthony (2001-10-07). "Cancer bias puts breasts first". The Guardian (London).
- Men lose out in battle for cancer cash - Times Online[dead link]
- Does feminism discriminate against ... - Google Books. Books.google.co.uk. 2008-07-24. ISBN 978-0-19-531283-6. Retrieved 2011-08-29.
- [dead link]
- "Breast cancer receives much more research funding, publicity than prostate cancer despite similar number of victims". The Daily Caller. 2010-10-05. Retrieved 2011-08-29.
- "Prostate cancer in shadow of female counterpart - Health - Cancer - msnbc.com". MSNBC. 2005-03-28. Retrieved 2011-08-29.
- http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?intr=%22MDV3100%22 ClinicalTrials.gov listing of MDV3100 articles
- "Positive Outcome of Interim Analysis of pivotal Alpharadin study: Primary endpoint met in Phase III ALSYMPCA study". Press Release. Algeta.com. 2011-06-06. Retrieved 2011-07-04.
- Linja MJ, Savinainen KJ, Saramäki OR, Tammela TL, Vessella RL, Visakorpi T (May 2001). "Amplification and overexpression of androgen receptor gene in hormone-refractory prostate cancer". Cancer Research 61 (9): 3550–5. PMID 11325816.
- Ford OH, Gregory CW, Kim D, Smitherman AB, Mohler JL (November 2003). "Androgen receptor gene amplification and protein expression in recurrent prostate cancer". The Journal of Urology 170 (5): 1817–21. doi:10.1097/01.ju.0000091873.09677.f4. PMID 14532783.
- Kokontis J, Takakura K, Hay N, Liao S (March 1994). "Increased androgen receptor activity and altered c-myc expression in prostate cancer cells after long-term androgen deprivation". Cancer Research 54 (6): 1566–73. PMID 7511045.
- Umekita Y, Hiipakka RA, Kokontis JM, Liao S (October 1996). "Human prostate tumor growth in athymic mice: inhibition by androgens and stimulation by finasteride". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A 93 (21): 11802–7. doi:10.1073/pnas.93.21.11802. PMC 38139. PMID 8876218.
- Kokontis JM (December 2005). "Role of androgen receptor in the progression of human prostate tumor cells to androgen independence and insensitivity". The Prostate 65 (4): 287–98. doi:10.1002/pros.20285. PMID 16015608.
- Iyer M, Salazar FB, Lewis X, Zhang L, Wu L, Carey M, Gambhir SS (February 2005). "Non-invasive imaging of a transgenic mouse model using a prostate-specific two-step transcriptional amplification strategy". Transgenic Res. 14 (1): 47–55. doi:10.1007/s11248-004-2836-1. PMID 15865048.
- Morgan R, Boxall A, Bhatt A, Bailey M, Hindley R, Langley S, Whitaker HC, Neal DE, Ismail M, Whitaker H, Annels N, Michael A, Pandha H (March 2011). "Engrailed-2 (EN2): a tumor specific urinary biomarker for the early diagnosis of prostate cancer". Clin. Cancer Res. 17 (5): 1090–8. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-10-2410. PMID 21364037. Lay summary – BBC News.
- Bourdoumis A, Papatsoris AG, Chrisofos M, Efstathiou E, Skolarikos A, Deliveliotis C (2010). "The novel prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) biomarker". Int Braz J Urol 36 (6): 665–8; discussion 669. doi:10.1590/S1677-55382010000600003. PMID 21176272.
- Hansel DE, DeMarzo AM, Platz EA, Jadallah S, Hicks J, Epstein JI, Partin AW, Netto GJ (May 2007). "Early prostate cancer antigen expression in predicting presence of prostate cancer in men with histologically negative biopsies". J. Urol. 177 (5): 1736–40. doi:10.1016/j.juro.2007.01.013. PMID 17437801. Lay summary – Newsweek.
- van Weert HC, Pingen F (2009). "Recurrent thromboflebitis as a warning sign for cancer: a case report". Cases J 2: 153. doi:10.1186/1757-1626-2-153. PMC 2783109. PMID 19946524.
- Nilsson BO, Carlsson L, Larsson A, Ronquist G (2001). "Autoantibodies to prostasomes as new markers for prostate cancer". Ups. J. Med. Sci. 106 (1): 43–9. doi:10.3109/2000-1967-171. PMID 11817562.
|Find more about Prostate cancer at Wikipedia's sister projects|
|Definitions and translations from Wiktionary|
|Media from Commons|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Source texts from Wikisource|
|Textbooks from Wikibooks|
|Learning resources from Wikiversity|