Prostitution in Russia
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Prostitution in Russia became common after Peter the Great's military reforms that created a sizable class of unmarried men who were serving in the military. These soldiers started generating a demand for prostitution. Monarchs who followed Peter I had different approaches to prostitution, ranging from complete abolition to decriminalization.
By the late 19th century, prostitution was legal in the Russian Empire and prostitutes were issued a special "yellow ticket" ID cards. Numerous brothels existed in most cities, ranging greatly in class and price. Customers included diverse groups ranging from the aristocracy to the working class. Legally, only women were allowed to own brothels. However, illegal street prostitution was still dominated by male pimps. The term kot (Russian: кот, cat) was used for a male pimp, while a female pimp was referred to as a bandersha (Russian: бандерша).
Prostitution has been illegal in Russia since the establishment of the Soviet Union. However, during the post-Soviet years, this industry experienced significant growth.
"Tochka" (точка) is a popular euphemism for an outdoor market for prostitutes in Moscow and other large Russian cities, a word literally meaning 'point' or 'location' in Russian. (The word "tochka" may also be used in many other contexts. Its usage is originated from the notion "a point on the map". Initially it was used in military and geologist slang to denote, e.g., a military or geologist base or other specific location. Over time its usages was expanded. For example, in alcoholics' parlance, a "tochka" is a place where vodka is sold.)
Moscow city government actions
Starting from the late 1990s, the Moscow city government made many noticeable attempts to eliminate prostitution in Russia and there is serious jail time for prostitution to eliminate these markets, other than to eliminate some of the more obvious points along Tverskaya, Moscow's main avenue. Tochkas are controlled by organized criminal gangs that bribe local police departments in order to remain in business. Instead, the city police randomly checked the documents of women traveling alone after dark. For this reason, prostitutes often carried a hundred rubles with which to bribe the police.
However, the problem of street prostitution in central Moscow was successfully eradicated with the improving of the economic situation by the second half of the years 2000-2010.
Child prostitution, forced prostitution, and the trafficking of women
A 2006 report by World Vision Middle East/Eastern Europe funded by the Canadian government and supported by six United Nations agencies and the International Organization for Migration reported that the sexual exploitation of children, child trafficking and sexual violence towards minors is increasing and that Russia is becoming a new destination for child sex tourism. The report adds that some studies claim approximately 2 to 2.5 percent of Moscow's sex workers are minors.
Russia is a major source of women trafficked globally for the purpose of sexual exploitation  Russia is also a significant destination and transit country for persons trafficked for sexual and labor exploitation from regional and neighboring countries into Russia, and on to Europe, Asia and North America. In Tel Aviv the number of brothels skyrocketed from 30 to 150 between 1996 and 2001—largely because of an influx of Russian prostitutes into Israel.
The International Labor Organization estimates that 20 percent of the five million illegal immigrants in Russia are victims of forced labor, which is a form of trafficking. There were reports of trafficking of children and of child sex tourism in Russia. The Russian government has made some effort to combat trafficking but has also been criticized for not complying with the minimum standards for eliminating it.
A large case of forced prostitution and mass murder was uncovered in 2007 near the industrial town of Nizhny Tagil. A gang of pimps had abducted girls and forced them to work as prostitutes in their brothel, killing the ones who refused. A mass grave with up to 30 victims was found. (See: Nizhny Tagil mass murder (2002-2007).)
In popular culture
- The Yellow Passport - a 1916 U.S. feature movie
- The Yellow Ticket - a 1931 U.S. feature movie
- Intergirl – a 1989 dramatic film
- Tochka – a 2006 dramatic film
- Nyet to Trafficking, Nationalreview Online, June 18, 2003
- Stanley, Alessandra. (1998-03-03) With Prostitution Booming, Legalization Tempts Russia – NYTimes.com. New York Times. Retrieved on 2011-03-30.
- Donna M. Hughes on Prostitution & Russia on National Review Online. Nationalreview.com (2002-11-21). Retrieved on 2011-03-30.
- Russia's sex slave industry thrives, rights groups say. CNN (2008-07-18). Retrieved on 2011-03-30.
- Moscow targets sex trade at last | World news. The Guardian. Retrieved on 2011-03-30.
- Authorities turn blind eye on Far East Russia women trafficking. Khaleejtimes.com (2005-02-12). Retrieved on 2011-03-30.
- Johanna Granville, "From Russia without Love: the 'Fourth Wave' of global human trafficking," Demokratizatsiya; vol. 12, no. 1 (winter 2004), pp. 147–155.
- The Skin Trade. TIME (2001-06-24). Retrieved on 2011-03-30.
- Human Trafficking & Modern-day Slavery – Russia. Gvnet.com. Retrieved on 2011-03-30.
- In Moscow, arrested three Chinese prostitutes . TIME (January 14, 2009). Retrieved on 2012.03.06
- Prostitutes from China to Moscow was caught on the verses!. TIME (08.04.2011). Retrieved on 2012-03-06.
- Human Trafficking & Modern-day Slavery – Russia – University of Massachusetts resource
- Child prostitution – Russia – University of Massachusetts resource
- Russian women fall prey to sex slavery abroad
- Police bring home 3 sex slaves from China