Protected areas of South Australia

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Protected areas of South Australia consists of areas located within South Australia and its immediate onshore waters and which are managed by South Australian Government agencies. As of February 2014, South Australia contains 350 separate protected areas declared under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972, the Crown Land Management Act 2009 and the Wilderness Protection Act 1992 which have a total land area of 21,087,984 ha (52,109,540 acres) or 21.5% of the state’s area.[1]

Jurisdiction[edit]

The jurisdiction for legislation of protected areas within South Australia and the immediate onshore waters known officially as ‘the coastal waters and waters within the limits of South Australia' belongs to the South Australian government.[2] The major piece of legislation concerned with the creation and the subsequent management of protected areas is the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972. Protected areas created by this Act form the majority of South Australia’s contribution to the National Reserve System.[1][3]

Other state legislation that may create protected areas include the following: Forestry Act 1950, Wilderness Protection Act 1992, Historic Shipwrecks Act 1981, River Murray Act 2003, Adelaide Dolphin Sanctuary Act 2005, Fisheries Management Act 2007, Marine Parks Act 2007, Crown Land Management Act 2009, Arkaroola Protection Act 2012 and Native Vegetation Act 1991.

While the Australian Government does not have the power under the Australian constitution to legislate for protected areas within South Australia, its treaty obligations and its constitutional responsibilities do permit it to develop policy for protected areas and to enter into agreements concerning protected areas. Examples include nomination of sites under the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar Convention) and establishment of agreements for Indigenous Protected Areas.[citation needed]

National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972[edit]

The National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 (also known as the ‘National Parks Act’) is the principal legislation in South Australia in respect to the establishment and management of protected areas. The act which uses the term ‘reserve’ in lieu of the term ‘protected area’ is concerned with the establishment and management of reserves, establishment of sanctuaries, conservation of native plants and animals, declaration of protected animals, the management of protected animals in respect to taking, keeping, farming and harvesting, and the control of hunting.[4] The act uses the term ‘reserve’ in lieu of the term ‘protected area’ while the agency which administers the act generally uses the term 'park'.[4][5]

The act is administered by the Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources (DEWNR).[6] As of February 2014, reserves declared under this act totalled 320 with a total area of 19,226,432 ha (47,509,550 acres) or 19.6% of South Australia’s area.[1]

The following types of reserves are listed within the Act: national parks, conservation parks, game reserves, recreation parks and regional reserves.[5]

National Parks[edit]

National parks are 'areas considered to be of national significance due to wildlife, natural features of the land, or Aboriginal or European heritage'.[5] As of February 2014, the following national parks have been declared:[7]

Conservation Parks[edit]

Conservation parks are 'areas protected for the purpose of conserving wildlife or the natural or historic features of the land'.[5] As of February 2014, the following conservation parks have been declared:[7]

Future conservation parks[edit]

Game Reserves[edit]

Game reserves are 'areas set aside for conservation of wildlife and the management of game for seasonal hunting.'[5] As of February 2014, the following game reserves have been declared:[7]

Recreation Parks[edit]

Recreation parks are 'areas managed for public recreation and enjoyment in a natural setting.'[5] As of February 2014, the following recreation parks have been declared:[7]

Regional Reserves[edit]

Regional reserves are 'areas proclaimed for the purpose of conserving wildlife or natural or historical features while allowing responsible use of the area's natural resources.'[5] As of February 2014, the following regional reserves have been declared:[7]

Other South Australian legislation[edit]

Conservation Reserves[edit]

Conservation reserves are a parcels of 'land set aside for conservation of natural and cultural features under the Crown Land Management Act 2009.'[5] As of February 2014, the following conservation reserves have been declared:[7]

As of February 2014, reserves declared under the Crown Land Management Act 2009 totalled 16 with a total area of 19,480 ha (48,100 acres) or less than 0.1% of South Australia’s area.[1]

Native Forest Reserves[edit]

The Forestry Act 1950 which is administered by Forestry SA allows for the declaration of forest reserves for ‘purposes relating to the conservation, development and management of land supporting native flora and fauna…’[10][11][12] As of March 2014, the following forest reserves which are located in the Southern Flinders Ranges, the Mount Lofty Ranges and the Limestone Coast have been declared:[12][13]

  • Bagdad
  • Boolara
  • Burr Slopes South
  • Cave Range
  • Christmas Hill
  • Comaum
  • Congeratinga
  • Coralinga
  • Cudlee Creek
  • Deadmans Swamp
  • Dry Creek
  • Gillap North
  • Gillap South
  • Glencoe Hill
  • Grundy Lane
  • Hacket Hill
  • Hells Hole
  • Honan
  • Honeysuckle
  • Island Swamp
  • Kalumunda
  • Kangaroo Flat
  • Kay
  • Kennion
  • Kersbrook
  • King Tree
  • Knott Hill
  • Konetta
  • Laslett
  • Little Mt. Crawford
  • Long
  • Malone Heath
  • McRosties
  • Mount Benson
  • Mount Gawler
  • Mount McIntyre
  • Mount Panorama
  • Mount Watch
  • Muddy Flat
  • Nangwarry
  • Native Wells
  • Overland Track
  • Pond Flat
  • Rock Shelter
  • Rocky Reserve
  • Round Waterhole
  • Snow Gum
  • Springs Road
  • The Bluff
  • The Heath
  • The Marshes
  • The Woolwash
  • Topperwein
  • Tower Hill
  • Wandilo
  • Warreanga
  • Watts Gully
  • Whennen
  • White Waterhole
  • Windy Hill
  • Wombat Flat

Wilderness Protection Areas[edit]

The Wilderness Protection Act 1992 was established in 1992 to provide for ‘the protection of wilderness and the restoration of land to its condition before European colonisation’.[14] The day-to-day administration of the act is carried out by DEWNR.[15] As of February 2014, the following areas have been declared:[7][16][17]

As of February 2014, reserves declared under the Wilderness Protection Act 1992 totalled 14 with a total area of 1,842,071 ha (4,551,860 acres) or 1.9% of South Australia’s area.[1]

Protected zones for Historic Shipwreck sites[edit]

The Historic Shipwrecks Act 1981 which is administered by DEWNR allows for the creation of protected zones over land and water around historic shipwrecks. The following protected zones have been declared:[6][19][20]

River Murray protection area[edit]

The River Murray Act 2003 which is administered by DEWNR has provision for ‘the protection and enhancement of the River Murray and related areas and ecosystems’.[6][21]

As of September 2010, the following protection areas have been designated:

Aquatic reserves[edit]

The following areas have been declared under the Fisheries Management Act 2007 (SA). Aquatic reserves which are managed by the Department of Primary Industries & Regions (PIRSA), were 'established to protect the habitat, ecosystems and communities of the rich variety of underwater organisms found in the marine and estuarine waters of South Australia'. Aquatic reserves are considered to be IUCN Category II protected areas.[23][24]

Adelaide Dolphin Sanctuary[edit]

Adelaide Dolphin Sanctuary (ADS) is a sanctuary area intended to protect the Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) population residing in the Port Adelaide River estuary and Barker Inlet as well as protecting and enhancing the Port Adelaide River estuary and Barker Inlet. The sanctuary was declared under the Adelaide Dolphin Sanctuary Act 2005 and is managed by DEWNR.[6][25][26]

Marine parks[edit]

Marine parks are areas within the immediate onshore waters of SA set aside under the Marine Parks Act 2007 (SA) 'to preserve the biological diversity of the state's coastal, estuarine and marine environments while allowing ecologically sustainable use of the area's natural resources.'[5] As of December 2013, the following marine parks have been declared:[27]

  • Far West Coast Marine Park
  • Nuyts Archipelago Marine Park
  • West Coast Bays Marine Park
  • Investigator Marine Park
  • Thorny Passage Marine Park
  • Sir Joseph Banks Group Marine Park
  • Neptune Islands Group Marine Park
  • Gambier Islands Group Marine Park
  • Franklin Harbor Marine Park
  • Upper Spencer Gulf Marine Park
  • Eastern Spencer Gulf Marine Park
  • Southern Spencer Gulf Marine Park
  • Lower Yorke Peninsula Marine Park
  • Upper Gulf St Vincent Marine Park
  • Encounter Marine Park
  • Western Kangaroo Island Marine Park
  • Southern Kangaroo Island Marine Park
  • Upper South East Marine Park
  • Lower South East Marine Park

Arkaroola Protection Area[edit]

Further information: Arkaroola Protection Zone

The Arkaroola Protection Act 2012 which commenced operation on 26 April 2012 was created to ‘establish the Arkaroola Protection Area; to provide for the proper management and care of the area; and to prohibit mining activities in the area’. The protection area which is located 600 km (370 mi) north of Adelaide includes the Arkaroola Pastoral Lease and the Mawson Plateau part of the Mount Freeling Pastoral Lease. The former lease which has not been stocked for over 30 years is operated for the purpose of conservation and tourism under the name, Arkaroola Wilderness Sanctuary. The protection area is reported as satisfying the definition of a "category II National Park".[28][29]

Native vegetation heritage agreements[edit]

A native vegetation heritage agreements, usually known as a heritage agreement, is a legally binding agreement between a landowner and the Minister for Environment, Sustainability and Conservation where the landowner agrees to protect native vegetation in perpetuity. In return, the Minister may agree to reduce statutory fees such as local government rates or offer assistance in term of funding of works such as fencing or provision of expert advice to ‘protecting and improving the conservation value of the heritage agreement area’.[30] The enabling legislation is the Native Vegetation Act 1991. Land covered by heritage agreements is considered to meet IUCN Category III. As of February 2014, 1537 agreements in respect to 634,242 hectares (1,567,250 acres) of land within SA or 0.64% of the area of SA have been entered into between landowners and the minister.[13]

Australian government[edit]

Ramsar sites[edit]

As a contracting party to the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance (known as the Ramsar Convention), Australia is encouraged ‘to nominate sites containing representative, rare or unique wetlands, or that are important for conserving biological diversity, to the List of Wetlands of International Importance’.[31] As of March 2014, the Australian Government has nominated the following Ramsar sites within South Australia:[32]

Indigenous Protected Areas[edit]

An Indigenous Protected Area (IPA) is a voluntary agreement between owners of indigenous owned land (known as traditional owners) and the Australian government which is intended to ‘promote biodiversity and cultural resource conservation on indigenous owned land’.[33] As of March 2014, there are six IPAs in existence within South Australia:

Further information: Indigenous Protected Area

Biosphere reserves[edit]

Two biosphere reserves belonging to the UNESCO World Biosphere Reserve program are located within South Australia - the Mamungari Conservation Park and the Riverland Biosphere Reserve.

The Mamungari Conservation Park in western South Australia which was formerly known as the Unnamed Conservation Park is co-managed by its traditional owners and DEWNR.[40]

The Riverland Biosphere Reserve is located in the Riverland near Renmark. Two of its components are Calperum and Taylorville Stations which were respectively purchased by the Chicago Zoological Society in 1993 and the Australian Landscape Trust in 2000 with the ownership being deeded to the Director of National Parks. Both properties are managed by the Australian Landscape Trust.[41][42]

See also[edit]

Privately-held reserves in South Australia[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e "Area Statement: Summary of Protected Areas In South Australia (as of 17 February 2014)". Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources,. Retrieved 25 March 2014. 
  2. ^ "Australia’s offshore jurisdiction: explanation of terminology in relation to petroleum exploration and development". The Department of Resources, Energy and Tourism. p. 11. Retrieved 17 March 2013. 
  3. ^ "New parks and park additions (including National Reserve System (NRS) Program)". Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 29 March 2014. 
  4. ^ a b "National Parks and Wildlife act 1972". Government of South Australia. Retrieved 29 March 2014. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Types of parks". Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 29 March 2014. 
  6. ^ a b c d "Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources, Annual Report 1 July 2012 to 30 June 2013". 30 September 2013. pp. 12–13. ISSN 2202-6673. Retrieved 29 March 2014. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g "Protected Areas Information System - reserve list (as of 17 Feb 2014)". Department of Environment Water and Natural Resources. p. 5. Retrieved 27 March 2014. 
  8. ^ "Saltfields, Creating the Adelaide International Bird Sanctuary". The Government of South Australia, Department of Environment Water and Natural Resources (DEWNR). 1 September 2014. pp. 5, 7, 10, 11, 17 & 19. Retrieved 5 December 2014. 
  9. ^ "International Bird Sanctuary takes flight". Department of Environment Water and Natural Resources, Natural Resources Adelaide and Mt Lofty Ranges (NRAMLR). Retrieved 6 December 2014. 
  10. ^ "Forestry Act 1950". Government of South Australia. p. 2. Retrieved 29 March 2014. 
  11. ^ "Plantation Management – Regulation and Planning; South Australia; Legislation". Australian Local Government Association. Retrieved 17 March 2013. 
  12. ^ a b "NATIVE FOREST RESERVES". ForestrySA. Retrieved 17 March 2013. 
  13. ^ a b "CAPAD 2012 South Australia Summary (see 'DETAIL' tab)". CAPAD 2012. Australian Government - Department of the Environment. 6 February 2014. Retrieved 6 February 2014. 
  14. ^ "Wilderness protection in South Australia". Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 29 March 2014. 
  15. ^ "Wilderness Advisory Committee Annual Report 2012-13". September 2013. pp. 9, 23–24. ISSN 1832-9357. Retrieved 17 March 2014. 
  16. ^ "Wilderness in South Australia Protecting Habitat, Preserving Landscapes". Department of Environment Water and Natural Resources. 2008. p. 10. 
  17. ^ "Wilderness Advisory Committee Annual Report 2012-13". September 2013. p. 23. ISSN 1832-9357. Retrieved 17 March 2014. 
  18. ^ "Memory Cove Wilderness Protection Area Management Plan,". Department of Environment Water and Natural Resources. 2005. p. 1. Retrieved 26 January 2014. 
  19. ^ "Historic Shipwrecks Act 1981". Government of South Australia. p. 4. Retrieved 29 March 2014. 
  20. ^ "Protected zone permits". Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 29 March 2014. 
  21. ^ "River Murray Act 2003". Government of South Australia. Retrieved 29 March 2014. 
  22. ^ "River Murray protection area". Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 29 March 2014. 
  23. ^ "Aquatic reserves". Primary Industries and Regions SA (PIRSA). Retrieved 7 January 2014. 
  24. ^ "Summary of SA Marine Protected Areas by Type (see 'SA Reserve List' tab)". Australian Government - Department of the Environment. 10 February 2003. Retrieved 5 October 2014. 
  25. ^ "The Adelaide Dolphin Sanctuary". Natural Resources Management Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges. Retrieved 5 October 2014. 
  26. ^ "The Adelaide Dolphin Sanctuary Act". Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 22 March 2013. 
  27. ^ "MARINE PARKS ACT 2007: SECTION 14". The South Australian Government Gazette. Retrieved 8 December 2013. 
  28. ^ "Arkaroola". Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 28 March 2014. 
  29. ^ "Arkaroola". Arkaroola Pty Ltd. Retrieved 28 March 2014. 
  30. ^ "Heritage agreements FAQs". Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 6 May 2014. 
  31. ^ "Australia's Ramsar Sites". Department of the Environment (Australia). Retrieved 27 March 2014. 
  32. ^ "Australia's Ramsar Sites". Department of the Environment (Australia). Retrieved 27 March 2014. 
  33. ^ "Indigenous Protected Areas". Department of the Environment (Australia). Retrieved 27 March 2014. 
  34. ^ "Antara-Sandy Bore Indigenous Protected Area". Department of the Environment (Australia). Retrieved 26 March 2014. 
  35. ^ "Kalka-Pipalyatjara Indigenous Protected Area". Department of the Environment (Australia). Retrieved 26 March 2014. 
  36. ^ "Mount Willoughby Indigenous Protected Area". Department of the Environment (Australia). Retrieved 26 March 2014. 
  37. ^ "Nantawarrina Indigenous Protected Area". Department of the Environment (Australia). Retrieved 26 March 2014. 
  38. ^ "Walalkara and Watarru Indigenous Protected Areas". Department of the Environment (Australia). Retrieved 26 March 2014. 
  39. ^ "Yalata Indigenous Protected Area". Department of the Environment (Australia). Retrieved 26 March 2014. 
  40. ^ "Mamungari Conservation Park". Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources. Retrieved 2 November 2014. 
  41. ^ "Calperum and Taylorville Stations". Australian government, Department of the Environment. Retrieved 2 November 2014. 
  42. ^ "Danggali Wilderness Protection Area and Conservation Park Management Plan 2011". Department of Environment and Natural Resources. p. 2. Retrieved 3 November 2014. 

External links[edit]