Protected areas of Sri Lanka

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Protected areas of Sri Lanka are administrated by Department of Forest Conservation and Department of Wildlife Conservation of Sri Lanka.There are 501 protected areas in Sri Lanka.[1] The protected areas falls under supervision Department of Forest Conservation include forests defined in National Heritage Wilderness Area Act in 1988, forest reservations and forests manage for sustainability.[2] World heritage site, Sinharaja Forest Reserve is an example for a National Heritage forest. There are 32 forests categorized as conservation forests including Knuckles Mountain Range. Strict nature reserves, national parks, nature reserves, forest corridors and sanctuaries recognized under the Flora and Fauna Protection Ordinance are managed by Department of Wildlife Conservation. Total of all categories of areas protected is 1,767,000 ha. Protected areas in Sri Lanka accounts for 26.5 percent of total area.[1] This is a higher percentage of protected areas than in all of Asia and much of the World.

Biodiversity[edit]

Plant diversity and endemism in Sri Lanka are quite high. Of 3,210 flowering plants belonging to 1,052 genera, 916 species and 18 genera are endemic.[3] All but one of Sri Lanka's more than 55 dipterocarp (Sinhalese "Hora") are found nowhere else in the world. Sri Lanka's amphibian diversity is only becoming known now. Sri Lanka may be home to as many as 140 species of amphibians. More than 50 known freshwater crabs are confined to Sri Lanka.

Deforestation[edit]

Between 1990 and 2000, Sri Lanka lost an average of 26,800 ha of forests per year.[4] This amounted to an average annual deforestation rate of 1.14 percent . Between 2000 and 2005 this accelerated to 1.43% per annum.

Conservation effort[edit]

92 Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs) have been identified through a process coordinated by the Wildlife Heritage Trust and University of Peradeniya.[5] Many other data and published literature were also incorporated into the analysis, notably data on Important Bird Areas collected by the Field Ornithology Group of Sri Lanka. Nearly all of these KBAs lie in the wet zone in south western part of the country. These areas considered irreplaceable because all sites contain endemic species that found nowhere else, with some of them harboring more than 100 globally threatened species.

The flora and fauna of Sri Lanka are heavily understudied. For instance Serendib Scops Owl was described and nine other bird species added to the list of endemics only in 2004.[5] Thus the number of endemic species is likely to be a gross underestimate.

Forest reserves and Proposed reserves[edit]

A number of forest reserves and proposed reserves are managed by Department of Forest Conservation. These areas are ecosystems with rich biodiversity.[6] Some of the forest reserves and proposed reserves include[2]

Biosphere reserves[edit]

World heritage site, Sinharaja Forest Reserve is a protected area in Sri Lanka

There are four biosphere reserves declared under UNESCO's Man and Biosphere Reserve Programme. Those are Bundala, Hurulu, Kanneliya-Dediyagala-Nakiyadeniya (KDN) and Sinharaja.[7] Apart from these international biosphere reserves there are national biosphere reserves being designated. Thirty-three are administrated by Department of Forest conservation and another four by Department of Wildlife Conservation.[8]

National protected areas[edit]

Depending on their objectives National protected areas are classified into mainly six types.[9] The first four categories of protected areas cover all the ecological and regions of Sri Lanka. The 5, 6, 7 categories were introduced in 1993 by amending the Flora and Fauna Protection Ordinance. However there are no regions declared under these categories so far.

  1. Strict nature reserves
  2. National parks
  3. Nature reserves
  4. Jungle corridors
  5. Refuge
  6. Marine reserves
  7. Buffer zones
  8. Sanctuaries

Strict nature reserves[edit]

Human activities are restricted in SNRs and they are protected as a pure natural system. Researches are allowed under the supervision of the Department of Wildlife Conservation staff and with the prior approval of the director.[6]

Protected area Area
in ha
Date of declaration
Hakgala 1,141.6
1938-02-05
Yala 28,904.7
1939-03-10
Ritigala 1,528.1
1941-11-07

Source:[6]

National parks[edit]

National parks are areas allowed for the public to see and study wildlife. However necessary rules and regulations are introduced to protect wildlife and their habitats.

Nature reserves[edit]

Wildlife viewing and studying is restricted in these areas. Similar to Strict nature reserves scientific researches are encouraged under the supervision of Department of Wildlife Conservation staff. These areas differ from strict nature reserves by allowing traditional human activities to continue.

Protected area Area
in ha
Date of declaration
Triconamadu 25,019.3
1986-10-24
Riverine 824.1
1991-07-31
Minneriya-Girithale
II block 1,923.6
1993-06-25
III block 4,745.3
1995-07-07
IV block 8,335.5
1997-09-01
Wetahirakanda 3,229
2002-06-07

Source:[6]

Jungle corridors[edit]

The only jungle corridor declared under the accelerated Mahaweli Oleend Programme.

Sanctuaries[edit]

Sanctuaries ensure the protection of wildlife of private lands which outside the state claim. In the sanctuaries protection of habitat and allowing of human activities occur simultaneously. Permission is not required for entry to these lands.

Protected area Area
in ha
Date of declaration
Chundikulam 11,149.1
1938-02-25
Wilpattu North 632
1938-02-25
Telwatta 1,424.5
1938-02-25
Weerawila-Tissa 4,164.2
1938-05-27
Katagamuwa 1,003.6
1938-05-27
Polonnaruwa 1,521.6
1938-05-27
Tangamale 131.5
1938-05-27
Mihintale 999.6
1938-05-27
Kataragama 837.7
1938-05-27
Anuradhapura 3,500.5
1938-05-27
Udawatta Kele Sanctuary 104
1938-07-29
Rocky Islets 1.2
1940-10-25
Peak Wilderness Sanctuary 22,379.1
1940-10-25
Kurulu Kele (Kegalle) 113.3
1941-03-14
Pallemalala 13.7
1942-10-23
Welhilla Kategilla 134.3
1949-02-18
Kokkilai 1,995
1951-05-18
Senanayake Samudra 9,324
1954-02-12
Gal Oya North-East 12,432
1954-02-12
Gal Oya South-East 15,281
1954-02-12
Giant's Tank 4,330.1
1954-09-24
Vavunikulam 4,856.2
1963-06-21
Sakamam 616.4
1963-06-21
Padawiya Tank 6,475
1963-06-21
Naval Headworks Sanctuary 18,130
1963-06-21
Great Sober Island 64.7
1963-06-21
Little Sober Island 6.5
1963-06-21
Kimbulwana Oya 492.1
1963-06-21
Mahakanadarawa Wewa 519.3
1966-12-09
Madhu Road 26,677
1968-06-28
Seruwila-Allai 15,540
1970-10-09
Paretitivu Island 97.1
1973-05-18
Honduwa Island 8.5
1973-11-19
Buddhangala 1,841.3
1974-11-01
Ravana Falls 1,932
1979-05-18
Medinduwa 0.8
1980-06-06
Kalametiya lagoon 2,525.2
1984-11-01
Sri Jayawardenapura birds sanctuary 449.2
1985-01-09
Victoria-Randenigala-Rantembe 42,087.3
1987-01-30
Maimbulkanda - Nittambuwa 25.1
1988-06-08
Parapuduwa Nuns' Island 189.6
1988-08-17
Kahalla-Pallekele 21,690
1989-07-01
Sigiriya 5,099
1990-01-26
Bellanwila-Attidiya 372
1990-07-25
Bar Reef 30,669.9
1992-04-03
Nimalawa 1,065.8
1993-02-18
Madunagala 995.2
1993-06-30
Muthurajawela block I 1,028.6
1996-10-31
Muthurajawela block II 256.8
1996-10-31
Anawilundawa 1,397
1997-06-11
Elahera-Girithale 14,035.2
2000-01-13
Dahaiyagala 2,685.1
2002-06-07
Tabbowa 2,193.3
2002-07-19
Rumassala 170.7
2003-01-03
Kiralakele 310
2003-09-08
Eluwiliyaya 186
2009-09-11
Kaudulla-Minneriya 8,777.3
2004-06-01
Kirama 45.7
2004-10-06
Kudumbigala 6,533.9
2006-02-20
Rekawa -
2006-05-25
Godawaya -
2006-05-25
Bundala - Wilmanna 3,339.4
2006-06-30
Maduganga 2,300
2006-07-17
Bogahapitiya (proposed)

Source:[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Biodiversity and Protected Areas - Sri Lanka". biodiversityhotspots.org. EarthTrends. Retrieved 2009-04-21. 
  2. ^ a b (Sinhala) Senarathna, P. M. (2005). Sri Lankawe Wananthara (1st ed.). Sarasavi Publishers. pp. 13–17. ISBN 955-573-401-1. 
  3. ^ "Western Ghats and Sri Lanka". biodiversityhotspots.org. Conservation International. Retrieved 2009-04-21. 
  4. ^ "Sri Lanka". mongabay.com. Mongabay. Retrieved 2009-04-21. 
  5. ^ a b "Conservation action and protected areas". biodiversityhotspots.org. Conservation International. Retrieved 2009-04-21. 
  6. ^ a b c d e The National Atlas of Sri Lanka (2nd ed.). Department of Survey. 2007. ISBN 955-9059-04-1. 
  7. ^ "Sri Lanka". unesco.org. UNESCO. Retrieved 2009-10-06. 
  8. ^ "Forest management in Sri Lanka" (cached copy). mablanka.lk. Sri Lanka MAB programme. 2005. Retrieved 2009-10-06. 
  9. ^ "Protected Areas". dwlc.lk. Department of Wildlife Conservation. Retrieved 2009-04-21. 

External links[edit]