Proto-Abazgi language

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Proto Abkhaz-Abaza (or Proto-Abazgi) is the reconstructed common ancestor of the Abkhaz and Abaza languages.

Phonology[edit]

Consonants[edit]

The consonant system is reconstructed[citation needed] with a four-way phonation contrast in stops and affricates, and a two-way contrast in fricatives.

Proto Abkhaz Cyrillic Abaza Cyrillic
Bzyb Abzhui Tapant
*p p Ҧ ҧ p
*b b Б б b
*pʼŒŒ П п
*fŒŒ f Ф ф f
*wŒŒ w У у w
*mŒŒ m М м m
*tŒŒ t Ҭ ҭ t
*d d Д д d
*tʼŒŒ Т т
*r r Р р r
*l l Л л l
*n n Н н n
*tʷ Ҭә ҭә tʃʷ
*dʷ Дә дә dʒʷ
*ts ts Ц ц ts
*dz dz Ӡ ӡ dz
*tsʼ tsʼ Ҵ ҵ tsʼ
*s s С с s
*z z З з z
*tsʲ tsʲ ts Ц ц ts
*dzʲ dzʲ dz(~z) Ӡ ӡ dz(~z)
*tsʼʲ tsʼʲ tsʼ Ҵ ҵ tsʼ
*sʲ s С с s
*zʲ z З з z
*tsʷ ts˞ ʈʂ tʃʷ
*dzʷ dz˞ ɖʐ ʒʷ
*tsʷʼ ts˞ʼ ʈʂʼ tʃʷʼ
*sʷ ʂ ʃʷ
*zʷ ʐ ʒʷ
*tʃ
*dʒ
*tʃʼ tʃʼ tʃʼ
ʃ ʃ
ʒ ʒ
*tɕ
*dʑ
*tɕʼ tɕʼ tɕʼ
ɕ ɕ
ʑ ʑ
*j j j
*tʃʷ f ts
*dʒʷ v dz
*tʃʷʼ tsʼ
*ʃʷ ʂ ʃʷ
*ʒʷ ʐ ʒʷ
*k k k
ɡ ɡ
*kʼ
*x x χ x / χ1
ʁ ɣ / ʁ1
*kʲ
*ɡʲ ɡʲ ɡʲ
*kʲʼ kʲʼ kʲʼ
*xʲ χʲ xʲ / χʲ1
*ɣʲ ʁʲ ʁʲ / χʲ1
*kʷ
*ɡʷ ɡʷ ɡʷ
*kʷʼ kʷʼ kʷʼ
*xʷ χʷ xʷ / χʷ1
*ɣʷ ʁʷ ɣʷ / ʁʷ1
*q χˤ q
*qʼ
*qʲʼ qʲʼ qʲʼ
*qʷ χˤʷ
*qʷʼ qʷʼ qʷʼ
ʔ
ħ ħ
- ʕ
*ħʷ ħʷ ħʷ
*ʕʷ ɥ ʕʷ
  1. In some Abaza dialects the Velar consonants turned to Uvular consonants.

The most noticeable changes are:

Grammar[edit]

English Proto-Abazgi Abkhaz (Bzyb) Abkhaz Abaza
quail ač́a - áč́a ač́a
word azʷa áža áž̌a ažʷa
enemy aɣa - a-ʁá aʁa
snake matǝ - matǝ á-mat
cheese ašʷǝ áš̌ áš̌ ašʷǝ
English Proto-Abazgi Abkhaz (Bzyb) Abkhaz (Abzhui) Abaza (Tapant)
1 za-kʼə a-kʼə - za-kʼə
2 ʕʷ-ba ɥ-ba - ʕʷ-ba
3 χ-ba χ-ba - χ-ba
4 pɕ-ba pɕ-ba - pɕ-ba
5 χʷ-ba xʷ-ba χʷ-ba χʷ-ba
6 - f-ba - t͡s-ba
7 bəʑ-ba bəʑ-ba - bəʑ-ba
8 aʕ-ba aa-ba - aʕ-ba
9 *ʑʷ-ba ʑʷ-ba - ʒʷ-ba
10 *ʑʷa-ba ʑʷa-ba - ʒʷa-ba
11 - ʑʷaj-za - ʒʷəj-z
12 - ʑʷaj-ɥa - ʒʷə-ʕʷ
13 - ʑʷa-xa - ʒʷa-χ
14 - ʑʷaj-pɕ - ʒʷəj-pɕ
15 - ʑʷa-xʷ - ʒʷə-χʷ
16 - ʑʷa-f - ʒʷaj-t͡s
17 *ʑʷaj-bəʑ̩ ʑʷaj-bəʑ̩ - ʒʷaj-bəʑ̩
18 *ʑʷ-ʕ ʑʷ-aa - ʒʷa-ʕ
19 *ʒʷaj-ʑʷ ʒʷaj-ʑʷ - ʒʷaj-ʒʷ
20 *ʕʷa-ʑʷa ɥa-ʑʷa - ʕʷa-ʒʷa
100 - ɕʷ-kʼə - ʃʷ-kʼə
1000 z-kʲə z-kʲə - z-kʲə

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • STAROSTIN, Sergei A.; NIKOLAYEV, Sergei L. (1994). A North Caucasian Etymological Dictionary: Preface.

External links[edit]