Proto-Circassian language

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Proto-Circassian (or Proto-Adyghe–Kabardian) is the reconstructed common ancestor of the Adyghean and Kabardian languages.

Phonology[edit]

Vocalism and accent[edit]

Northwest Caucasian family tree

In bisyllabic roots, two possible places of accent are reconstructed, with the following development of structures in descendant languages:

PAK Adyghean Kabardian
*ˈCa.Ca CaːC Caː.Ca
*ˈCa.Cǝ CaC CaC
*ˈCǝ.Ca CǝC Cǝ.Ca
*ˈCǝ.Cǝ CǝC CǝC
*Ca.ˈCa Caː.Ca Caː.Ca
*Ca.ˈCǝ Ca.Cǝ CaC
*Cǝ.ˈCa Cǝ.Ca Cǝ.Ca
*Cǝ.ˈCǝ Cǝ.Cǝ CǝC

In other words, Adyghe retains the distinction between *a and *ǝ in the 2nd syllable, if it was originally stressed; the 2nd syllable vowel is dropped in originally unstressed syllables. Kabardian retains the distinction uniformly, by dropping *ǝ but not *a. Both groups retain the quality distinction in the first syllable, and additionally display a long vowel in roots of the original shape *CaCa (regardless of stress).

Consonants[edit]

The consonant system is reconstructed with a four-way phonation contrast in stops and affricates, and a two-way contrast in fricatives.

Proto Cyrillic Adyghe Kabardian
Bzhedug Temirgoy Abadzekh Shapsug
Voiceless
stops
and
affricates
*p П p p
*t Т t t
*t͡s Ц ts ts
*t͡sʲ (t͡sʲː) Ць t͡ɕ (t͡ɕː) t͡ɕ (чъ) ɕ
*t͡sʷ Цу t͡sʲʷ t͡ʃʷ (Чу) f
*t͡ʃ Ч ʃ ʃ
*t͡ɕ Чъ ʂ ʃ
*kʲ1 Кь t͡ʃ t͡ʃ
*kʷ Ку
*q Къ q q-,qː q q q
*qʷ Къу qʷ-,qʷː
*ʔ~qʼ2 Ӏ ʔ ʔ
*ʔʷ~qʷʼ2 Ӏу ʔʷ ʔʷ
Geminate
stops
and
affricates
*pː П p b
*tː Т t d
*t͡sː Ц tsː ts dz
*t͡sʷː3 Цу t͡sʲʷː t͡sʲʷ t͡ʃʷ (Чу) v
ʃː шш ʃː ʃ ʃ ʃ ɕ
*t͡ʃː Ч t͡ʃː t͡ʃ ɕ t͡ʃ ʒ
*t͡ɕː Чъчъ t͡ɕː ʒ
*kʲː К tʃː d͡ʒ
*kʷː Куку kʷː ɡʷ
*qː~qχ4 Къкъ χ~q qʼ~qχ
*qʷː~qχʷ4 Къкъ qʷː χʷ~qʷ qʷʼ~qχʷ
Voiced
stops
and
affricates
*b Б b b
*d Д d d
*d͡ɮ5 Дл ɣ ʒ
*d͡z Дз dz d͡z
*d͡zʲ Дзь d͡ʑ (дж) ʑ
*d͡zʷ Дзу ʑʷ (жъу) v w
*d͡ʑ Джъ d͡ʑ (дж) ʒ
*ɡʲ1 Гь d͡ʑ (дж) ɡʲ d͡ʒ
*ɡʷ Гу ɡʷ ɡʷ
Ejective
stops
and
affricates
*pʼ ПӀ
*pʷʼ ПӀу pʷʼ
*tʼ ТӀ
*tʷʼ ТӀу tʷʼ tʷʼ
*t͡sʼ ЦӀ tsʼ tsˤ tsʼ
*t͡sʼʲ ЦӀь ɕʼ~ʃʼ ɕʼ
*t͡sʷʼ~ʃʷʼ ЦӀу~ШӀу ɕʷʼ~ʃʷʼ (шӀу) ʂʷ
*t͡ʃʼ КӀ tʃʼ tʃʼ ʔaj / ʔ tʃʼ ɕʼ (ЩӀ)
*t͡ɕʼ ЧӀ tɕʼ tɕʼ ɕʼ cç’
*t͡ɬʼ6 ТлӀ ɬʼ (ЛӀ) ɬˤ ɬʼ
*kʼʲ КӀ t͡ʃʼ kʼʲ t͡ʃʼ
*kʷʼ КӀу kʷʼ kʷʼ
Voiceless
fricatives
Лъ ɬ ɬ
*s С s s
*sʷ5 Су ɕʷ~ʃʷ (шъу) f
Ш ʃ ɕ
Шъ ʂ ɕ
Щ ɕ~ʃ
*x Х x x
*xʷ7 Ху f (Ф)
Хъ χ χ
*χʷ Хъу χʷ χʷ
*χʲ Хъь ħ χ
Хь ħ
Geminate
fricatives
*ʂː Шъшъ ʂː ʂ ɕ
*ʃː Ш ʃː ʃ ʒ
Voiced
fricatives
Л l ɮ
*z З z z
*zʷ5 Зу ʑʷ~ʒʷ (жъу) v
Ж ʒ ʑ
Жъ ʐ ʑ
Жь ʑ ʑ~ʒ
Г ɣ ɣ~ɡ ɣ ɣ ɣ
*ɣʲ Г ɣ ʑ
Гъ ʁ ʁ
*ʁʷ Гъу ʁʷ ʁʷ
Ejective
fricatives
*sʼ ?8 СӀ tsʼ tsʼ
*ʃʼ~ɕʼ ШӀ ʃʼ ʂ ɕʼ
Resonants *m М m m
*n Н n n
*r Р r r
*l Л l l
*j Й j j
*w У w w

1. In the Proto-Circassian language there exist a palatalized voiced velar stop [gʲ] and a palatalized voiceless velar stop [kʲ]. Those consonants exist in the Shapsug dialect (e.g. Kfar Kama Adyghe dialect) and Beslenei dialect. In other Adyghe dialects those consonants were merged with [d͡ʒ] and [t͡ʃ].

Word Proto-Circassian Adyghe Kabardian
Temirgoy Shapsug Abzax
chicken kʲat t͡ʃat kʲat t͡ʃat d͡ʒad
egg kʲankʲa t͡ʃant͡ʃa kʲaːkʲa t͡ʃant͡ʃa  ?
went out dakʲaʁ dat͡ʃaʁ dakʲaʁ dat͡ʃaʁ  ?
gun kʲaraːχʷ t͡ʃaraːχʷ kʲaraːχʷ t͡ʃaraːχʷ  ?
long kʲaħə t͡ʃaħə kʲaħə t͡ʃaħə t͡ʃaħə
short kʲaːkʷa t͡ʃaːkʷa kʲaːkʷa t͡ʃaːkʷa t͡ʃaːkʷa
to murder wkʲən wt͡ʃən wkʲən wt͡ʃən wt͡ʃən
cat kʲatəw t͡ʃatəw kʲatəw t͡ʃatəw d͡ʒadəw
rope kʲaːpsa t͡ʃaːpsa kʲaːpsa t͡ʃaːpsa t͡ʃaːpsa
to move away ʔʷəkʲən ʔʷət͡ʃən ʔʷəkʲən ʔʷət͡ʃən  ?
glass ʔaːpkʲ ʔaːpt͡ʃ ʔaːpkʲ ʔaːpt͡ʃ ʔaːbd͡ʒ
key ʔʷənkʲəbza ʔʷənt͡ʃəbza ʔʷəkʲəbza ʔʷənt͡ʃəbza ʔʷənɕʼəbza
beard ʒaːkʲa ʒaːt͡ʃa ʒaːkʲa ʒaːt͡ʃa ʑaːt͡ʃa
Word Proto-Circassian Adyghe Kabardian
Temirgoy Shapsug Abzax
dress/shirt ɡʲaːna d͡ʒaːna ɡʲaːna d͡ʒaːna d͡ʒaːna
to study, to read, to call jad͡ʒan jad͡ʒan jaɡʲan jad͡ʒan jad͡ʒan
infidel ɡʲaːwər d͡ʒaːwər ɡʲaːwər d͡ʒaːwər d͡ʒaːwər
to play ɡʲagʷən d͡ʒagʷən ɡʲagʷən d͡ʒagʷən d͡ʒagʷən
game ɡʲagʷ d͡ʒagʷ ɡʲagʷ d͡ʒagʷ d͡ʒagʷ
toy ɡʲaɡʷaːɬa d͡ʒaɡʷaːɬa ɡʲaɡʷaːɬa d͡ʒaɡʷaːɬa d͡ʒaɡʷaːɬa
bitter dəɡʲə dəd͡ʒə dəɡʲə dəd͡ʒə dəd͡ʒə
unripe məɡʲər məd͡ʒər məɡʲər məd͡ʒər məd͡ʒər
valley / deep hole qʷalaːɡʲa qʷalaːd͡ʒa qʷalaːɡʲa qʷalaːd͡ʒa  ?
pants ʁʷaʃaɡʲ ʁʷaʃad͡ʒ ʁʷaʃaɡʲ ʁʷaʃad͡ʒ ʁʷaʃad͡ʒ
evil bzaːɡʲa bzaːd͡ʒa bzaːɡʲa bzaːd͡ʒa bzaːd͡ʒa
that's it ɡʲaːrə d͡ʒaːrə ɡʲaːrə d͡ʒaːrə d͡ʒaːrə

2. The consonants glottal stop [ʔ] and labialized glottal stop [ʔʷ] in Proto-Circassian came from uvular ejective [qʼ] and labialized uvular ejective [qʷʼ].

Word Proto-Circassian Ubykh Adyghe Kabardian
Temirgoy Shapsug Abzax
two tʼqʷʼə ~ tʔʷə tʼqʷʼa tʷʼə tˤəʔʷə  ? tʼəw
I say səqʼan ~ səʔʷan sqʼan səʔʷan səʔʷan səʔʷan səʔʷan

3. The consonant labialized voiceless alveolar affricate [tsʷː] survived in the Adyghe Bzhedug and Temirgoy dialects, It became labialized voiceless palato-alveolar affricate [tʃʷ] in the Shapsug and Abzakh dialects, and became voiced labiodental fricative [v] in the Kabardian dialect.

Word Proto-Circassian Adyghe Kabardian
Temirgoy Shapsug Abzax
shoes t͡sʷːaːqa t͡sʷaːqa t͡ʃʷaːqa t͡ʃʷaːqa vaːqa
ox t͡sʷːə t͡sʷə t͡ʃʷə t͡ʃʷə
ploughshare t͡sʷːaːbza t͡sʷaːbza t͡sʷaːbza t͡sʷaːbza vaːbd͡za

4. The consonant voiceless uvular affricate [q͡χ] and labialized voiceless uvular affricate [q͡χʷ] survived in some words in the Kabardian language. In the Adyghe language dialects they become [χ], [χʷ], [q] and [qʷ].

Word Proto-Circassian Adyghe Kabardian
Temirgoy Shapsug Abzax
man q͡χʷəɬxʷəʁa fəɬfəʁa/χʷəɬfəʁa qʷəlfəʁa  ? χʷəɬxʷəʁa
grave q͡χa qa χa  ? q͡χa
male q͡χʷə χʷə χʷə  ?  ?
pig q͡χʷa qʷa χʷa  ? qʷa
son q͡χʷa qʷa qʷa  ? qʷa
cheese q͡χʷaːja q͡ʷaːja χʷaːja  ? q͡χʷeja
voice/sound maːq͡χa maːqa maːχa  ? maːqa
ship q͡χʷaħ qʷəħa qʷaħ  ? q͡χʷaħ
ant q͡χanzaɡʷ qanzaɡʷ χanzaɡʷ qanzaɡʷ χʷəmpʼat͡sʼad͡ʒ
peer q͡χʷəʐə  ? qʷəʐə qʷəʐə q͡χʷəʑə

5. In the Proto-Circassian language there existed labialized voiceless alveolar sibilant [sʷ] and labialized voiced alveolar sibilant [zʷ]. They merged with [ʃʷ] and [ʒʷ] in the Adyghe language and they become [f] and [v] in Kabardian. There also existed voiced alveolar lateral affricate [d͡ɮ] that become [ɣ] in Adyghe and [ʒ] in Kabardian.

Word Proto-Circassian Adyghe Kabardian
Temirgoy Shapsug Abzax
to boil, to plow zʷan ʒʷan ʒʷan ʒʷan van
stone, rock məzʷa məʒʷa məʒʷa məʒʷa məva
skin, color sʷa ʃʷa ʃʷa ʃʷa fa
rip t͡saːd͡ɮa t͡saːɣa t͡saːɣa t͡saːɣa d͡zaːʒa
to wash, to launder d͡ɮət͡ʃan ɣət͡ʃan ɣət͡ʃan ɣət͡ʃan ʑəɕʼan

6. In the Proto-Circassian there existed alveolar lateral ejective affricate [t͡ɬʼ]. This consonant survived in the Kabardian language Beslenei dialect. The words [t͡ɬʼə] (man) and [t͡ɬʼaːna] (quarter) for example pronounced in other dialects as [ɬʼə] and [ɬʼaːna]. In most Circassian dialects it become alveolar lateral ejective fricative [ɬʼ].

Word Proto-Circassian Adyghe Kabardian
Temirgoy Shapsug Abzax
man/husband t͡ɬʼə ɬʼə ɬˤə ɬʼə ɬʼə
he dies maːt͡ɬʼa maːɬʼa maːɬˤa maːɬʼa maːɬʼa
four pt͡ɬʼə pɬʼə pɬˤə pɬʼə pɬʼə
holy t͡ɬʼaːpʼa ɬʼaːpʼa ɬˤaːpˤa ɬʼaːpʼa ɬʼaːpʼa

7. The consonants labialized voiceless velar fricative [xʷ] survived in the East Circassian dialects (e.g. Kabardian dialect). In the West Circassian dialects it become voiceless labiodental fricative [f] (e.g. Shapsug, Bzhedug, Temirgoy and Abzakh dialect).

Word Proto-Circassian Adyghe Kabardian
Temirgoy Shapsug Abzax
day maːxʷa maːfa maːfa maːfa maːxʷa
white xʷəʑə fəʑə fəʑə fəʑə xʷəʑə
person t͡sʼəxʷə t͡sʼəfə t͡sˤəfə t͡sʼəfə t͡sʼəxʷ
hot xʷaːba faːba faːba faːba xʷaːba
corn nartəxʷ nartəf naːtəf nartəf nartəxʷ
like xʷad fad fad fad xʷad
garlic bʑənəxʷ bʑənəf bʑənəf bʑənəf bʑənəxʷ
man q͡χʷəɬxʷəʁa fəɬfəʁa/χʷəɬfəʁa qʷəlfəʁa  ? χʷəɬxʷəʁa
woman bzəɬxʷəʁa bzəɬfəʁa bzəlfəʁa bzəɬfəʁa bzəɬxʷəʁa
tin t͡sːaxʷ t͡saf t͡saf t͡saf d͡zːaxʷ
light naxʷə(n) nafən nafna  ? naxʷ
straight man zaːxʷa zaːfa zaːfa zaːfa zaːxʷa

8. The Adyghe Shapsug dialect of Kfar Kama speakers have an Alveolar ejective fricative [sʼ] that corresponds a lot to [tsʼ] in other Adyghe and Kabardian dialects. This consonant perhaps came from Proto-Circassian Alveolar ejective affricate [t͡sʼ] but the Shapsug dialect have both [t͡sʼ] and [sʼ]. For example the Shapsug words /t͡sʼəf/ "person", /t͡sʼaːpʼa/ "mean (adj)" and /t͡sʼaːʃʷta/ "slip".

Word Proto-Circassian Adyghe Kabardian
Temirgoy Shapsug Abzax
name sʼa ~ t͡sʼa ? t͡sʼa sˤa t͡sʼa t͡sʼa
he's lying qapsʼə ~ qapt͡sʼə ? qapt͡sʼə qapsˤə qapt͡sʼə qapt͡sʼə
black ʃʷʼəsʼa ? ʃʷʼət͡sʼa ʂʷəsˤa ʃʷʼət͡sʼa fʼət͡sʼa
naked ps'aːna ~ pt͡s'aːna ? pt͡sʼaːna pt͡sʼaːna psˤaːna pt͡sʼaːna
wet sʼəna ~ t͡sʼəna ? t͡sʼəna sˤəna t͡sʼəna t͡sʼəna
sharp paːpsʼa ~ paːpt͡sʼa ? paːpt͡sʼa paːpsˤa paːpt͡sʼa  ?

Other noticeable changes[edit]

Word Proto-Circassian Adyghe Kabardian
Temirgoy Shapsug Abzax
thin pʷʼaːnt͡ʃa pʷʼaːnt͡ʃa ~ pʼʕʷaːnt͡ʃa pˤaːt͡ʃa  ? pʼaːɕʼa
to raise, to adopt pʷʼən ~ pʼʕʷən pʷʼən pˤən  ? pʼən
two tʷʼə tʷʼə tˤʔʷə  ? tʼəw
To release, to launch tʷʼəpɕən tʷʼəpɕən tˤəpɕən  ?  ?
ten pʃʼə pʃʼə pʂə  ? pɕʼə
to know ʃʼan ʃʼan ʂan  ? ʃʼan
old man t͡ɬʼəʐ ɬʼəʐ ɬˤəʐ ɬʼəʐ ɬʼəʑ
black ʃʷʼəsʼa ~ t͡sʷʼəsʼa ʃʼʷət͡sʼa ʂʷəsˤa ʃʼʷət͡sʼa fʼət͡sʼa
  • The reflexes of a series of obstruent consonants, described as "tense" or "geminate". In Kabardian, they become simple voiced consonants, while in Adyghe, the outcome depends on the dialect: in Bzhed, these remain as tense, in Temirgoy, they become simple voiceless consonants.
  • The consonants [tʃː] become [ʃ] in the Abzakh dialect and [ʒ] in the Kabardian dialect.
  • The consonants [kʲː] become [t͡ʃ] in most West Circassian languages (Abzakh, Bzhadug and Temgoy) and [d͡ʒ] in the Kabardian dialect.
  • The consonants [tʃʼ] become [ɕʼ] in the Kabardian dialect and [aj] in Abzakh.
  • The consonants [tː] become [d] in the Kabardian dialect.
  • The consonants [tsː] become [dz] in the Kabardian dialect.
Word Proto-Circassian Adyghe Kabardian
Temirgoy Shapsug Abzax
tooth t͡sa t͡sa t͡sa t͡sa d͡za
mouse t͡səʁʷa t͡səʁʷa t͡səʁʷa t͡səʁʷa d͡zəʁʷa
fish pt͡saʐəj pt͡saʐəj pt͡saʐəj pt͡saʐəj bd͡zaʑəj
we ta ta ta ta da
shoulder taːma taːma taːma taːma daːma
sun təʁa təʁa təʁa təʁa dəʁa
Kabardian qabartaːj qabartaːj qabartaːj qabartaːj qabardaj
leader tħamaːta tħamaːta tħamaːta tħamaːta tħamaːda
garden xaːta xaːta xaːta xaːta xaːda
rooster, cock ataːqa ataːqa ataːqa ataːqa adaːqa
duck psəkʲat psət͡ʃat psəkʲat psət͡ʃat psəd͡ʒad
silver təʑən təʑən təʑən təʑən dəʑən
yesterday təʁʷaːsa təʁʷaːsa təʁʷaːsa təʁʷaːsa dəʁʷaːsa
wolf təʁʷəʐ təʁʷəʐ təʁʷəʐ təʁʷəʐ dəʁʷəʑ
chicken kʲat t͡ʃat kʲat t͡ʃat d͡ʒad
cat kʲatəw t͡ʃatəw kʲatəw t͡ʃatəw d͡ʒadəw
glass ʔaːpkʲ ʔaːpt͡ʃ ʔaːpkʲ ʔaːpt͡ʃ ʔaːbd͡ʒ
night t͡ʃaʃ t͡ʃaʃ t͡ʃaʃ ɕaʃ ʒaʃ
running maːt͡ʃa maːt͡ʃa maːt͡ʃa maːɕa  ?
money aːχt͡ʃa aːχt͡ʃa aːχt͡ʃa aːχɕa  ?
camel maːχt͡ʃa maːχt͡ʃa maːχt͡ʃa maːχɕa  ?
cow t͡ʃam t͡ʃam t͡ʃam ɕam ʒam
cold t͡ʃəʔa t͡ʃəʔa t͡ʃəʔa ɕəʔa ʒəʔa
key ʔʷənkʲəbza ʔʷənt͡ʃəbza ʔʷəkʲəbza ʔʷənt͡ʃəbza ʔʷənɕʼəbza
new t͡ʃa t͡ʃa t͡ʃa t͡ʃa? ɕʼa
boy t͡ʃʼaːla t͡ʃʼaːla t͡ʃʼaːla ʔajla ɕ'ʼaːla
guest ħaːt͡ʃa ħaːt͡ʃa ħaːt͡ʃa ħaːt͡ʃa ħaːɕʼa
few maːt͡ʃa maːt͡ʃa maːt͡ʃa maːʔa maːɕʼa
king, sultan paːt͡ʂəħ paːt͡ʂəħ paːrt͡ʃəħ paːt͡ʂəħ paːɕtəħ
iron ʁʷət͡ʃʼə ʁʷət͡ʃʼə ʁʷət͡ʃʼə ʁʷət͡ʃʼə ʁʷəɕʼə
button t͡ʃʼəʔʷ t͡ʃʼəʔʷ t͡ʃʼəʔʷ t͡ʃʼəʔʷ ɕʼəʔʷ
boy tʃʼaːla tʃʼaːla tʃʼaːla ʔajla ɕʼaːla
to regret tʃʼaʁʷaʑən tʃʼaʁʷaʑən tʃʼaʁʷaʑən ʔajʁʷaʑən ɕʼaʁʷaʑən
sit under tʃʼas tʃʼas tʃʼas ʔajs ɕʼas
few maːtʃʼa maːtʃʼa maːtʃʼa maːʔa maːɕʼa
  • Many ejective affricates become ejective fricatives.
  • A series of labialized alveolar sibilant affricates and fricatives becomes labiopalatalized in Adyghe, and labiodental in Kabardian.
  • The ejective consonants become pharyngealized consonants ([pˤ], [tˤ], [sˤ], [ɬˤ] [t͡sˤ]) in the Shapsug dialect.
  • The Kabardian dialect lost the consonants /ʃʷʼ/ /ʐʷ/ /ʂʷ/ /ʐ/ /ʂ/ and they become /fʼ/ /v/ /f/ /ʑ/ /ɕ/.
Word Proto-Circassian Adyghe Kabardian
Temirgoy Shapsug Abzax
blue ʂʷəχʷaːntʼa ʃəχʷaːntʼa ʂʷəχʷaːtˤa  ? ʃəχʷaːntʼa
green wət͡sʂʷa wət͡sʂʷa wət͡sʂʷa wət͡sʂʷa wəzəfa/wət͡sfa
well ʃʷʼə ~ t͡sʷʼə ʃʷʼə ʃʷʼə ʃʷʼə fʼə
black ʃʷʼəsʼa ~ t͡sʷʼət͡sʼa? ʃʷʼət͡sʼa ʃʷʼəsˤa ʃʷʼət͡sʼa fʼət͡sʼa
star ʐʷaːʁʷa? ʐʷaːʁʷa ʐʷaːʁa ʐʷaːʁʷa vaːʁʷa
narrow zaʐʷə? zaʐʷə zaʐʷə zaʐʷə zavə
you (plural) ʂʷa ʂʷa ʂʷa ʂʷa fa
woman ʂʷəz ʂʷəz ʂʷəz ʂʷəz fəz
fire maːʃʷʼa ~ maːt͡sʷʼa maːʃʷʼa maːʃʷʼa maːʃʷʼa maːfʼa
wide ʔʷəʐʷə ʔʷəʐʷə ʔʷəʐʷə ʔʷəʐʷə ʔʷəvə
girl pʂaːʂa pʂaːʂa pʂaːʂa pʂaːʂa pɕaːɕa
hundred ʂa ʂa ʂa ʂa ɕa
gold dəʂa dəʂa dəʂa dəʂa dəɕa
old ʐə ʐə ʐə ʐə ʑə

Grammar[edit]

Noun instrumental case[edit]

The suffix that was added for instrumental case nouns was -мгьэ (-mɡʲa) or -гьэ (-gʲa). In most West Circassian and East Circassian dialects it became -мкIэ (-mt͡ʃa) or -кIэ (-t͡ʃa). In a few dialects it became -мджэ (-md͡ʒa) or -джэ (-d͡ʒa).

For example:

Meaning Shapsug Most dialects Other dialects
Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA Cyrillic IPA
(using) Adyghe language адыгэбзэгьэ aːdəɣabzagʲa адыгэбзэкӀэ aːdəɣabzat͡ʃa адыгэбзэджэ aːdəɣabzad͡ʒa
with (using) the pencil къэлэмымгьэ qalaməmgʲa къэлэмымкIэ qalaməmt͡ʃa къэлэмымджэ qalaməmd͡ʒa

Numbers[edit]

English Proto-Circasian Ubykh Temirgoy/Bzhedug Shapsug Kabardian
One za
Two tʷʼə tʼqʷʼa tʷʼə tˤʔʷə tʼəw
Three ɕə ʂa ɕə ɕə ɕə
Four t͡ɬʼə pʼɬʼə pʼɬʼə pˤɬˤə pʼɬʼə
Five txʷə ɕxə tfə tfə txʷə
Six
Seven bɮə blə blə blə bɮə
Eight ʁʷa
Nine bʁʷə bʁʲə bʁʷə bʁʷə bʁʷə
Ten pʃʼə ʑʷə pʃʼə pʂə pɕʼə

Words[edit]

χʲ[edit]

Word Proto-Circassian Adyghe Kabardian
Temirgoy Shapsug Abzax
more naχʲ naħ naħ naħ naχ
older brother ʃənaχʲəʐ ʃənaħəʐ ʃənaħəʐ ʃənaħəʐ ʃənaχəʑ
younger brother ʃənaχʲət͡ʃ ʃənaħət͡ʃ ʃənaħət͡ʃ ʃənaħət͡ʃ ʃənaχəɕʼ


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • STAROSTIN, Sergei A.; NIKOLAYEV, Sergei L. (1994). A North Caucasian Etymological Dictionary: Preface.