Proto-Northwest Caucasian language

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Proto-Northwest Caucasian language mostly called PNWC (or Adyghe-Abazgi) is the reconstructed common ancestor of the Northwest Caucasian languages

Phonology[edit]

Consonants[edit]

Proto-NWC Proto-Abazgi Ubykh Proto-Circassian
*p p
*pː b b
*b b
*pʼ
*f f f
*w w
*m m
*pʲ p t
*pʲː b (tʷ~dʷ)
*bʲ b d
*pʼʲ tʷʼ
*pʷ p f p
*bʷ f f b
*pʷʲ tsʲ -
*bʷʲ dzʲ d
*pʷʲʼ tsʲʼ tʷʼ
*pˤ p p
*pˤː -
*bˤ b b
*pˤʼ - pˤʼ
*mˤ m m
*t t
*tː t t
*d d
*tʼ
*r r d-,r~ʁ tː-,r
*n n
*rʲ r ɮ dz
*tʷ t
*tʷː d(ʷ)
*dʷ d
*tʷʼ tʷʼ tʷʼ
*tʷʲ - ts
*tʷʲʼ tʷʼ tʷʼ tsʼ
*ts ts ts s-c
*tsː ts ts tsː
*dz dz dz dz~z
*tsʼ tsʼ
*s s
*z z dz~z z
*tsʲ tsʲ tsʲ (s)
*tsʲː dzʲ(?) ts tsː
*dzʲ dzʲ dz dz~z
*tsʲʼ tsʲʼ tsʲʼ tsʼ
*sʲ s
*zʲ z dzʲ~zʲ z
*tsʷ tsʷ tsʷ sʷ-
*tsʷː tsʷ tsʷ tsʷː
*dzʷ dzʷ - dzʷ
*tsʷʼ tsʷʼ
*sʷ
*zʷ dzʷ~zʷ
*tsʷʲ (tʃ) - tsʲ
*dzʷʲ dʒ~ʒ dʒʲ dzʲ
*tsʷʲʼ tʃʼ tʃʲʼ tsʲʼ
*sʷʲ tʃʷ
*zʷʲ dzʲ~zʲ ʒʷ
*tʃ tsʲ ts s
*dʒ dzʲ dz dz~z
*tʃʼ tsʲʼ tsʼ tsʲʼ(?)
*ʃ(~ʃː) s s
z z
*tɕ
*tɕː dzʲ(~tɕ) tɕː
*dʑ dʑ~ʑ
*tɕʼ tɕʼ
ʃ(?) ɕ ʃ
*ɕː ʃ ɕ ʃː
ʒ ʑ ʒ
*j j
*tʃʷ
*tʃʷː tɕː
*dʒʷ dzʷ~zʷ dʑ~ʑ
*tʃʷʼ tʃʼ tʃʼ tɕʼ
*ʃʷ ʃ ʃ
*ʃʷː ʃ ʃ ʃː
*ʒʷ zʲ(?) ʒ ʒ
*tɕʷ
*tɕʷː dʒ~ʒ tʃː
*tɕʷʼ tʃʼ tɕʼ tʃʼ
*ɕʷ ʃʷ ʃʷ
*ɕʷː ʃ ʃː
*ʑʷ ʒʷ ʒʷ
*tɬ x ɕ
*tɬː ts (sʲ) tɕː
*dɮ l ɮ
*tɬʼ x/tsʼ tsʲʼ tɕʼ
- ɕ
*ɬː x ɕː
*l l d-,Ø~j tħ-,ɮ
*tɬʲ ɕ
*dɮʲ ɣʲ ʁ(~zʲ) ɣ
*tɬʲʼ ɕ tɬʼ tɬʼ
*ɬʲ (~ɬʲʼː) ɕ ɬ ɬ
*ɮʲ ʑ ɮ ɮ
*lʲ r-,l~ɣʲ ɮ d-
*tɬʷ tsʷ tsʷ
*tɬʷː tsʷ tsʷ tʃː
*dɮʷ l w ħ
*tɬʷʼ tsʼ(ʷ) tsʼ(ʷ) tʃʼ
*ɬʷ ʃ x(ʷ)
*ɬʷː ʃ s(ʷ) ɕː
*tɬʷʲ tʃʷ f x
*tɬʷʲː ʒʷ tɕː
*dɮʷʲ dʒʷ ɮ
*tɬʷʲʼ tʃʷʼ tsʼ tɕʼ
*ɬʷʲ (~ɬʷː) ʃ ʃʷ x(ʷ)
*ɮʷʲ ʒ ʒʷ ɣʲ
*k k
ɡ ɡʲ ɡʲ
*kʼ kʲʼ kʲʼ
*x x ɕ x
ɣ ɣ~ʁ ɣ
*kʲ -
*ɡʲ ɡʲ
*xʲ ɕ
*ɣʲ ɣʲ ʑ
*kʷ
*kʷː ɡʷ ɡʷ kʷː
*ɡʷ ɡʷ
*kʷʼ kʷʼ
*xʷ x x(ʷ)
*ɡʲʷ ɡʷ ɡʲ 1 ɡʷ
*kʷʲʼ kʷʼ kʲʼ kʷʲʼ
*xʷʲ
*ɣʷʲ(?) ʁʲ ʁʷ
*q (ħ) q q-
*qː q q
*G ɣ ʁ ʁ
*qʼ
ħ χ χ
ʕ ʁ ʁ
*qʲː q -
*Gʲ ɣʲ ʁʲ -
*qʲʼ qʲʼ qʲʼ ʔ
*χʲ ħ χʲ
*ʁʲ ʕ ʁʲ ʁ
*qʷ ħʷ qʷ-,qʷː
*qʷː qʷː
*Gʷ ɣʷ ʁʷ ʁʷ
*qʷʼ qʷʼ qʷʼ qʷː
*χʷ ħʷ χʷ χʷ
*ʁʷ ʕʷ ʁʷ ʁʷ
*qʷʲ ħ(ʷ) qʷ-
*qʷʲː - qʷː
*Gʷʲ ɣ(ʷ) ʁʲ ʁʷ
*qʷʲʼ ʕʷ(qʷʼ?) qʲʼ ʔʷ
*χʷʲ ħ(ʷ) χʲ χʷ
*ʁʷʲ ʕ(ʷ) ʁʲ ʁʷ
*qˤː ʕ -
*qˤʼ ħ(?) qˤʼ
*χˤ - χˤ χ
*ʁˤ ʕ ʁˤ ʁ
*qˤʲ q q(ˤ) ħ
*qˤʲː ʔ ʔ
*qˤʲʼ ħ ʔ
*χˤʲ ħ χ(ˤ) ħ
*ʁˤʲ ʕ ʁ j
*qˤʷ ħʷ χˤʷ qʷ-
*qˤʷː ʕʷ qˤ(ʷ) qʷː
*qˤʷʼ qʷʼ(qʷ) qˤʷʼ qʷː
*χˤʷ ħʷ χˤʷ χʷ
*ʁˤʷ (ħʷ?) ʁˤʷ ʁʷ
*qˤʷʲ χʷ ħ
*qˤʷʲː ʕʷ qʷʼ ʔʷ
*qˤʷʲʼ ħʷ qʷʼ ʔʷ
*ʁˤʷʲ ʕʷ w w~ʁʷ
  1. In Circassian and Abkhaz, gʷǝ is heart and in Ubykh it's gʲǝ.

The most noticeable changes are:

Grammar[edit]

Numbers[edit]

English Proto-NWC Schulze Proto-NWC Colarusso Proto-Abazgi Abkhaz Abaza Ubykh Proto-Circasian Adyghe Kabardian
One za - za-kʼə akʼə zakʼə za
Two t’qʷ’a t’q’o ʕʷ-ba ɥ-ba ʕʷ-ba tʼqʷʼa tʷʼə tʷʼə tʷʼə
Three λ:ə (y-)x̂ə/a χ-ba χ-ba/x-ba χ-ba ʂa ɕə ɕə ɕə
Four p’λ’a - pɕ-ba pɕ-ba pɕ-ba pʼɬʼə t͡ɬə pɬʼə pɬʼə
Five sx̂ʷə (w-/y-)ćx̂ə χʷ-ba χʷ-ba/xʷ-ba χʷ-ba ɕxə txʷə tfə txʷə
Six ɬʷə (w-)x̂cə tʃʷba? f-ba t͡s-ba
Seven bδə ɣə́ bəʑ-ba bəʑ-ba bəʑ-ba blə bɮə blə bɮə
Eight - (w-/y-)ɣə/a aʕ-ba aa-ba aʕ-ba ʁʷa
Nine bğʷʲə ɣə́ - ʑʷ-ba ʒʷ-ba bʁʲə bʁʷə bʁʷə bʁʷə
Ten bć’ʷə (p-/w-)źə́/źá - ʑʷa-ba ʒʷa-ba ʑʷə pʃʼə pʃʼə pɕʼə

Words[edit]

English Proto-NWC Proto-Abazgi Abkhaz Abaza Ubykh Proto-Circasian Adyghe Kabardian
I - sa/sarˈa sa/sarˈa sa/sarˈa səsan sa sa sa
Heart ɡʲʷə ɡʷə ɡʷə ɡʷə ɡʲə ɡʷə ɡʷə ɡʷə
Sea - - - - ɕʷa
They sell it - - - - aːɕan - jaːɕan jaːɕan
I go - - - - skʲʼan skʷʼan skʷʼan skʷʼan
I say - - - - sqʼan - sʔʷan sʔʷan
Language/tongue bǝźA bzǝ aːbz bzǝ bza bza bza bza
Red - - - - pɬə pɬəʑ pɬəʑ pɬəʑ
Book, Letter - - - - txəɬ txəɬ txəɬ txəɬ
top of the back - - - - txə txə txə txə
Ox c:ʷǝ t͡sʷə á-ć̌ t͡ʃʷə t͡sʷə t͡sʷːə t͡sʷə, t͡ʃʷə
Blood - - - - ɬa ɬə ɬə ɬə
Month/Moon - - aːmza məzə məʒa maːza maːza maːza
Beard - - - - ʒaːkʼʲa ʒaːkʼʲa ʒaːt͡ʃʼa ʒaːt͡ʃʼa
Dust - - - - saːpa saːpa saːpa saːba
Barefoot - - - - ɬapsʼə ɬapsʼa ɬapt͡sʼa ɬapt͡sʼa
Donkey - - - - t͡ʃədə ʃədə ʃədə ʃədə
Hedgehog - - - - pəzʲə pəʐ pəʐ -
Water - - - - bzə psə psə psə
Fault - - - - laːʑa laːʑa laːʑa laːʑa
House ʁ́Iʷǝna - - ʕʷna - wəna wəna wəna
Mother (a)nǝ (a)nǝ á-n anǝ na aːna aːna
Father (a)ṕ:ǝ ab ab aba tʷǝ at:a aːda
heavy anǝTa xanǝta á-χ́anta χ́anta - want:aʁʷ wantaʁʷ wandaʁʷ
cattle-shed anǝTa bawǝ-ra bora a-bóra, -bówra bow - - bow
guest - - - - pč̣́a ħa-č̣́á ħaṣ́a ħāč̣́a
mountain / hill bǝɣA - bʁa - - bɣǝ bɣǝ bɣǝ
measles / scarlet fever / navel bǝč̣́ǝ bǝč̣́ǝ a-bč̣́ǝ́ bč̣́ǝ bǝč̣́ǝ́ - nǝbǝǯ́ bǝnža
dust / bubble / blister bǝbǝ - á-bǝb - - psǝ-bǝb psǝ-bǝb psǝ-bǝb

External links[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • STAROSTIN, Sergei A.; NIKOLAYEV, Sergei L. (1994). A North Caucasian Etymological Dictionary: Preface.