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Temporal range: Late Carboniferous (Middle Pennsylvanian), 312Ma
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Clade: Amniota
Clade: Synapsida (?)
Genus: Protoclepsydrops
Carroll, 1964
Type species
Protoclepsydrops haplous
Carroll, 1964

Protoclepsydrops was an early amniote, found in Joggins, Nova Scotia.[1] Its skeletal remains indicate that it may have been more closely related to synapsids than to sauropsids, making it a possible synapsid member. If so, it is the oldest synapsid known, though its status is unconfirmed because its remains were fragmentary. Protoclepsydrops lived slightly earlier than Archaeothyris.[2] Like Archaeothyris, Protoclepsydrops resembled modern lizards. However, Protoclepsydrops still had primitive vertebrae with tiny neural processes typical of the amniotes amphibian ancestors.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Carroll, Robert L. (1964). "The earliest reptiles". Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology 45 (304): 61–83. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1964.tb00488.x. Retrieved 4 May 2012. 
  2. ^ Benton M.J. and Donoghue P.C.J. 2006. Palaeontological evidence to date the tree of life. Molecular biology and evolution. 24(1): 26–53. [1]