Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air

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Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime
Type Organized crime; international criminal law
Drafted 15 November 2000
Signed 12 December 2000
Location New York City, United States
Effective 28 January 2004
Condition 40 ratifications
Signatories 112
Parties 141
Depositary Secretary-General of the United Nations
Languages Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish

The Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, supplementing the Convention against Transnational Organised Crime, was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 2000. It is also referred to as the Smuggling Protocol. It is one of the three Palermo protocols, the others being the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children and the Protocol against the Illicit Manufacturing and Trafficking in Firearms, Their Parts and Components and Ammunition.

The Smuggling Protocol entered into force on 28 January 2004. As of November 2014, the protocol has been signed by 112 parties and ratified by 141.[1]

The Protocol is aimed at the protection of rights of migrants and the reduction of the power and influence of organized criminal groups that abuse migrants. It emphasizes the need to provide migrants with humane treatment, and the need for comprehensive international approaches to combating people smuggling, including socio-economic measures that address the root causes of migration.

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