Proton-M rocket being transported to its launchpad
|Function||Heavy carrier rocket|
|Country of origin||Russia|
|Height||53 metres (174 ft)|
|Diameter||7.4 metres (24 ft)|
|Mass||712,800 kilograms (1,571,500 lb)|
|Stages||3 or 4|
|22,000 kilograms (49,000 lb)|
|6,700 kilograms (14,800 lb)|
|3,500 kilograms (7,700 lb)|
|Launch sites||Baikonur Sites 81 & 200|
|First flight||7 April 2001|
|Length||21 metres (69 ft)|
|Diameter||7.4 metres (24 ft)|
|Empty mass||31,000 kilograms (68,000 lb)|
|Gross mass||450,400 kilograms (993,000 lb)|
|Thrust||10,532 kilonewtons (2,368,000 lbf)|
|Specific impulse||285 sec|
|Burn time||108 seconds|
|Second Stage - 8S811K|
|Length||14 metres (46 ft)|
|Diameter||4.15 metres (13.6 ft)|
|Empty mass||11,715 kilograms (25,827 lb)|
|Gross mass||167,828 kilograms (369,997 lb)|
|Thrust||2,399 kilonewtons (539,000 lbf)|
|Specific impulse||327 sec|
|Burn time||206 seconds|
|Length||6.5 metres (21 ft)|
|Diameter||4.15 metres (13.6 ft)|
|Empty mass||4,185 kilograms (9,226 lb)|
|Gross mass||50,747 kilograms (111,878 lb)|
|Thrust||613.8 kilonewtons (138,000 lbf)|
|Specific impulse||325 sec|
|Burn time||238 seconds|
|Fourth Stage (optional) - Briz-M|
|Length||2.61 metres (8 ft 7 in)|
|Diameter||4.10 metres (13.5 ft)|
|Empty mass||2,370 kilograms (5,220 lb)|
|Gross mass||22,170 kilograms (48,880 lb)|
|Thrust||19.6 kilonewtons (4,400 lbf)|
|Specific impulse||326 sec|
|Burn time||3000 seconds|
|Fourth Stage (optional) - Blok DM-2|
|Thrust||85 kilonewtons (19,000 lbf)|
|Specific impulse||352 sec|
|Fourth Stage (optional) - Blok DM-03|
The Proton-M, (Протон-М) GRAU index 8K82M or 8K82KM, is a Russian carrier rocket derived from the Soviet-developed Proton. It is built by Khrunichev, and launched from sites 81 and 200 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Commercial launches are marketed by International Launch Services (ILS), and generally use Site 200/39. The first Proton-M launch occurred on 7 April 2001.
The Proton-M features modifications to the lower stages to reduce structural mass, increase thrust, and fully utilise propellants. A closed-loop guidance system is used on the first stage, which allows more complete consumption of propellant. This increases the rocket's performance slightly compared to previous variants, and reduces the amount of toxic chemicals remaining in the stage when it impacts downrange. It can place up to 21 tonnes (46,000 lb) into low Earth orbit. With an upper stage, it can place a 3 tonne payload into geosynchronous orbit, or a 5.5 tonne payload into geosynchronous transfer orbit. Efforts were also made to reduce dependency on foreign component suppliers.
Most Proton-M launches have used a Briz-M upper stage to propel the spacecraft into a higher orbit. Launches have also been made with Blok-DM upper stages: six launches were made with the Blok DM-2 upper stage carrying GLONASS spacecraft, while two further GLONASS launches have used the Blok DM-03. The DM-03 will be used for a total of five launches; a further GLONASS launch is planned along with two launches of Ekspress satellites. As of 2013, no Proton-M launches have been made without an upper stage, however this configuration is manifested to launch the Multipurpose Laboratory Module and European Robotic Arm of the International Space Station, currently scheduled to be launched together in 2016.
On 7 July 2007, International Launch Services launched the first Proton-M Enhanced rocket, which carried the DirecTV-10 satellite into orbit. This was the 326th launch of a Proton, the 16th Proton-M/Briz-M launch, and the 41st Proton launch to be conducted by ILS. It features more efficient first stage engines, updated avionics, lighter fuel tanks and more powerful vernier engines on the Briz-M upper stage, and mass reduction throughout the rocket, including thinner fuel tank walls on the first stage, and use of composite materials on all other stages. The second launch of this variant occurred on 18 August 2008, and was used to place Inmarsat 4 F3 into orbit. The baseline Proton-M was retired in November 2007, in favour of the Enhanced variant.
As of May 2014[update], nine Proton-M launches have failed. Three of these failures were the results of problems with the Proton-M itself, five were caused by the Briz-M upper stage malfunctioning and leaving cargo in a useless orbit, and one was the result of a Blok DM-03 upper stage being incorrectly fuelled, leaving the Proton too heavy to achieve orbit.
In September 2007, a Proton-M/Briz-M rocket carrying Japan's JCSAT-11 communications satellite failed to achieve orbit, and fell in the Ulytau District of Kazakhstan. An investigation determined that first and second stages of the rocket had failed to separate, due to a damaged pyrotechnic cable.
In July 2013, a Proton-M/DM-03 carrying three GLONASS satellites failed shortly after liftoff. The booster began pitching left and right along the vertical axis within a few seconds of launch. Attempts by the onboard guidance computer to correct the flight trajectory failed and ended up putting it into an unrecoverable pitchover. The upper stages and payload were stripped off 24 seconds after launch due to the forces experienced followed by the first stage breaking apart and erupting in flames. Impact with the ground occurred 30 seconds after liftoff.
The preliminary report of the investigation indicated that three of the first stage angular velocity sensors, responsible for yaw control, were installed in an incorrect orientation. As the error affected the redundant sensors as well as the primary ones, the rocket was left with no yaw control, which resulted in the failure. Telemetry data also indicated that a pad umbilical had detached prematurely, suggesting that the Proton may have launched several tenths of a second early, before the engines reached full thrust.
Although other Proton-M launches are recorded as failures, these failures have been caused by the upper stages used to allow the rocket to deliver payloads to higher orbits. On 5 December 2010, the upper stage and payloads failed to reach orbital velocity due to overloading of the upper stage with 1.5 tonnes of liquid oxygen, resulting in the loss of three GLONASS satellites it was carrying.
Five launches have succumbed to problems with the Briz-M upper stage; Arabsat 4A in February 2006, AMC-14 in March 2008, Ekspress-AM4 in August 2011, Telkom 3 and Ekspress-MD2 in August 2012 and Yamal 402 in December 2012. All of the payloads were unusable except for Yamal 402, which was able to correct its orbit at the expense of several years' operational life, and AMC-14 which was sold to the US Government after SES determined that it couldn't complete its original mission.
Effect on government and industry
As a result of the July 2013 Proton M launch, a major reorganization of the Russian space industry was undertaken. The United Rocket and Space Corporation was formed as a joint-stock corporation by the government in August 2013 to consolidate the Russian space sector. Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin said "the failure-prone space sector is so troubled that it needs state supervision to overcome its problems." Three days following the failure, the Russian government had announced that "extremely harsh measures" would be taken "and spell the end of the [Russian] space industry as we know it."
Critics claim that Proton rocket fuel (unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH)) and debris created by Russia's space programme is poisoning areas of Russia and Kazakhstan. Residents claim that acid rain falls after some launches. Anatoly Kuzin, deputy director of the Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center, has however denied these claims, saying: "We did special research into the issue. The level of acidity in the atmosphere is not affected by the rocket launches [and] there is no data to prove any link between the illnesses [in Altai] and the influence of rocket fuel components or space activity of any kind".
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