Providence (religious movement)
Providence is a Christian new religious movement founded by Jung Myung Seok (also known by the names of Joshua Jung, Joshua Lee and Pastor Joshua). It began as a splinter group from the Unification Church in South Korea in 1978 where it still has the most members. Providence has been widely referred to by the media as a cult.
Following accusations against him by South Korean police of rape, fraud and embezzlement, Jung fled the country in 1999 and lived as a fugitive in Hong Kong, Taiwan, and China before being arrested by Chinese police in May 2007. In April 2009, the Supreme court of South Korea sentenced him to 10 years imprisonment.
Other names for Providence include Jesus Morning Star (JMS) (the most known name in South Korea), Christian Gospel Mission (CGM, official name in South Korea), Setsuri ("providence" in Japanese), International Christian Association (ICA), Morning Star Church, The Bright Moon Church, Ae-chun Church, Young-dong Church, Nak-seong-dae Church, and Seoul Church.
The beliefs of Providence are explained to followers in a series of 30 secret lectures. After a series of Bible studies aiming to demonstrate that the Great Tribulation has already begun, the final, most secret lectures are believed by adherents to prove that Jung is the Messiah using numerology, explain that those who do not "meet" him will not go to Heaven, and warn that any who betray him are committing a grave crime. It is also taught that Eve was 14 years old when she first had sex with Adam.
Providence teaches that Jung is here to finish the restoration history of the Holy Trinity, asserting that he is the messiah of this time period and has the responsibility to save all mankind and that the Christian doctrine of bodily resurrection is false, but that people can be saved through Jung.
Providence's teachings are similar to the Unification Church. According to one researcher, nine of the 30 secret lectures resemble the Unification Church's Divine Principle very closely. The main differences are that:
- it identifies Jung as the Messiah (rather than Sun Myung Moon)
- it teaches that original sin, originating in Eve's intercourse with Satan, can be defeated by having sex with Jung.
Jung encourages his followers to form non-religious organisations for the purpose of attracting young people without initially revealing the religious nature of the group or their real motives, in a practice which has been described as "fraudulent" by a lawyer.
Jung, born in Geumsan County, South Chungcheong on February 17, 1945, was involved with the Unification Church in the 1970s, and as a result, Jung's teachings closely resemble those of the Unification Church.
In 1980,Jung founded the Ae-Chun Church, which was affiliated with the Methodist Church. The church was later expelled from the Methodists and he changed its name to the International Christian Association.
According to the Information Network on Christian Heresies, in 1986 the vice president of Providence attempted to act on the sex scandals surrounding the group, but he was shut out of the organizational system and Jung consolidated all power around himself.
Jung's sexual abuse convictions
In 1999, Seoul Broadcasting System (SBS) in Korea reported about sexual abuse allegedly committed by Jung. According to former members, Jung had forced dozens of women to have sex with him, and said that they would go to hell if they told anyone what he had done. This resulted in Jung fleeing the country one day later. He was officially charged in 2001. Providence sued SBS to prevent them from airing the show again. At the end of the trial in 2002, a witness who had testified that there was no sexual exploitation from 1993-4 was found guilty of perjury.
Jung, having been wanted by Interpol since 2002, was arrested in 2003 for overstaying his visa in Hong Kong and was due to be returned to Korea, but when released on bail, fled the extradition hearing. An Interpol Red Notice was issued on Jung in 2004.
In April 2006, a press conference was held by the anti-cult group EXODUS in which four unidentified women dressed in baseball caps and bandanas covering their faces, accused Jung of organised sex crimes against themselves and other women, who required medical treatment.
After about 8 years on the run, Jung was arrested by Chinese police in May 2007. He was extradited back to South Korea on February 20, 2008. Jung has also been charged with fraud and embezzlement of church funds.
South Korean media reported that Jung had claimed to have received a "special revelation" from God, and that many female members of his cult were ordered to undress for a "health check" and have sex with him to wipe off their sins. Jung denies the charges, his followers say.
In January 2008, the Supreme Court of South Korea awarded two females, one Korean and one Japanese, ₩50,000,000 (US$52000, €36000, or £26500 as of January 2008[update]) and ₩10,000,000 (US$10400, €7200, or £5300) in damages for sexual assault. Providence followers started riots outside of newspapers that reported the court's verdict, broke into the Seoul office of the leading newspaper The Dong-a Ilbo trashing office furniture, and demanded the removal of articles critical of Jung.
In 2008, in response to the rape allegations, Providence pastor Bae Jae-yong said that it was "distorted rumor that was created by the people who have slandered him" and that "all fundamental truth will be clarified by [Jung] at the prosecutor's office".
In August 2008, Jung was convicted of sexual abuse charges and sentenced by Seoul Central District Court to six years imprisonment. In February 2009, the Seoul High Court added four years to the lower court's sentence of six years. Jung appealed his 10 years imprisonment sentence to the Supreme Court of South Korea in April 2009, but the sentence was upheld.
One of the sexually assaulted women subsequently filed a civil lawsuit against Jung. In its verdict in November 2009 Seoul Western District Courts Third Civil Division ruled that "the plaintiff's right to bodily integrity was violated and she suffered psychological pain as a result of the sexual violence of defendant... The defendant is obligated to compensated plaintiff for her pain." and that Jung should pay ₩50,000,000 in compensation.
As of 2012, at least 10 women were still being kept for sexual exploitation by church leaders, according to Kim Jin-ho, former director of the cult and a representative of the organization No JMS (JMS 피해대책협의회). Jo Gyeong-suk, former head of the cult's Seoul branch, said that "not a few of those women committed suicide. They become severely depressed and receive psychiatric treatment, suffer various illnesses and social phobias as a result of the stress, and are unable to marry."
Outside of Korea
Providence began operating in Australia during 1997. Members of Providence have reported to been actively recruiting for new members at the Australian National University. On 9 April 2014, the Australian government-funded network Special Broadcasting Service aired the first report detailing the activities of the group within Australia, claiming that the group actively sought young attractive women, according to interviewed statements by former members.
Providence was first reported in Japanese media in late July 2006. While most reports were about the sexual allegations, the national newspaper Asahi Shimbun commented on the Providence group (known in Japan as Setsuri) in their August 19, 2006 editorial. It reported that Providence is "causing serious social problems in Japan", labeling it as a "cult" and "sect". It reported that the organization was pressuring members to live together, make regular donations, marry within the organization, and follow the strict guidance of its founder.
Police raided eight Providence facilities in Chiba, Japan on suspicion a senior member illegally obtained residence status. They also searched a facility in the city's Chuo Ward. The senior member, a Korean, was arrested for overstaying her visa. It was learned that Providence recruited "high class, high income" men and selected women for "style and looks".
Providence has been reported about in Hong Kong, known as "月明教會" (The Bright Moon Church) there. In October 2006 a former member, under pseudonym "Geung" (阿強), told Oriental Daily News that it has about 100 core members in Hong Kong, many of whom are medical graduates, while some are assistant professors. Though it has been in Hong Kong for years, the slow development made it fairly unknown until its media exposure to the public. To attract youth, the church temporarily created an organisation to run various community activities, known as the United Culture and Arts Network (UCAN).
Providence's earliest activity in Taiwan was in 1988. It is commonly known as Jesus Morning Star church (JMS), Chinese: 晨星會; Hanyu Pinyin: Chéngxīng huì; Tongyong Pinyin: chéeng sīn hùei; literally: "Jesus Morning Star church"), "攝理教" or "攝禮教" (shè lǐ jìao).
Providence itself rejects these common names, officially registered as "中華基督教新時代青年會" (China Christian Youth Association, CCYA), and sometimes calls itself "攝理教會", and Providence Church.
In November 2001 the Taiwanese version of Next Magazine published the article "Korean cult leader raped over one hundred Taiwanese female college students". Allegedly involved National Taiwan University, Fu Jen Catholic University, and National Chengchi University all denied the report, stated that there were no cult activities in their campuses at the time. NCCU acknowledged that there had been such activities many years ago. There had been similar reports in 1997. Members of EXODUS soon came to Taiwan and held a press conference with an involved woman.
- Cubby, Ben (March 10, 2007). "Claims sect using social groups to recruit members". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
- "Seoul: Former JMS cult members tell their stories". Asian Correspondent. 2012-04-02. Retrieved 2013-12-18.
- Chunichi Shinbun. 17 February 2007. 監禁、傷害での立件視野. "世界基督教統一神霊協会（統一教会）を脱会した韓国人の鄭明析教祖が１９８０年ごろに設立した宗教集団。"
- "Asian Cult Leader Arrested". The Australian. 2007-05-15. Retrieved 2008-02-27.
- "Alleged South Korean Rape Cult Leader Arrested in China". Fox News. 2007-05-16. Retrieved 2008-02-27.
- "Jeong Myeong-seok Arrested in China". English.donga.com. 2007-05-17. Retrieved 2014-02-28. "Hwang Chul-kyu, who is in charge of international crime cases in Ministry of Justice, announced on May 16 that, "Chinese police informed us that a man caught in Beijing on May 1 turned out to be Jeong Myeong-seok after comparing fingerprints.""
- "South Korean religious sect leader jailed for rape". Reuters. 2008-08-12. Retrieved 2013-12-18.
- "Cult head jailed for sex crimes". AFP. 2009-02-10. Archived from the original on 2010-11-15. Retrieved 2013-10-29.
- Cheung Chi-fai (2003-07-31). "Wanted cult leader may be repatriated to South Korea | South China Morning Post". Scmp.com. Retrieved 2014-03-01. "Mr Jung founded the so-called Ae-Chun Church in 1980 and it became affiliated with the Methodist Church. The church was later expelled from the Christian body and he changed its name to the International Christian Association. Mr Jung also wrote the '30 lessons', which criticise Christian teachings and beliefs and end with his adopting the role of Jesus Christ at the second coming."
- Sakurai, Yoshihide. "Cult Problems on Campus : Why were students involved in the “Setsuri” (Providence) cult group?" Journal of Higher Education and Lifelong Learning 15 (2007)
- Sakurai, Yoshihide (2007). "カルト問題と格差社会との関連" [The context of social disparity and the cult problem]. 宗教と現代がわかる本 [Religion in the Modern World] (in Japanese): 140–143. "人間の始祖、アダムとイブは堕天使ルシファーにより誘惑され、成長以前に不義の性交を行い（元摂理信者のノートによれば、禁断の木の実を食べたイブは当時 14 歳であった！）(The first humans, Adam and Eve engaged in underage intercourse -- according to Providence believers, Eve was 14 when she partake of the forbidden fruit!)"
- "Suspect of Corrupt Cult Founder Arrested in China". The Korea Times. 2007-05-13. Archived from the original on 2007-09-13. Retrieved 2008-02-27.
- "Cult Leader Extradited to Korea". The Korea Times. 2008-02-21. Archived from the original on 2008-04-01. Retrieved 2008-02-27.
- "'Love' cult snares student". Japan Times. 2002-10-27. "The church's doctrine is composed of the so-called '30 precepts,' although it's pretty clear that they're derived from the Unification Church," explains Toyoshige Aizawa, a Christian minister engaged in weaning young people away from cults. "Jong has twisted the biblical story of Adam and Eve to deal with sex, saying, 'To atone for Adam and Eve's original sin, which was visited upon all mankind, it's necessary to engage in intercourse with the Lord.' In this case, he means himself, since he claims to be a reincarnation of Jesus."
- 탁명환 (1986). 기독교 이단 연구. 국제 종교 문제 연구소.
- "South Korean fugitive cult leader Jung extradited back to Seoul". Associated Press Television News. 2008-02-20. Archived from the original on 2013-04-07. Retrieved 2008-02-29.
- Sakurai, Yoshihide (2007). "カルト問題と格差社会との関連" [The context of social disparity and the cult problem]. 宗教と現代がわかる本 [Religion in the Modern World] (in Japanese): 140–143.
- "教団のワナにはまるな" [Another problem cult]. Asahi Shimbun. 2006-08-18. Archived from the original on 1900-01-01. Retrieved 2013-12-18. "The gimmicks the sect uses to increase its membership are nothing new. At university campuses, the sect's recruiters first approach students under the guise of a sports or cultural circle. After building close personal relationships with these students, the members reveal the religious nature of their group and start indoctrinating them. The favorite targets are serious-minded young people who feel alienated from their families and schools and wish to change their lives."
- "How to Spot a Woolly Wolf". The Keimyung Gazette. 2006-08-18. Retrieved 2014-03-01. "Although its members come from all works of life: university lectures, soldiers, doctors, teacher, nurse, housewives, and children, JMS is essentially a university cult, Most of the former members I have spoken to encountered JMS on a university campus. Younger girls are also targeted for recruitment: in Hong Kong the cult has high school liaison officers, and in Seoul a church especially for schoolgirls. Soccer, cheerleading, modelling, photography, martial arts, dance, drama, and music festivals are all activities JMS uses to acquire new members, Hosting there events are front organizations: organization with no obvious links to JMS. Totally deceptive in nature, members routinely lie to hide their JMS connections, An international student studying at Ewha Women's University found herself at Wolmyungdong after being invited to a martial arts display."
- "Alleged Cult Sows Seeds Via Campus Event |". The Guardian, University of California, San Diego, USA. 2006-11-13. Retrieved 2014-03-01. "Members of a controversial religious group, led by an international fugitive wanted for numerous instances of alleged rape and sexual assault of female members, recently held an event at UCSD, which included a modeling show featuring young women, singing and videotaped religious messages from the group’s founder — hallmarks of the group’s tactics to recruit new members. The group, known as the Global Association of Culture and Peace, was established by 61-year-old South Korean national Jung Myung Seok, who also goes by the name Joshua Jung. The group, widely regarded by international press as a cult, also goes by several other names, including JMS, Providence, Setsuri and the Bright Smile Movement."
- "Cult aimed at elite in 50 universities". Asahi Shimbun. 2006-07-31. Archived from the original on 1900-01-01. Retrieved 2013-12-18. "Ex-members say recruiting on campus started on Jung's orders in the mid-1990s. "It's a fraudulent activity, as they conceal the group's identity in luring members," a lawyer said. An ex-member in his 30s said he and other cultists were deprived of sleep--forced to work late into the night and then wake up early to listen to Jung's videotaped preaching."
- 이대복 (2000). 이단종합연구 [Comprehensive Heresy Studies] (in Korean). 기독교이단문제연구소. p. 647. Retrieved 2013-11-09.
- 심창섭 (1997). 기독교의이단들 [Christian Heresies]. 대한예수교장로회총회. p. 274. ISBN 978-89-88327-28-9.
- Luca, Nathalie (March 2002). "After the Moon sect: South Korea and indoctrination through the sacred game of football". CNRS. Retrieved 2008-02-27.
- Nathalie Luca (1 January 1997). Le salut par le foot: une ethnologue chez un messie coréen (in French). Labor et Fides. pp. 14–. ISBN 978-2-8309-0787-2. "On y apprend que JMS est un ancien adepte de la "secte Moon"."
- Sakurai, Yoshihide (2007-05-18). "日本のカルト問題 : 「摂理」を事例に" [Japan's cult problem: a case study of 'Providence']. 日本近代学会大会 [Japan Modern Society] (in Japanese). "1975-77 年の間に統一教（統一教会）に関わった。そのために、摂理の教義は統一教会の教義とかなり似通ったものになっている。(From 1975 to 1978 he was involved with the Unification Church. For this reason, Providence's teachings resemble the Unification Church quite closely.)"
- Information Network on Christian Heresy. "///현대종교///" (in Korean). Retrieved 2013-11-04. "정명석은 1975년도에 측근 신도들에게 통일교 창시자 문선명의 사명은 끝났고 1978년부터 자신의 사명이 시작됐다고 공언하기도 했다."
- "South Korean cult merges sex with prayer". Kyodo News Service, Japan. 2006-07-27. Retrieved 2013-12-26. "Jung honed his sagely credentials as an acolyte of South Korea's Unification Church ... Its Bible-based teaching is similar to that of the Unification Church but departs from it"
- 현대종교 발행인. 신흥종교 2002 실태조사연구집 자칭 한국의 재림주들. 2002: 국제종교문제연구소장.
- "2,000 Japanese join cult led by suspected sex offender on the run from Interpol". Asahi Shimbun. 2006-07-29. Archived from the original on 1900-01-01. Retrieved 2013-12-18. "He stayed at his aides' homes in Osaka and Chiba prefectures, where he summoned up to 10 female followers almost every day and indecently assaulted them under the pretext of 'health checks,' they said. Some Japanese female followers were instructed to go overseas for a rendezvous with Jung, they said. The aides told them to never mention the meetings with Jung, warning they would go to hell if they revealed the secret."
- "China extradites SKorea cult leader". Radio Australia. 2008-02-21. Retrieved 2008-02-27.
- "Ask the Police". Korean National Police Agency. 2005-07-04. Archived from the original on 2007-09-01. Retrieved 2008-02-27. "Jung Myoung Seok has been wanted on the charge of rape since 30 June 2001."
- Sakurai, Yoshihide (October 2006). "「摂理」は大学のキャンパスにいる カルトの被害をどう食い止めるか". 中央公論 121 (10): 142–149. "2002 年ソウル地方法院では、SBS 放送禁止仮処分訴訟において、1993-4 年にかけて鄭との集団性交渉はなかったと証言した証人を偽証罪により懲役 1 年に課した。 (In 2002, the Seoul District Court, in the matter of the SBS broadcast ban injunction, ruled that a witness who had testified that there was no mass sexual relations from 1993-4 had committed perjury, and sentenced him to 1 year in prison.)"
- "[University]Columbia University Networks Global Alumni". Koreatimes.co.kr. 2007-05-13. Retrieved 2014-02-28. "Jung has been wanted by Korean police, for fraud, rape and embezzlement, since he fled the country in June 1999. The pseudo-religious leader was placed on the Interpol wanted list in 2002."
- "Ask the Police". Korean National Police Agency. 2003-09-21. Archived from the original on 2008-10-09. Retrieved 2006-11-21. "Seoul Interpol requested the suspect's deportation to Hongkong Interpol on 1 July 2003. The suspect was arrested for illegal stay in Hongkong, China by Hongkong Immigration Department on 9 July 2003 but released on bail after 3 days. Hongkong Immigration Department approved the exit order for Korea against Myung Sok JUNG. However, the suspect disappeared since he appealed dissatisfaction to Immigration Department on 1 August 2003. Hongkong police cancelled the bail against the suspect and are searching for him after registering the suspect on watching lists."
- "Accused rapist cult leader faces extradition to Korea". News Limited. 2008-01-02. Archived from the original on 2008-01-15. Retrieved 2008-02-27.
- "Cult Leader Extradited to Korea". Koreatimes.co.kr. 2008-02-21. Retrieved 2014-02-28. "He'd been on Korean wanted lists since 1999 (and the Interpol Red Notice since 2004) after fleeing the country after charges of rape emerged. While overseas, he made constant headlines for allegedly raping female devotees in various countries."
- ""JMS 정명석 성폭행 계속…정부 뭐하나" 울분" [JMS Jung Myong Suk molestations continue ... where are the officials in all this?] (in Korean). CNB News. 2006-04-18. Retrieved 2014-02-28. "이 날 기자회견장에는 피해자들 뿐 만 아니라 JMS 교도였다가 현재는 JMS를 탈퇴한 교도 등이 모여 만든 단체인 엑소더스에서 활동하고 있는 김도형씨가 이들과 함께했다. 김도형씨는 격앙된 목소리로 “우리들은 현재 목숨을 건 싸움을 하고 있다”며 “(JMS의) 조직적 성범죄가 근절될 수 있도록 해달라”고 호소했다. (Not only were the former JMS members-turned victims present at the press conference, but together with them was a representative of the JMS Exodus, Kim Do-Hyung. In an exasperated voice, Kim Do-Hyung exclaimed, “We are fighting for our lives right now…please put a stop to their (JMS) organized sex crimes….”)"
- ""JMS 정명석 성폭행 계속...정부 뭐하나" 울분" [Jung Myung Seok assaults continuing; outrage over government inaction] (in Korean). CNB News. 2006-04-18. Retrieved 2007-01-20. "피해자들은 이 날 오후 4시 안국동 느키나무까페에서 'JMS 비리 폭로 및 수사 촉구를 위한 기자회견'을 열고 최근 언론을 통해 알려진 정명석의 성폭행 당시 상황 등을 낱낱이 공개했다. (Victims held a press conference at 4PM today in the Nukinamu Cafe in Anguk Dong demanding the exposure and investigation into the JMS corruption case and more fully clarifying events surrounding the Jung Myung Seok sexual assaults that had recently been reported in the media.)"
- "China extradites chief of alleged S. Korean rapist cult". AFP, The China Post. 2008-02-21. Retrieved 2008-02-27.
- "South Korean religious sect leader extradited from China to face rape charges". International Herald Tribune, AP. 2008-02-20. Archived from the original on 2008-06-04. Retrieved 2008-02-27.
- "Cult boss extradited to face sex raps". JoongAng Ilbo. 2008-02-21. Archived from the original on 2011-07-18. Retrieved 2013-11-04. "Jung was taken directly to the Seoul Central Public Prosecutors' Office from the airport. Prosecutors began questioning Jung after his arrival regarding nine complaints filed against him on charges that include embezzlement and sexual assault."
- "World News Quick Take". Taipei Times. 2007-05-17. Retrieved 2014-03-01. "He fled an extradition hearing but was detained by Chinese authorities early this month. Former cult members, mostly young girls, have told police they were told to undress for a "health check" and to have sex with him to wipe out their sins."
- "Religious sect leader formally arrested on rape charges". Yonhap. 2008-02-23. Retrieved 2008-02-27.
- "JMS 정명석씨, 신도 성폭행 6천만원 위자료 확정" [Court upholds compensation for JMS's raped followers in the amount of 60 million won] (in Korean). Donganuri News. 2008-01-11. Archived from the original on 2008-02-15. Retrieved 2008-01-27. "JMS 정명석 총재에게 성추행ㆍ성폭행 당한 여성신도 2명이 위자료를 받게 됐다. (Two female followers received compensation for sexual assault and rape by Leader Jung Myung Soek.)"
- "Cult Followers Break into Dong-A Ilbo Office". donga.com. 2008-01-15. Retrieved 2014-03-01. "Members of the religious cult JMS broke into the editorial office of the Dong-A Ilbo Monday morning. They smashed the glass entrance on the 13th floor to enter the daily`s office, demanding the removal of articles on the cult`s founder Jeong Myeong-seok. Jeong is reportedly hiding in China after being accused by former women followers of committing sexual assault and rape."
- "언론계에 'JMS 공포'" [JMS terror in the world of media] (in Korean). Chosun Ilbo. 2008-01-17. "17일 언론계에 따르면 JMS 신도 40여명은 지난 14일 서울 광화문 동아일보 사옥 13층 편집국에 난입, "정명석 총재 관련 기사를 내리라"고 강요하며 장시간 난동을 부렸다. (The press reported on the 17th that on the 14th, 40 followers of JMS forced their way into the editorial department on the 13th floor of the Dong-a Ilbo Building in Gwanghwamun Seoul, demanded the paper recall articles about Jung Myung-seok, and created a general disturbance for several hours.)"
- "검찰, 본사난입 JMS 신도 7명 기소 : 뉴스 : 동아닷컴". News.donga.com. 2008-07-24. Retrieved 2014-03-01.
- "Cult Leader Gets 6-Year Prison Term". Koreatimes.co.kr. 2008-08-12. Retrieved 2014-02-28. "Notorious cult leader Jung Myung-seok received Tuesday a six year prison sentence for raping and sexually abusing his female followers."
- "Sect leader imprisoned". Dubai, UAE: 7 Days – via HighBeam (subscription required). 2008-08-13. Retrieved 2013-10-31. "A South Korean court yesterday sentenced Jung Myung-seok, the leader of a fringe religious sect, to six years in jail for raping female followers, a court official said.... Former members have told the Seoul court that young and attractive women were presented to Jung as 'gifts' and he forced them into sex as a part of a purification ritual."
- "정명석 JMS총재 징역 6년 선고" [JMS leader Jung Myung-Seok sentenced to six years in prison] (in Korean). Chosun Ilbo. 2008-08-13. Retrieved 2013-10-29. "서울중앙지법 형사26부(재판장 배기열)는 12일 여자 신도들을 성폭행한 혐의로 구속기소된 JMS(기독교복음선교회) 총재 정명석(63)씨에게 징역 6년을 선고했다. (The Seoul Central District Court No. 26 Criminal Division (Justice Bae Ki-yeol) delivered a prison sentence of six years to JMS President Jung Myung-seok, 63, who had been arrested and charged with raping 12 female followers.)"
- "JMS 정명석 징역 10년 확정" [Jung Myung-Seok's 10-year prison sentence upheld] (in Korean). Yonhap. 2009-04-23. Retrieved 2013-10-29. "여신도들을 성폭행한 혐의(강간) 등으로 구속기소된 국제크리스천연합(JMS) 총재 정명석(64)씨에게 징역 10년을 선고한 원심을 확정했다."
- "Court Upholds 10-Yr Sentence on Cult Leader". Korea Times. 2009-04-23. Retrieved 2014-03-01. "The Supreme Court upheld a 10 year-imprisonment sentence on Jung Myung-suk, the leader of the JMS (Jesus Morning Star) religious cult Thursday for the rape and sexual assault of five Korean female followers. Jung was indicted for sexually assaulting the victims between 2003 and 2006 in Hong Kong, Malaysia and China. A lower court convicted him on three counts sentencing him to a six-year-prison term, but a high court extended this to 10 years convicting him on all five counts."
- "한국일보 : 법원, JMS 정명석 5천만원 배상 판결" [South Korean cult leader hit by new judgment] (in Korean). Hankook Ilbo. 2009-11-16. Retrieved 2014-03-01.
- "South Korean cult leader hit by new judgment". Asian Correspondent. 2009-11-18. Retrieved 2014-03-01.
- "JMS 정명석, 탈퇴자에 대한 테러 지시" [Jung Myung-Seok orders terror on JMS defectors] (in Korean). Nocut News. 2012-03-28. "성범죄 피해자이기도 했던 한 탈퇴자는 "성상납 대기조 '상록수' 회원이 1천여 명에 이르며, 옥중에서도 미성년자를 포함한 여신도들을 관리하고 있다"고 폭로했다. . . . JMS 전 사무국장 출신의 JMS 피해대책협의회 김진호 대표는 "JMS는 현재 여성지도자 10여 명이 상록수를 관리하고 있다"며, 이들을 정명석의 성범죄를 도운 공범으로 검찰에 고발하겠다"고 밝혔다."
- 2014-04-10, “성폭행범이 이끄는 한국의 밀교”, 기독교포털뉴스
- Joel Tozer, 2014-04-09, Inside Providence: The secretive Korean church led by a convicted rapist, Special Broadcasting Service (Australia)
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- Another Problem Cult. "Another problem cult". Asahi Shimbun.
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- Weekly Fuji, January 19, 2007. カルトＳＥＸ教団に強制捜査...教祖にせっせと女性貢ぐ
- "總會長的點點滴滴--海外宣教". 總會長的點點滴滴 (in zh-tw). 中華基督教新時代青年會CCYA（攝理教會）. Archived from the original on 2006-03-28. Retrieved 2006-04-22. "台灣的宣教活動自從1988年開始"
- "立案證書" (in zh-tw). 中華基督教新時代青年會CCYA（攝理教會）.
- 李美嬅, 陳洛薇 (2001-11-09). "宗教染指 上百女生受害？某周刊指韓國攝理教會教主涉嫌引誘非禮 遭點名臺大、政大、輔大否認" (in zh-tw). Central Daily News. p. 8.
- "S Korean religious figure faces sexual assault accusations". Taipei Times. 2001-11-12. Retrieved 2014-03-01. "Chung [sic] Myung-seok (鄭明析), founder of the South Korean Jesus Morning Star Church (南韓攝理教會), is suspected of sexually assaulting his female followers. A Chinese-language magazine said Chung had sexually assaulted the women, many of them students from National Taiwan and National Chengchi universities, telling them it was part of a religious ceremony. The accusation prompted the police to investigate."
- 陳志東 (2001-12-10). "攝理教韓受害女性控訴教主 記者會火爆口角衝突" (in zh-tw). ETtoday.com. Retrieved 2006-04-22.[dead link]
|Wikinews has related news: Four Korean women accuse JMS leader Jeong Myeong-seok of rape|