It has an area of 3,934 square kilometres (1,519 sq mi), and a total population of 161,444. The province is divided into 52 comuni, the largest of which are Nuoro (36,443), Siniscola (11,532), Macomer (10,753), and Dorgali (9,000). The other comuni are generally not so much large, even if Oliena (7,455) and Orosei (6,718) can be considered as well as populated towns.
The province was established in 1927. In 2005, the territory of the Province of Nuoro has been substantially reduced as a consequence of the establishment in the island of four new provinces.