Ogliastra (Italian: Provincia dell'Ogliastra, Sardinian: Provìntzia de s'Ogiastra) is a province in eastern Sardinia, Italy. Ogliastra is the most mountainous province in Sardinia. With only some 58,000 inhabitants, it is also the least populous province of Italy. It corresponds roughly to the medieval Giudicato of Agugliastra.
The populations of the most isolated villages in Ogliastra are supplying pedigree, medical and genetic data to research in inherited diseases and the study about the extremely high longevity of local population. This research is coordinated by the company SharDNA.