In 272 B.C. the province was conquered by the Greek army. The new rulers renamed Basilicata as Lucania. Later in the 11th century, the area became part of the Duchy of Apulia, which was at the time ruled by the Norman French and from the 13th century part of the Kingdom of Naples. However, in reality Potenza was ruled by local warlords. In 1861 the province was unified with the rest of Italy in the newly formed Kingdom of Italy.
The region has suffered from innumerable earthquakes and is still a seismically active area. The town of Potenza, the highest provincial capital above sea level in Italy, is built between two valleys. The town was mostly rebuilt after the 1857 Basilicata earthquake. Thus the earthquakes and the severe damage caused during World War II have deprived the town of many of its historical buildings. Consequently the overall impression of the town is one of modern concrete buildings. One beautiful church that survives is the church of San Francesco just off the main piazza, the "Piazza Pagano." Among the church's treasures is the Byzantineicon of the Madonna del Terremoto. One other place of interest in the town is the "Museo Archeologico Provinciale," which contains many artefacts from the times of the Romans in Basilicata.