Regions of Uzbekistan
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Uzbekistan is divided into 12 regions (viloyatlar, singular – viloyat, viloyati in compound, e.g. Toshkent viloyati), 1 autonomous republic (respublika, respublikasi in compound, e.g. Qaraqalpaqstan Avtonom Respublikasi), and 1 independent city (shahar or shahri in compounds, e.g. Toshkent shahri). Names are given below in the Uzbek language, although numerous variations of the transliterations of each name exist. The regions in turn are divided into 160 districts (tumanlar, singular tuman).
Enclaves and exclaves
There are four Uzbek exclaves, all of them surrounded by Kyrgyz territory in the Fergana Valley region where Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan meet. Two of them are the towns of Sokh, area of 325 km2 (125 sq mi) with a population of 42,800 in 1993 (with some estimates as high as 70,000, of which 99% are Tajiks and the remainder Uzbeks ) and Shohimardon, area of 90 km2 (35 sq mi) with a population of 5,100 in 1993 (91% are Uzbeks and the remainder Kyrgyz). The other two are the tiny territories of Chon-Kara (or Qalacha), roughly 3 km (1.9 mi) long and 1 km (0.62 mi) wide, and Jani-Ayil (or Dzhangail), a dot of land barely 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Chon-Kara is on the Sokh river, between the Uzbek border and the Sokh exclave.
Uzbekistan has a Tajikistan enclave, the village of Sarvan, which includes a narrow, long strip of land about 15 km (9.3 mi) long and 1 km (0.62 mi) wide, along the road from Angren to Kokand. The village of Barak (population 627), between the towns of Margilan and Fergana, was earlier thought to have been a tiny Kyrgyzstan enclave, but it has been shown that it is not completely surrounded by Uzbekistan.