Provisional Government of Mexico (1823–24)

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Supreme Executive Power
Supremo Poder Ejecutivo
Coat of arms of Mexico (1823-1864, 1867-1893).svg
Coat of arms of Mexico in 1823
Government of Mexico
In office
April 1, 1823 – October 10, 1824
Preceded by Constitutional Monarchy
Agustín I
Succeeded by Federal Republic
Guadalupe Victoria
Provisional territorial organization of Mexico

The Provisional Government of Mexico, was an organization denominated Supreme Executive Power (Spanish: Supremo Poder Ejecutivo)[1][2] which served as Executive to govern México between 1823 and 1824, after the fall of Mexican Empire of Agustín I.[3] The organization was responsible for convening the creation of a Federal Republic, the United Mexican States and was in effect from April 1, 1823 to October 10, 1824.[4]

Background[edit]

On September 27, 1821 after three centuries of Spanish rule, Mexico reached its independence. The Treaty of Córdoba recognized part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain as an Independent Empire, which was recognized as "Monarchist, constitutional and moderate".[5] The new country adopted the name of Mexican Empire.

A minority of the Constituent Congress in search of stability elected as monarch Agustín de Iturbide and thus he was proclaimed Emperor of Mexico on May 18, 1822.[6] However, the Constitutional Empire soon demonstrated the incompatibility of its two main parts, the Emperor and the Constituent Congress. The deputies were imprisoned simply for expressing their disagreements with Iturbide and finally, Iturbide decided to permanently eliminate the Congress, establishing instead a National Junta Board.[7]

The lack of Congress, the arbitrary nature of the Emperor and the absence of solutions to the serious problems that the country was facing increased conspiracies to change the imperial system.[8] Antonio López de Santa Anna proclaimed the Plan of Casa Mata which was later joined by Vicente Guerrero and Nicolás Bravo. Iturbide then was forced to reestablish the Congress and in a vain attempt to save the order and keep the situation favorable to his supporters, he abdicated to the crown of the Empire on March 19, 1823.[9]

However, the Congress nullified the designation of Iturbide and therefore the recognition of the abdication and made seem the coronation of Iturbide as a logic error in the consummation of Independence.[9]

The Republic and the Federal Union[edit]

On March 31, 1823, Constituent Congress appointed a triumvirate consisting by Nicolás Bravo, Guadalupe Victoria and Pedro Celestino Negrete to lead the nation, this organization was named Supreme Executive Power.[10][11] To replace Bravo and Victoria, who were not in the capital, were chosen and Miguel Domínguez and José Mariano Michelena.[12]

The Supreme Executive Power was commissioned to summon the former provinces now Free States, to create the Federal Republic and also to call elections for a new constituent congress. Also, had to overcome a series of political difficulties as the case of the Central American provinces that chose not to join Mexican Federation, the provinces of Oaxaca, Yucatán, Jalisco and Zacatecas that declared itself free and sovereign states,[12] also faced a conspiracy of supporters of Iturbide and anti-Spanish rebellion attempt.[10]

On November 5, 1823 was installed the new constituent congress. On January 31, 1824 was issued the decree which created the Constitutive Act of the Mexican Federation.[13]

The draft constitution was submitted for discussion on April 1, 1824, and was approved on October 3 of that year, and finally, was enacted the Federal Constitution of the United Mexican States of 1824 on October 4, 1824 by which was officially founded the United Mexican States.

On October 10, 1824, Guadalupe Victoria took office as the first President of Mexico.[14]

Members[edit]

Head of State[15][16][17] Took office Left office Notes
Nicolas Bravo.jpg Nicolás Bravo March 31, 1823 October 10, 1824
Guadalupe Victoria Cruces y Campa.png Guadalupe Victoria March 31, 1823 October 10, 1824
Pedro Celestino Negrete.jpg Pedro Celestino Negrete March 31, 1823 October 10, 1824
Jose mariano michelena.jpg Mariano Michelena April 1, 1823 October 10, 1824 Substitute Member
Miguel dominguez.jpg Miguel Domínguez April 1, 1823 October 10, 1824 Substitute Member
Vicente Ramón Guerrero Saldaña.png Vicente Guerrero April 1, 1823 October 10, 1824 Substitute Member

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Manifiesto del Supremo Poder Ejecutivo.". 500 años de Mexico en documentos. Retrieved October 5, 2010. 
  2. ^ "31 de marzo de 1823.". Gobierno Federal. Retrieved October 5, 2010. 
  3. ^ INEHRM Secretaría de Gobernación
  4. ^ "El Viajero en México (Pág. 30)". CDigital. Retrieved September 12, 2010. 
  5. ^ "24 de agosto de 1821. Se firman los tratados de Córdoba". Gobierno Federal. Retrieved September 12, 2010. 
  6. ^ Álvarez Cuartero, Izaskun Op.cit. p. 266
  7. ^ "La Transición del Imperio a la Republica (1821–1823)". Estudios de Historia Moderna y Contemporánea de México. Retrieved September 12, 2010. 
  8. ^ Suárez y Navarro, Juan (1850). Historia de México y del general Antonio López de Santa Anna. México. p. 23. 
  9. ^ a b "La Transicion del Imperio a la Republica o la Participacion Indiscriminada" (in Spanish). 
  10. ^ a b "31 de marzo de 1823. Se nombra un triunvirato.". Gobierno Federal. Retrieved September 12, 2010. 
  11. ^ "Decreto. Fórmula con que ha de encabezar el poder ejecutivo sus determinaciones.". 500 años de Mexico en documentos. Retrieved September 12, 2010. 
  12. ^ a b "El triunvirato de Guadalupe Victoria, Nicolás Bravo y Celestino Negrete.". INEHRM. Retrieved September 12, 2010. 
  13. ^ "Acta constitutiva de la Federación Mexicana". 500 años de México en documentos. Retrieved September 12, 2010. 
  14. ^ "10 de octubre de 1824. Toma posesión Guadalupe Victoria como primer Presidente de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos". Gobierno Federal. Retrieved October 2, 2010. 
  15. ^ "Decreto. Nombramiento de los individuos que han de componer el poder ejecutivo." (in spanish). 500 años de México en documentos. Retrieved August 8, 2011. 
  16. ^ "Decreto. Nombramiento de suplentes para el supremo poder ejecutivo." (in spanish). 500 años de México en documentos. Retrieved August 8, 2011. 
  17. ^ "Vicente Guerrero, 1782–1831." (in spanish). Gobierno Federal. Retrieved August 8, 2011.