Provisional Government of National Unity
The Provisional Government of National Unity (Polish: Tymczasowy Rząd Jedności Narodowej or TRJN) was a government formed by a decree of the State National Council (Krajowa Rada Narodowa) on 28 June 1945. It was created as a coalition government between Polish Communists and Stanisław Mikołajczyk's faction. This was the agreement reached by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union during the Yalta Conference.
The TRJN was a result of the negotiations held in Moscow between the Polish Communists, the Soviet Union, and Stanisław Mikołajczyk's faction from 17 June to 21 June. The Polish government-in-exile didn't recognize the TRJN. Only a few members, like the former Prime Minister of Poland Stanisław Mikołajczyk decided to trust the Soviets and enter into negotiations with them, only to be betrayed later.
In fact, the Communists had little intention of giving any opposition any real power, or carrying out the promised 'free and fair' elections. The members of the opposition that received any positions were kept in check by their deputies and staff, always loyal to the Communists, so they had little real power.
On 21 June, General Leopold Okulicki, former Commander of the Polish Home Army was sentenced to 10 years of imprisonment in Moscow for the alleged sabotage against the Soviet Army. Ten other Poles were given similar sentences in the staged Trial of the Sixteen. On 24 December 1946, Okulicki died in Butyrka prison.
The TRJN was already bound by the Treaty of Friendship, Mutual Help and Cooperation signed by its predecessor, the Provisional Government of the Republic of Poland, on 21 April. This treaty formed the basis for Soviet interference in Poland's internal politics for the next 40 years.
The TRJN government was composed of:
- Prime Minister: Edward Osóbka-Morawski (Polish Socialist Party)
- Deputy Prome Minister, Minister of Regained Territories: Władysław Gomułka (Polish Workers' Party)
- Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of Agriculture and Agricultural Reform: Stanisław Mikołajczyk (Polish Peoples' Party)
The entire government was composed of:
- Workers' Party: 7 people
- Socialist Party: 6 people
- People's Party: 3 people
- Polish People's Party: 3 people
- Democratic Party: 2 people
On 6 July, while the Polish government-in-exile maintained its existence, both the United States and the United Kingdom formally withdrew recognition of it.
On 10 July, Osóbka-Morawski announced the expulsion of all Germans from Poland.
From 17 July to 2 August, a delegation from the TRJN attended the 1945 Potsdam Conference.
On 16 August, a Soviet-Polish border agreement was signed in Moscow. Before the end of August, Poland agreed to cede eastern provinces to the Soviet Union and officially recognizing an eastern border based on a slightly modified Curzon line.
The 'free and fair' elections promised by the TRJN were postponed until the Communists were sure they could obtain a majority. In the meantime, they increased repressions of opposition, trying to bribe, threaten, delegalise or even murder members of the opposition. In words of Gomułka, the goal of the communists was to be the hegemon of the nation and nothing would stop them. On 30 June 1946, they tested their control during the 3xTAK referendums, which they managed to falsify enough to claim 68% of support.
Two great reforms carried out by TRJN were the nationalization decree and Three Year Plan (of 1947–1949), both created in 1946. The nationalization decree gave the government control over every enterprise which employed more than 50 people; by the end of the year, 90% of the country's industry was controlled by the communists.
TRJN was dissolved and passed its prerogatives as the government of Poland after the staged Polish legislative elections, 1947 on 19 January to the new government, headed by Józef Cyrankiewicz and nominated by the new parliament, Sejm Ustawodawczy (1947–1952), which replaced the KRN.
- Polish Committee of National Liberation (Polski Komitet Wyzwolenia Narodowego or PKWN) - 1944/45
- Provisional Government of the Republic of Poland (Rząd Tymczasowy Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej or RTRP) - 1945
- People's Republic of Poland (Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa or PRL) - 1944/52 (unofficial), 1952/89 (official)
- Peoples' Troops of Poland (Ludowe Wojsko Polskie or LWP)
- Polish government-in-exile
- Peter Stachura The Poles in Britain 1940-2000 ISBN 0-7146-8444-9 Page 7
- Davies, Norman, 1982 and several reprints. God's Playground. 2 vols. New York: Columbia Univ. Press. ISBN 0-231-05353-3 and ISBN 0-231-05351-7