Proximate and ultimate causation
A proximate cause is an event which is closest to, or immediately responsible for causing, some observed result. This exists in contrast to a higher-level ultimate cause (or distal cause) which is usually thought of as the "real" reason something occurred.
- Example: Why did the ship sink?
- Proximate cause: Because it was holed beneath the waterline, water entered the hull and the ship became denser than the water which supported it, so it couldn't stay afloat.
- Ultimate cause: Because the ship hit a rock which tore open the hole in the ship's hull.
In most situations, an ultimate cause may itself be a proximate cause for a further ultimate cause. Hence we can continue the above example as follows:
- Example: Why did the ship hit the rock?
- Proximate cause: Because the ship failed to change course to avoid it.
- Ultimate cause: Because the ship was under autopilot and the autopilot's data was inaccurate.
Separating proximate from ultimate causation frequently leads to better understandings of the events and systems concerned.
In ordinary affairs 
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In ordinary affairs as well as in science, engineering, and other fields, all of the characteristics of an effect will be completely explained by the set of proximate causes. If a postulated (hypothesized) set of proximate causes (also known as "direct factors") does not fully explain all of the characteristics (attributes) of the effect the set of direct factors is either wrong or incomplete.
The set of direct factors (of an effect) has a number of known properties.
Some are the following:
1. The set of direct factors will always include predisposing factors that set the stage for the effect and a precipitating factor that brought the effect into being. (The future recurrence of the effect may be precluded by negating certain predisposing factors and/or by negating the precipitating factor. For example, the detonation of a car bomb could be precluded by removing the bomb or by not turning the ignition key.)
2. The set of direct factors will always include: 1)one or more factors that affected the nature of the effect, 2) one or more factors that affected the magnitude (or intensity) of the effect, 3) one or more factors that affected the location of the effect, and 4) one or more [usually one] factor(s) that affected the timing of the effect. The first three categories of factors may be considered to be predisposing factors and the fourth may be considered to be precipitating.
3. The set of direct factors will always include: a) one or more set-up factors that establish the vulnerability for the effect, b) one or more [usually one] factor(s) that triggered the creation of the effect, c) one or more factors that made the effect as large [intense] as it was, and d) one or more factors that kept the magnitude [intensity] from being even greater.
4. The set of direct factors will always include: i) something that can be affected, ii)something that can do the affecting, iii) the proximity of the foregoing, iv) the simultaneity of the first two, and v) the absence of any intervening separation between the first two. [This is the paradigm of "barrier analysis."]
Toward ultimate factors in ordinary affairs 
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Each proximate factor (proximate cause) is an effect. From the above it is known that each effect is the result of a set of proximate factors.
This establishes cascading expanding layers of deeper causation.
Each layer is described by answering the question, "What are the factors that affected each and every attribute of the effect being considered?"
By continuing to answer that question at deeper and deeper levels one approaches the ultimate factors.
Effect<--Proximate Factors<--Deeper Factors....<--Ultimate Factors
"Ultimate factors" are sometimes called "root causes."
In biology 
- Ultimate causation explains traits in terms of evolutionary forces acting on them.
- Example: female animals often display preferences among male display traits, such as song. An ultimate explanation based on sexual selection states that females who display preferences have more vigorous or more attractive male offspring.
- Proximate causation explains biological function in terms of immediate physiological or environmental factors.
- Example: a female animal chooses to mate with a particular male during a mate choice trial. A possible proximate explanation states that one male produced a more intense signal, leading to elevated hormone levels in the female producing copulatory behavior.
Although the behavior in these two examples is the same, the explanations are based on different sets of factors incorporating evolutionary versus physiological factors.
In sociology 
Sociologists use the related pair of terms "proximal causation" and "distal causation."
Proximal causation: explanation of human social behaviour by considering the immediate factors, such as symbolic interaction, understanding (Verstehen), and individual milieu that influence that behaviour. Most sociologists recognize that proximal causality is the first type of power humans experience; however, while factors such as family relationships may initially be meaningful, they are not as permanent, underlying, or determining as other factors such as institutions and social networks (Naiman 2008: 5).
Distal causation: explanation of human social behaviour by considering the larger context in which individuals carry out their actions. Proponents of the distal view of power argue that power operates at a more abstract level in the society as a whole (e.g., between economic classes) and that "all of us are affected by both types of power throughout our lives" (ibid). Thus, while individuals occupy roles and statuses relative to each other, it is the social structure and institutions in which these exist that are the ultimate cause of behaviour. A human biography can only be told in relation to the social structure, yet it also must be told in relation to unique individual experiences in order to reveal a complete picture (Mills 1959).
- Greenberg, Neil. "Proximate and Ultimate Causation." Deep Ethology. 22 Feb 2005. University of Tennessee. 19 Nov 2008 <https://notes.utk.edu/Bio/greenberg.nsf/0/540e727287c6e82a85256d28004f99d5?OpenDocument>.
- Alessi, G. (1992, November) Models of Proximate and Ultimate Causation in Psychology, American Psychologist, Vol 47(11) Special issue: Reflections on B. F. Skinner and psychology. pp. 1359-1370
- Gray, P. (2007) Psychology (5th Ed.) (pp. 64-66) New York: Worth Publishers
- Greenberg, G. (1998) Comparative Psychology: A Handbook. US: Taylor & Francis. pp. 666
- Mayr, E. (1988). Toward a new philosophy of biology: Observations of an evolutionist. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
- Mills, C.W. ( 2000). The Sociological Imagination. 40th ed. New York: Oxford University Press.
- Naiman, J. (2008). How Societies Work: Class, Power and Change in a Canadian Context. 4th ed. Halifax and Winnipeg: Fernwood Publishing.
- Thierry, B. (2005, October 10). Integrating proximate and ultimate causation: Just one more go!, Current Science, Vol. 89 (7), 1180-1184. Retrieved from http://cs-test.ias.ac.in/cs/Downloads/article_39322.pdf
- Tinbergen, Niko (1963) "On Aims and Methods in Ethology," Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie, 20: 410–433. Retrieved from http://www.thoughtfill.com/docs/aimsmethods.pdf