Proxy war

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Not to be confused with Proxy fight.

A proxy war is a conflict between third parties fighting on the behalf of more powerful parties.

Proxy wars have also been fought alongside full-scale conflicts. It is almost impossible to have a pure proxy war, as the groups fighting for a certain nation usually have their own interests, which can diverge from those of their patron.

Typically proxy wars function best during cold wars, as they become a necessity in conducting armed conflict between at least two belligerents while continuing cold warfare.

Examples[edit]

Main article: List of proxy wars

Spanish Civil War[edit]

A very famous conflict which exhibits patterns of a proxy war was the Spanish Civil War. The conflict that started between the Second Spanish Republic and Francisco Franco's National Syndicalists soon involved the Soviet Union and Mexico on the Spanish Republic's side and Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, and the Portuguese Republic on the Spanish Nationalist side. This war served as a useful testing ground for both the Axis and the Soviets to experiment with equipment and tactics that would later be employed on a wider scale in the Second World War.

Cold Wars[edit]

Proxy wars were common in the Cold War, because the two nuclear-armed superpowers (the Soviet Union and the United States, and to some extent, China) did not wish to fight each other directly, since that would have run the risk of escalation to a nuclear war (see mutual assured destruction). Proxies were used in conflicts such as Afghanistan, Angola, Korea, Vietnam, the Middle East, and Latin America.

The first proxy war in the Cold War was the Greek Civil War, which started almost as soon as World War II ended. The Western-allied Greek government was nearly overthrown by Communist rebels with limited direct aid from Soviet ally or client states in Yugoslavia, Albania, and Bulgaria. The Greek Communists managed to seize most of Greece, but a strong government counterattack forced them back. The Western Allies eventually won, due largely to an ideological split between Joseph Stalin and Josip Broz Tito. Though previously allied to the rebels, Tito closed Yugoslavia's borders to Greek People's Liberation Army (ELAS) partisans when Greek Communists sided with Stalin, despite the lack of direct material support from the USSR. Albania followed Tito's lead shortly thereafter. With no way to receive aid, the rebellion collapsed and led to the Greek military junta of 1967–74.

In the war between the Mujahadeen and the Soviet Army during the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, the aid given by the U.S. to the Mujahadeen during the war included sophisticated weapons such as the FIM-92 Stinger, supplies and training. Eventually, Al Qaeda and the Taliban emerged as the primary power holders from the civil war.

In the Lebanese Civil War, Syria supported the Maronite Christian dominated Lebanese Front with arms and troops, while Syria's enemy Israel also supported the Lebanese Front by providing them with arms, tanks and money. The Soviets tended to support Syria, Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and the leftist Lebanese National Movement (NLM).

Portugal had been fighting three major liberation movements in Angola (National Liberation Front of Angola (FNLA), National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA)) and one in Mozambique (FRELIMO) (see: Portuguese Colonial War). While transition of power in Mozambique was a rather simple affair, the three movements in Angola had been rivals for years during the Angolan War of Independence, each receiving low-key support from a motley assembly of countries, making a transition very difficult. The MPLA and initially UNITA, an offspring of the FNLA, were more or less left leaning and mainly supported by socialist countries; the FNLA, at that point by far the strongest of the three, was mainly supported by Zaire. After the Alvor Agreement in early 1976, according to which the three movements set up a joint interim government with Portugal and independence was to be granted in November, the US decided to support the FNLA, fighting between the three movements resumed and the agreement fell apart.

In Mozambique power was handed to the one liberation movement, FRELIMO. The new leftist Mozambique government supported liberation movements against the white-minority-led governments of Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) and South Africa. The Rhodesian government organized and funded an anti-communist rebel group called Mozambique National Resistance, later RENAMO beginning the Mozambican Civil War. After Rhodesia collapsed and became Zimbabwe in 1980, South Africa took over supporting RENAMO until the decline of the apartheid regime. In 1992 RENAMO and the government of Mozambique signed a peace accord.

The conflict between Israel and the Arab countries has been described as a proxy war, with Israel acting as a proxy for the United States and the Soviet Union's proxies being Egypt, Syria, Jordan, and Lebanon.[1][2] According to Pennsylvania State University Professor of Political Science Stephen J. Cimbala, this theater was the site of the greatest Cold War setback to America when, under the influence of anti-Israeli attitudes after the Yom Kippur War in 1973, American allies Saudi Arabia and Iran (under the shah) drifted from the American sphere of influence, leading to the 1973 oil crisis as well as the eventual Iranian Revolution in 1979.[3]

An example from Latin America is the long-time struggle between the United States and the communist government of Cuba during and after the Cuban Revolution. Many attempts have been made by the United States to overthrow Cuba's government, often by using Cuban exiles as proxies. One of the most notorious is the failure of the Bay of Pigs Invasion of 1961.

Second Congo War[edit]

Since the end of the Cold War the largest war by proxy has been the Second Congo War in which the governments of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda and Rwanda all used third party armed irregular groups.

Kargil War[edit]

Main article: Kargil War

The Kargil conflict was an armed conflict between India and Pakistan that took place between May and July 1999 in along the Line of Control (LOC) in Kargil, Kashmir region of India. The cause of the war was the infiltration of Pakistani soldiers against Republic of India and its people into positions on the Indian side of the LOC during winter after India and Pakistan demilitarized the border. During the initial stages of the war, Pakistan blamed the fighting entirely on independent Kashmiri insurgents.

Vietnam War[edit]

Main article: Vietnam War

Many different countries were involved in the Vietnam War aside from the ARVN and the NLF, including on the side of the ARVN, the United States, Australia, South Korea, Thailand, New Zealand whereas the NLF had many Communist supporters from the Soviet Union, China, Cuba and North Korea.

Syrian Civil War[edit]

Main article: Syrian Civil War

In late December of 2010, a widespread revolutionary wave of anti-authoritarian demonstrations and protests was sparked in Tunisia, a movement that spread over to the rest of the Middle East and North Africa. This is known as the Arab Spring; Syria was among the many countries afflicted by this revolutionary wave. It started in March 2011 as civil disobedience, with protesters demanding democratic and economic reforms to the government. These protesters received aid from foreign nations, most notably the United States, in an attempt to help organize the demonstrations. In April 2011, Syrian President Bashar al-Assad deployed to quell the uprising; riots broke out, with soldiers eventually firing upon demonstrators across the country. The uprising soon evolved into armed rebellion.

The conflict is overtly sectarian in nature. The government is headed by Assad, an Alawite (offshoot of Shia Islam), and the majority of the opposition is of Sunni Islam faith. Assad receives assistance from Iran, the largest Shia country in the world; Hezbollah, a Shia State within a state in Lebanon; and Russia, who utilized Syria as a surrogate against Israel during the Arab-Israeli Conflict. Adding to the complexity, the opposition is divided amongst the relatively secularist Free Syrian Army, which is funded by the United States; the fundamentalist Islamic Front, which is armed by Sunni-dominant Saudi Arabia; Al Nusra Front, who pledged themselves to Al Qaeda; the Kurdish Supreme Committee, a third party of ethnic Kurds who seek greater autonomy or independence; and the independent Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, with dozens of clashes between all parties involved.

Footnotes[edit]

References[edit]

  • Bernd Greiner / Christian Müller / Dierk Walter (Ed.): Heiße Kriege im Kalten Krieg. Hamburg 2006, ISBN 3-936096-61-9 (Review by H. Hoff, Review by I. Küpeli)
  • Scott L. Bills: The world deployed : US and Soviet military intervention and proxy wars in the Third World since 1945. From: Robert W. Clawson (Ed.): East West rivalry in the Third World. Wilmington 1986, p. 77-101.
  • Chris Loveman: Assessing the Phenomeon of Proxy Intervention. From Journal of Conflict, Security and Development, edition 2.3, Routledge 2002, pp 30–48.