Fluoxetine

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Fluoxetine
Fluoxetine2DACS.svg
Fluoxetine3Dan3.gif
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(RS)-N-methyl-3-phenyl-3-[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]propan-1-amine
Clinical data
Trade names Prozac, among others
AHFS/Drugs.com monograph
MedlinePlus a689006
Licence data US FDA:link
Pregnancy cat. C (AU) C (US)
Legal status Prescription Only (S4) (AU) -only (CA) POM (UK) -only (US)
Routes Oral
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 72%[1]
Protein binding 94-95%[1][2][3][4][5]
Metabolism Hepatic (mostly CYP2D6-mediated)[1][2][3][4][5]
Half-life 1–3 days (acute)
4–6 days (chronic)[1][2][3][4][5]
Excretion Urine (80%), faeces (15%)[1][2][3][4][5]
Identifiers
CAS number 54910-89-3 YesY  YesY
ATC code N06AB03
PubChem CID 3386
IUPHAR ligand 203
DrugBank DB00472
ChemSpider 3269 YesY
UNII 01K63SUP8D YesY
KEGG D00823 N
ChEBI CHEBI:5118 YesY
ChEMBL CHEMBL41 YesY
Chemical data
Formula C17H18F3NO 
Mol. mass 309.33 g·mol−1
Physical data
Melt. point 179–182 °C (354–360 °F)
Boiling point 395 °C (743 °F)
Solubility in water 14 mg/mL (20 °C)
 N (what is this?)  (verify)

Fluoxetine (also known by the tradenames Prozac, Sarafem, Ladose and Fontex, among others) is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class. Fluoxetine was first documented in 1974 by scientists from Eli Lilly and Company.[6] It was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of major depressive disorder in December 1987.[7] The fluoxetine patent expired in August 2001.[8]

Fluoxetine is approved in the US for the treatment of major depression (including pediatric depression), obsessive-compulsive disorder (in both adult and paediatric populations), bulimia nervosa, panic disorder and premenstrual dysphoric disorder.[9] In addition, fluoxetine is used to treat trichotillomania if cognitive behaviour therapy has been unsuccessful.[10] In combination with the atypical antipsychotic olanzapine it is known by a few brand names,[note 1] including its US brand name Symbyax, which is approved for the treatment of depressive episodes as part of bipolar I disorder and in the treatment of treatment-resistant depression.

Despite the availability of newer agents, fluoxetine remains extremely popular. In 2010, over 24.4 million prescriptions for generic formulations of fluoxetine were filled in the United States alone,[11] making it the third most prescribed antidepressant after sertraline (SSRI; became generic in 2006) and citalopram (SSRI; became generic in 2003).[11] In 2011, 6 million prescriptions for fluoxetine were handed out in the UK.[12]

Medical uses[edit]

Fluoxetine is frequently used to treat major depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, bulimia nervosa, panic disorder, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, and trichotillomania.[10][13][14][15] It has also been used for cataplexy, obesity, and alcohol dependence,[16] as well as binge eating disorder.[17] Fluoxetine has also been tried successfully as a treatment for autism.[18][19][20]

Depression[edit]

The effectiveness of fluoxetine and other antidepressants in the treatment of mild-to-moderate depression is controversial. A meta-analysis published by Kirsch in 2008 suggests that in those with mild or moderate symptoms, the efficacy of fluoxetine and other SSRIs is clinically insignificant.[21] A 2009 meta analysis by Fournier et al., which evaluated patient level data from 6 trials of the SSRI paroxetine and the non-SSRI antidepressant imipramine has been further cited as evidence that antidepressants exhibit minimal efficacy in mild to moderate depression.[22] A 2012 meta analysis utilizing individual patient level data from 18 randomized controlled clinical trials of fluoxetine for the treatment of depression concluded that statistically and clinically significant benefit was seen irrespective of baseline depression severity, and that there was no significant effect of baseline severity on observed efficacy.[23] Anti-psychiatry activist Joanna Moncrieff has argued that any improvements in mood found in trials for fluoxetine (and other SSRIs) are simply a product of an exaggerated placebo effect (regardless of the severity of depression)[24] A 2009 systematic review by the National Institute of Care and Clinical Excellence (NICE) (which considered the Kirsch but not the later meta analyses) concluded that there was strong evidence for the efficacy of SSRIs in the treatment of moderate and severe depression, and some evidence for their efficacy in the treatment of mild depression. [25] Both the NICE and the Fournier analyses concluded that there is greater evidence for the efficacy of antidepressants in the treatment of chronic mild depression (dysthymia) than in recent onset mild depression.

NICE recommends antidepressant treatment with an SSRI in combination with psychosocial interventions as second line treatment for short term mild depression, and as a first line treatment for severe and moderate depression, as well as mild depression that is recurrent or long-standing. The American Psychiatric Association includes antidepressant therapy among it first-line options for the treatment of depression, particularly when there is "a history of prior positive response to antidepressant medications, the presence of moderate to severe symptoms, significant sleep or appetite disturbances, agitation, patient preference, and anticipation of the need for maintenance therapy".[26]

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder[edit]

The efficacy of fluoxetine in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder was demonstrated in two randomized multi-center phase 3 clinical trials. The pooled results of these trials demonstrated that 47% of completers treated with the highest dose were "much improved" or "very much improved" after 13 weeks of treatment, compared to 11% in the placebo arm of the trial.[27]

Panic disorder[edit]

The efficacy of fluoxetine in the treatment of panic disorder was demonstrated in two 12 week randomized multicenter phase 3 trials that enrolled patients diagnosed with panic disorder, with or without agoraphobia. In the first trial, 42% of subjects in the fluoxetine treated arm were free of panic attacks at the end of the study, vs. 28% in the placebo arm. In the second trial, 62% of fluoxetine treated patients were free of panic attacks at the end of the study, vs. 44% in the placebo arm.[28]

Special populations[edit]

In children and adolescents fluoxetine is the antidepressant of choice due to tentative evidence favoring its efficacy tolerability.[29][30] In pregnancy fluoxetine's use is advised against, the evidence supporting an increased risk of major foetal malformations resulting from fluoxetine exposure is limited, although the MHRA of the UK has warned prescribers and patients of the potential for fluoxetine exposure in the first trimester (during organogenesis, that is the formation of the foetus' organs) to cause a slight increase in the risk of congenital cardiac malformations in the newborn.[31][32][33] Furthermore an association between fluoxetine use during the first trimester and an increased risk of minor foetal malformations was been observed in one study.[32] Sertraline is usually the preferred SSRI during pregnancy due to the relatively minimal foetal exposure observed.[34] It is secreted in breast milk and hence it is advised that nursing mothers taking fluoxetine should not breastfeed their children.[5]

Adverse effects[edit]

Adverse effects by incidence[2][3][4][5]

Legend
serious—either life-threatening in the short-term (matter of days or less) or are usually irreversible
potentially (though not usually) irreversible
# most often transient
* may indicate, or lead to, life-threatening or irreversible conditions if persisting into the long-term

Very common (>10% incidence) adverse effects include:

  • Headache#
  • Nausea#
  • Insomnia# (sleeplessness)
  • Appetite loss. This may be a desirable effect in obese patients but in children, the underweight, the pregnant and in those affected by the eating disorder, anorexia nervosa, this may be an undesirable effect.
  • Anxiety#
  • Asthenia# (weakness)
  • Diarrhea#
  • Nervousness#
  • Somnolence# (drowsiness)

Common (1-10% incidence) adverse effects include:

  • Dizziness#
  • Dry mouth* (can lead to dental caries if left uncontrolled)
  • Dyspepsia (indigestion)
  • Tremor#
  • Decreased libido
  • Dysgeusia (abnormal taste)
  • Agitation#
  • QTc interval prolongation
  • Chest pain
  • Chills#
  • Confusion
  • Ear pain
  • Hypertension* (high blood pressure)
  • Increased appetite
  • Restlessness#
  • Tension#
  • Abnormal/blurred vision#
  • Flushing#
  • Yawning
  • Rash
  • Urticaria (hives)
  • Pruritus (itchiness)
  • Hyperhidrosis (excess sweating)
  • Abnormal dreams (including nightmares)
  • Palpitation
  • Sleep disorder
  • Tinnitus (hearing ringing in the ears)
  • Urinary frequency
  • Vomiting#
  • Weight gain or loss
  • Arthralgia (joint pain)
  • Gynaecological bleeding
  • Erectile dysfunction (impotence)
  • Ejaculation disorder
  • Feeling jittery#
  • Twitching#
  • Epistaxis (nose bleed; only common in children and adolescents treated with fluoxetine)

Uncommon (0.1-1% incidence) adverse effects include:

  • Depersonalization
  • Elevated mood
  • Euphoric mood
  • Abnormal thoughts
  • Abnormality in or difficulty achieving an orgasm (anorgasmia)
  • Bruxism* (teeth grinding)
  • Dyskinesia (a movement disorder characterized by either a lack of voluntary movement or the presence of involuntary movements)
  • Ataxia
  • Balance disorder
  • Akathisia/psychomotor restlessness[35][36][note 2]

Rare (0.01-0.1% incidence) adverse effects include:

Very rare (<0.01% incidence) adverse effects include:

Unknown frequency adverse effects include:


Fluoxetine is considered the most stimulating of the SSRIs (that is it is most prone to causing insomnia and agitation).[41][41] It also appears to be the most prone of the SSRIs for producing dermatologic reactions (e.g. urticaria (hives), rash, itchiness, etc.).[32] Chronic SSRI treatment may also be associated with deficits in concentration and intellectual ability.[42] Flattening of affect can also occur in an otherwise successfully treated with SSRIs patient, whether or not this is due to the drug or the underlying depression is yet to be determined.[42] The aforementioned sexual side effects, although usually reversible, can persist for months, years, or permanently after the drug has been completely withdrawn.[43] This is known as post-SSRI sexual dysfunction.

Fluoxetine 20 mg capsules.

Discontinuation syndrome[edit]

Several case reports in the literature describe severe withdrawal or discontinuation symptoms following an abrupt interruption of fluoxetine treatment.[44] However, various studies have shown that the side effects of the fluoxetine discontinuation are uncommon and mild, especially compared to paroxetine, venlafaxine and fluvoxamine, probably due to the relatively long pharmacological half-life of fluoxetine.[44] One of the recommended strategies for the management of discontinuation syndrome with other SSRIs is to substitute fluoxetine for the original agent, in cases where tapering off the dose of the original SSRI is ineffective.[45][46] The double-blind controlled studies support this opinion. No increase in side effects was observed in several studies when the treatment with fluoxetine was blindly interrupted for a short time (4–8 days) and then reinstated, this result being consistent with its slow elimination from the body.

More side effects occurred during the interruption of sertraline (Zoloft) in these studies, and significantly more during the interruption of paroxetine.[47] In a longer, 6‑week-long, blind discontinuation study, an insignificantly higher (32% vs 27%) overall rate of new or worsened side effects was observed in the group that discontinued fluoxetine than in the group that continued treatment. However, a significantly higher 4.2% rate of somnolence at week 2 and 5–7% rate of dizziness at weeks 4–6 were reported by the patients in the discontinuation group. This prolonged course of the discontinuation symptoms, with dizziness persisting to the end of the study, is also consistent with the long half-life of fluoxetine in the body.[48] According to a 2007 summary report of available evidence, fluoxetine has the lowest incidence of discontinuation syndrome among several antidepressants including paroxetine and venlafaxine.[49]

Suicide[edit]

The FDA now requires all antidepressants to carry a black box warning stating that antidepressants may increase the risk of suicide in people younger than 25. This warning is based on statistical analyses conducted by two independent groups of the FDA experts that found a 2-fold increase of the suicidal ideation and behavior in children and adolescents, and 1.5-fold increase of suicidality in the 18–24 age group. The suicidality was slightly decreased for those older than 24, and statistically significantly lower in the 65 and older group.[50][51][52] This analysis was criticized by Donald Klein, who noted that suicidality, that is suicidal ideation and behavior, is not necessarily a good surrogate marker for completed suicide, and it is still possible that antidepressants may prevent actual suicide while increasing suicidality.[53]

There is less data on fluoxetine than on antidepressants as a whole. For the above analysis on the antidepressant level, the FDA had to combine the results of 295 trials of 11 antidepressants for psychiatric indications to obtain statistically significant results. Considered separately, fluoxetine use in children increased the odds of suicidality by 50%,[54] and in adults decreased the odds of suicidality by approximately 30%.[51][52] Similarly, the analysis conducted by the UK MHRA found a 50% increase of odds of suicide-related events, not reaching statistical significance, in the children and adolescents on fluoxetine as compared to the ones on placebo. According to the MHRA data, for adults fluoxetine did not change the rate of self-harm and statistically significantly decreased suicidal ideation by 50%.[55][56]

Violence[edit]

Neither the American Psychiatric Association,[57] the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE),[58] nor the American College of Physicians[59] list violence among the potential side effects of treatment with serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors. Similarly, the World Health Organization and the European Psychiatric Association do not list violence among the potential side effects of SSRIs.[60][61]

Psychiatrist David Healy and certain patient activist groups have compiled case reports of violent acts committed by individuals taking fluoxetine or other SSRIs,[62][63] and have argued that these drugs predispose susceptible individuals to commit violent acts.

Serial case report studies of this type have been criticized as being subject to "confounding by indication", in which effects due to an underlying disease state are mistakenly attributed to the effects of treatment.[64] Other studies, including randomized clinical trials and observational studies, have suggested that fluoxetine and other SSRIs may reduce the propensity for violence. A randomized clinical trial performed by the US National Institutes for Mental Health found that fluoxetine reduced acts of domestic violence in alcoholics with a history of such behavior[65] A second clinical trial performed at the University of Chicago found that fluoxetine reduced aggressive behavior in patients in intermittent aggressive disorder.[66] A clinical trial found that fluoxetine reduced aggressive behavior in patients with borderline personality disorder.[67] These results are indirectly supported by studies demonstrating that other SSRIs can reduce violence and aggressive behavior.[68][69][70][71] A NBER study examining international trends in antidepressant use and crime rates in the 1990s found that increases in antidepressant drug prescriptions were associated with reductions in violent crime.[72]

Contraindications[edit]

Contraindications include prior treatment (within the past fortnight) with MAOIs such as phenelzine and tranylcypromine, due to the potential for serotonin syndrome.[2] Its use should also be avoided in those with known hypersensitivities to fluoxetine or any of the other ingredients in the formulation used.[2] Its use in those concurrently receiving pimozide is also advised against.[2]

Interactions[edit]

Fluoxetine and norfluoxetine inhibit many isozymes of the cytochrome P450 system that are involved in drug metabolism. Both are potent inhibitors of CYP2D6 (which is also the chief enzyme responsible for their metabolism) and mild to moderate inhibitors of CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C9/2C19, and CYP3A4.[73]They also inhibit the activity of P-glycoprotein, a type of membrane transport protein that plays an important role in drug transport and metabolism and hence P-glycoprotein substrates such as loperamide may have their central effects potentiated.[74] This extensive effect on the body's pathways for drug metabolism creates the potential for interactions with many commonly used drugs.[74][75]

Its use should also be avoided in those receiving other serotonergic drugs such as monoamine oxidase inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants, methamphetamine, MDMA, triptans, buspirone, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors and other SSRIs due to the potential for serotonin syndrome to develop as a result.[2]

There is also the potential for interaction with highly protein-bound drugs due to the potential for fluoxetine to displace said drugs from the plasma or vice versa hence increasing serum concentrations of either fluoxetine or the offending agent.[2]

Pharmacokinetics[edit]

3 dimensional representation of the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme CYP2D6. CYP2D6 is responsible for converting fluoxetine to its only active metabolite, norfluoxetine.[76] Both drugs are also potent inhibitors of CYP2D6.[77]
Norfluoxetine, fluoxetine's chief active metabolite.

The bioavailability of fluoxetine is relatively high (72%), and peak plasma concentrations are reached in 6 to 8 hours. It is highly bound to plasma proteins, mostly albumin and α1-glycoprotein.[2]

Fluoxetine is metabolized in the liver by isoenzymes of the cytochrome P450 system, including CYP2D6.[9] The role of CYP2D6 in the metabolism of fluoxetine may be clinically important, as there is great genetic variability in the function of this enzyme among people. Only one metabolite of fluoxetine, norfluoxetine (N-demethylated fluoxetine), is biologically active.[2]

The extremely slow elimination of fluoxetine and its active metabolite norfluoxetine from the body distinguishes it from other antidepressants. With time, fluoxetine and norfluoxetine inhibit their own metabolism, so fluoxetine elimination half-life changes from 1 to 3 days, after a single dose, to 4 to 6 days, after long-term use.[2] Similarly, the half-life of norfluoxetine is longer (16 days) after long-term use.[9][78][79] Therefore, the concentration of the drug and its active metabolite in the blood continues to grow through the first few weeks of treatment, and their steady concentration in the blood is achieved only after four weeks.[80][81] Moreover, the brain concentration of fluoxetine and its metabolites keeps increasing through at least the first five weeks of treatment.[82] That means that the full benefits of the current dose a patient receives are not realized for at least a month since its initiation. For example, in one 6-week study, the median time to achieving consistent response was 29 days.[80] Likewise, complete excretion of the drug may take several weeks. During the first week after the treatment discontinuation, the brain concentration of fluoxetine decreases only by 50%,[82] The blood level of norfluoxetine 4 weeks after the treatment discontinuation is about 80% of the level registered by the end of the first treatment week, and 7 weeks after the discontinuation norfluoxetine is still detectable in the blood.[78]

A PET study compared the action of a single dose of fluoxetine on exclusively heterosexual and exclusively homosexual men who attested that their past and present sexual behavior, desires, and fantasies were directed entirely toward women or men, respectively. The study found that in some areas of the brain the metabolic response in these two groups was different. "Both groups, however, did exhibit similar widespread lateralized metabolic responses to fluoxetine (relative to placebo), with most areas of the brain responding in the same direction." They "did not differ on behavioral measures or blood levels of fluoxetine".[83]

Fluoxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and does not appreciably inhibit norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake. Nevertheless, Eli Lilly researchers found that a single injection of a large dose of fluoxetine given to a rat also resulted in a significant increase of brain concentrations of norepinephrine and dopamine.[84][85][86]This effect may be mediated by 5HT2a and, in particular, 5HT2c receptors, which are inhibited by higher concentrations of fluoxetine. The Eli Lilly scientists also suggested that the effects on dopamine and norepinephrine may contribute to the antidepressant action of fluoxetine.[86] In the opinion of other researchers, however, the magnitude of this effect is unclear.[82] The dopamine and norepinephrine increase was not observed at a smaller, more clinically relevant dose of fluoxetine.[87] Similarly, in electrophysiological studies only larger and not smaller doses of fluoxetine changed the activity of rat's norepinephrinergic neurons. Some authors, however, argue that these findings may still have clinical relevance for the treatment of severe illness with supratherapeutic doses (60–80 mg) of fluoxetine.[88] Among SSRIs, 'fluoxetine is the least "selective" of all the SSRIs, with a 10-fold difference in binding affinity between its first and second neural targets (i.e., the serotonin and norepinephrine uptake pumps, respectively)'. Anything greater than a 10-fold difference results in insignificant activation of the secondary neuronal targets.[89]

Besides its well-known effects on serotonin, fluoxetine also increases density of endogenous opioid receptors in the brains of rats. It is unclear if this occurs in humans, but if so it might account for some of fluoxetine's antidepressant and/or side effect profile.[90]

Measurement in body fluids[edit]

Fluoxetine and norfluoxetine may be quantitated in blood, plasma or serum to monitor therapy, confirm a diagnosis of poisoning in hospitalized patients or assist in a medicolegal death investigation. Blood or plasma fluoxetine concentrations are usually in a range of 50–500 μg/L in persons taking the drug for its antidepressant effects, 900–3000 μg/L in survivors of acute overdosage and 1000–7000 μg/L in victims of fatal overdosage. Norfluoxetine concentrations are approximately equal to those of the parent drug during chronic therapy, but may be substantially less following acute overdosage, since it requires at least 1–2 weeks for the metabolite to achieve equilibrium.[91][92][93]

Mechanism of action[edit]

Fluoxetine's mechanism of action is predominantly that of a serotonin reuptake inhibitor.[94][95] Fluoxetine delays the reuptake of serotonin, resulting in serotonin persisting longer when it is released. Fluoxetine may also produce some of its effects via its weak 5-HT2C receptor antagonist effects.[96] In addition, fluoxetine has been found to act as an agonist of the σ1-receptor, with a potency greater than that of citalopram but less than that of fluvoxamine. However, the significance of this property is not fully clear.[97][98]

Table 1: Binding affinity (Ki [nM]) of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine towards their molecular targets[99]

Molecular Target Fluoxetine Norfluoxetine
SERT 1.0 19
NET 660 2700
DAT 4180 420
5-HT2A 200 300
5-HT2B ≥5000 ≥5100
5-HT2C 260 91
M1 870 1200
M2 2700 4600
M3 1000 760
M4 2900 2600
M5 2700 2200

History[edit]

Chart showing increase (in red) over baseline (in blue) between 1987 and 2003
Number of Americans who received SSDI and SSI for mental illness in 1987 (blue) when Eli Lilly and Company introduced the antidepressive drug Prozac, compared to 2003 (red).

Hoping to find a derivative inhibiting only serotonin reuptake, an Eli Lilly scientist, David T. Wong, proposed to retest the series for the in vitro reuptake of serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine. This test, carried out by Jong-Sir Horng in May 1972,[100] showed the compound later named fluoxetine to be the most potent and selective inhibitor of serotonin reuptake of the series.[6] Wong published the first article about fluoxetine in 1974.[6] A year later, it was given the official chemical name fluoxetine and the Eli Lilly and Company gave it the trade name Prozac. In February 1977, Dista Products Company, a division of Eli Lilly & Company, file an Investigational New Drug application to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for fluoxetine.[101]

Fluoxetine appeared on the Belgian market in 1986.[102] In the U.S., the FDA gave its final approval in December 1987,[103] and a month later Eli Lilly began marketing Prozac; annual sales in the U.S. reached $350 million within a year.[101]

A controversy ensued after Lilly researchers published a paper titled "Prozac (fluoxetine, Lilly 110140), the first selective serotonin uptake inhibitor and an antidepressant drug"[100] claiming fluoxetine to be the first selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). Two years later they had to issue a correction, admitting that the first SSRI was zimelidine developed by Arvid Carlsson and colleagues.[104]

Eli Lilly's U.S. patent on Prozac (fluoxetine) expired in August 2001,[105] prompting an influx of generic drugs onto the market. Prozac was rebranded "Sarafem" for the treatment of PMDD in an attempt to stem the post-patent decrease in Eli Lilly's sales of fluoxetine.[106]

As of April 2, 2010, fluoxetine is one of four antidepressant drugs that the FAA allows pilots to take. The others are sertraline (Zoloft), citalopram (Celexa), and escitalopram (Lexapro).[107]

There has been research on possible effects of fluoxetine on marine life.[108]

Society and culture[edit]

Brand names[edit]

Brand names include (  indicates discontinued brands):[32][109]

  • Actan (CL)
  • Affex (IE)
  • Alental (AR)
  • Alentol (CL)
  • Andepin (PL)
  • Animex-On (AR)
  • Anismol (CL)
  • Ansilan (CO)
  • Anxetin (TN)
  • Ao Mai Lun (CN)
  • Apinrol (CL)
  • Apo-fluoxetine (CN, RU, TW)
  • Auscap (AU)
  • Bellzac (IE)
  • Bioxetin (PL)
  • Biozac (BG, IE)
  • Daforin (BR)
  • Dawnex (IN)
  • Deprexetin (BG, PL, LT)
  • Deprimaks (LT)
  • Depten (IN)
  • Depten-AZ (IN)
  • Depten-OZ (IN)
  • Depzac (IN)
  • Dinalexin (TN)
  • Doc Fluoxetine (LU)
  • Dominium (EC, CL)
  • Eburnate (AR)
  • Felicium (AT, UK)
  • Felixina (AR)
  • Floccin (AT)
  • Florak (TR)
  • Floxet (BG)
  • Fluctine (AT, MX, CH)
  • Fludac (GE, IN)
  • Fludawn (IN)
  • Fludep (IN)
  • Fludep (IN)
  • Fludep Plus (IN)
  • Flumed (TH)
  • Flunil-20 (GE)
  • Flunirin (RS)
  • Flunisan (MK, RS)
  • Fluocim (CH)
  • Fluohexal (AU)
  • Fluoksetin (MK, RS)
  • Fluovex (MY)
  • Fluox (BE, NZ, KR)
  • Fluoxac (MX)
  • FluoxeLich (DE)
  • Fluoxemed (BE)
  • Fluoxe-Q (DE)
  • Fluoxeren (IT)
  • Fluoxgamma (DE)
  • Fluoxin (RO)
  • Fluoxiram (AR)
  • Fluoxone (BE)
  • Fluronin (TW)
  • Flusac (TH)
  • Flusetin (HR)
  • Flustad (NL)
  • Flutin (DK, OM)
  • Flutine (IL, TH)
  • Fluval (HR)
  • Flux Hexal (AT)
  • Flux (EE, LT, TW)
  • Fluxadir (GR)
  • Fluxemed (EE, LT)
  • Fluxen (TW)
  • Fluxene (BR)
  • Fluxet (DE)
  • Fluxetil (MY, SG, TH)
  • Fluxetin (HK, SG)
  • Fluxetin Atlantic (TH)
  • Fluxil (AT, HK, SG)
  • Fluxomed (AT)
  • Fluzac (IE, VE)
  • Fluzac-20 (TH)
  • Fluzak (CZ)
  • Fluzyn (OM)
  • Fokeston (GR)
  • Fontex D.A.C. (BE, DK, FL, IS, LU, NO, SE)
  • Fontex (DK)
  • Fonzac (TW)
  • Foxetin (AR, KR)
  • Framex (RS)
  • Fropine (KR)
  • Fulsac (TR)
  • FXT (CA)
  • Gerozac (IE)
  • Hapilux (GR)
  • Indozul (MX)
  • Jin Kai Ke (CN)
  • Juxac (TW)
  • Kai Ke (CN)
  • Kalxetin (ID)
  • Ladose (GR)
  • Lapsus (AR)
  • Lebensart (MX)
  • Lecimar (ES)
  • Linz (BH, OM)
  • Lorien (ZA)
  • Lovan (AU, NZ)
  • Luramon (ES)
  • Magrilan (CZ, HK, MT, RO, SG, SK, TH)
  • Mitilase (AR)
  • Modipran (BD)
  • Moltoben (CO, DO, GT, HN, PA, SV)
  • Mutan (AT)
  • Nerbet (CL)
  • Nervosal (AR)
  • Neupax (AR, CR, DO, EC, GT, HN, PA, SV)
  • Neuxetin (PH)
  • Nodep (BD)
  • Nortec (BR)
  • Norzac (IE)
  • Noxetine (ID)
  • Nuzak (ZA)
  • Nycoflox (EE, LT)
  • Orthon (GR)
  • Ovisen (MX)
  • Oxactin (UK, MT)
  • Oxedep (VN)
  • Oxetine (TH)
  • Oxipres (ID)
  • Oxsac (TH)
  • Pisaurit (MX)
  • Plazeron (MT)
  • Portal (HU, LT, CZ, HR)
  • Positivum (AT)
  • Pragmaten (CL)
  • Prizma (IL)
  • Proctin (KR)
  • Prodep (RU)
  • Prodin (PH)
  • Prohexal (ZA)
  • Prolert (BD)
  • Proren (KR)
  • Prozac (AR, AU, BE, BR, CA, CL, CN, CZ, FR, HK, HU, ID, IE, IT, MY, MX, NL, NZ, PH, PT, RU, ZA, SG, TH, TR, UK, US, VE)
  • Prozac Bb Farma (IT)
  • Prozac Dispersable (MX)
  • Prozamel (IE)
  • Prozatan (IE)
  • Prozen (BR)
  • Prozit (IE, UK)
  • Psipax (PT)
  • Psiquial (BR)
  • Qualisac (HK)
  • Ranflocs (ZA)
  • Ranflutin (BG)
  • Reconcile (US) (only used for veterinary use)
  • Reneuron (ES)
  • Roxetin (KR)
  • Salipax (LT, MY, PL, SI)
  • Sarafem (US)
  • Sartuzin (GR)
  • Saurat (AR)
  • Selectine (KR)
  • Selectus (PT)
  • Serol (IS)
  • Seromex (FL)
  • Seronil (FL, PL)
  • Sinzac (MY)
  • Sofelin (GR)
  • Sofluxen (BG)
  • Stapiadilat (GR)
  • Stapiadilat-S (GR)
  • Stressless (GR)
  • Thiramil (GR)
  • Trizac (ET)
  • T-Zac (TW)
  • Ultiflox (CL)
  • Unprozy (TH)
  • U-Zet (TW)
  • Verotina (BR)
  • Xeredien (IT)
  • Xetiran (PL)
  • Youke (CN)
  • Zac (ID)
  • Zactin (AU, CN, ID, SG, TW)
  • Zedprex (TR)
  • Zinovat (GR)
  • Zyfloxin (BR)

Popular culture[edit]

Prozac has had numerous references to it in popular culture, including many books, movies, and songs.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Including, Symbyax (AR (discontinued), CL, MX, US), Alamflu, Alp-FT, Altin, Ateez-F, Azo-F, Cinol Forte, Cinol Plus, Cooltime, Coral-F, Depten-AZ, Depten-OZ, Depwell, Exiten Plus, Faa Plus, Faxtin-A, Fiden-AZ, Fludep Plus, Fludep-AZ, Flumusa, Fluwel, Fluxin-AL, Fluzolam, Kurelam-F, L-Peez F, M-Olan Plus, Oladay-F, Olanex-F, Olapin Forte, Olapin Plus, Olorest-F(all marketed in India)
  2. ^ An inner sense of restlessness that presents itself with the patient's inability to stay still. Usually transient at the beginning of therapy or after an escalation of dosage.[4] It is possible that this symptom may cause sufficient distress to contribute to some of the suicide attempts associated with fluoxetine.[37][38]
  3. ^ The definition of this condition is difficult to come by but it seems to be a form of tardive dyskinesia

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