|Subgenus:||Padus or Cerasus|
Prunus grayana (syn. Padus grayana (Maxim.) C.K.Schneid., Prunus padus var. japonica Miq.; Japanese bird cherry or Gray's bird cherry; Japanese ウワミズザクラ Uwa-mizu-zakura; Chinese 灰叶稠李 hui ye chou li) is a species of cherry native to Japan and China, occurring at medium altitudes of 1,000–3,800 m in the temperate zone. It prefers sunshine and moist (but drained) soil.
It is a small deciduous tree reaching a height of 8–20 m. The trunk is slender with smooth grey to purple-grey bark marked with horizontal brown lenticels, with a strong smell when cut. The leaves are elliptical to ovoid, 4–10 cm long and 1.8–4.5 cm broad, with a serrated margin with aristate tips to the serrations. The lowest teeth of a leaf feature two glands. The flowers are produced on 5–8 cm long racemes, each flower 7–10 mm diameter, with five white petals; they are hermaphroditic, and appear in mid-spring after the leaves. The fruit is a small drupe, about 8 mm in diameter, green at first, then red and finally ripening black in mid summer.
The flowers, fruit and seed are all edible and are prepared and eaten in Japan. The fruit can be preserved with salt to make a dish called Anningo. The bark and roots are the source of a green dye. The wood is very hard and fissable. It is used in various cabinet-making and various other ornamental applications.
The taxon was described in 1864 by Miquel as Prunus padus var. japonica, on the basis of specimens collected by Siebold. After a review of the previous literature, Maximowicz in St. Petersburg decided in 1883 the tree was a distinct species, and named it Prunus grayana after Asa Gray.
- Rehder, A. 1940, reprinted 1977. Manual of cultivated trees and shrubs hardy in North America exclusive of the subtropical and warmer temperate regions. Macmillan publishing Co., Inc, New York.
- "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved January 27, 2014.
- Flora of China: Padus grayana
- Japanese Tree Encyclopedia: Uwamizuzakura Prunus grayana
- Germplasm Resources Information Network: Prunus grayana
- Botanic Japan: Prunus grayana (in Japanese; google translation.
- Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5.
- Flora of China: Padus
- Plants for a Future: Prunus grayana
- Ohba, H., Akiyama, S., & Thijsse, G. (2003). Miquel's new taxa of the vascular plants described from Japan in Prolusio Florae Japonicae and some other works. Page 3
- Maximovicz, J.C. (1883). "Diagnoses plantarum asiaticarum". Bulletin de l'Académie Impériale des sciences XXIX (27): pages 51–228. For the details of the publication including the dates of the volumes and the reprint of the article in Mélange ... see Pagès, Léon; Wenckstern, Friedrich von; Palmgren, Valfrid (1895). A Bibliography of the Japanese Empire. Leiden: E. J. Brill. pp. page 223.
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