Province of Posen
The Province of Posen (German: Provinz Posen, Polish: Prowincja Poznańska) was a province of Prussia from 1848 and as such part of the German Empire from 1871 until 1918. The area, roughly corresponding to the historic region of Greater Poland annexed during the 18th century Polish partitions, was about 29,000 km2 (11,000 sq mi). For more than a century, it was part of the Prussian partition, with a brief exception during the Napoleonic Wars.
Incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Posen after the 1815 Congress of Vienna, the territory was administered as a Prussian province upon the Greater Poland Uprising of 1848. In 1919 according to the Treaty of Versailles, Germany had to cede the bulk of the province to the newly established Second Polish Republic.
The land is mostly flat, drained by two major watershed systems; the Noteć (German: Netze) in the north and the Warta (Warthe) in the center. Ice Age glaciers left moraine deposits and the land is speckled with hundreds of "finger lakes", streams flowing in and out on their way to one of the two rivers.
Agriculture was the primary industry, as one would expect for the 19th century. The three-field system was used to grow a variety of crops, primarily rye, sugar beets, potatoes, other grains, and some tobacco and hops. Significant parcels of wooded land provided building materials and firewood. Small numbers of livestock existed, including geese, but a fair amount of sheep were herded.
When this area came under Prussian control, the feudal system was still in force. It was officially ended in Prussia (see Freiherr vom Stein) in 1810 (1864 in Congress Poland), but lingered in some practices until the late 19th century. The situation was thus that (primarily) Polish serfs lived and worked side by side with (predominantly) free German settlers. Though the settlers were given initial advantages, in time their lots were not much different. Serfs worked for the noble lord, who took care of them. Settlers worked for themselves and took care of themselves, but paid taxes to the lord.
Typically, an estate would have its manor and farm buildings, and a village nearby for the Polish laborers. Near that village, there might be a German settlement. And in the woods, there would be a forester's dwelling. The estate owners, usually of the nobility, owned the local grist mill, and often other types of mills or perhaps a distillery. In many places, windmills dotted the landscape, reminding one of the earliest settlers, the Dutch, who began the process of turning unproductive river marshes into fields. This process was finished by the German settlers who were used to reclaim unproductive lands (not only marshland) for the host estate owners.
The territory of later province had become Prussian in 1772 (Netze District) and 1793 (South Prussia) during the First and Second Partition of Poland. After Prussia's defeat in the Napoleonic Wars, the territory was attached to the Duchy of Warsaw in 1807 upon the Franco-Prussian Treaty of Tilsit. In 1815 during the Congress of Vienna, Prussia gained the western third of the Warsaw duchy, which was about half of former South Prussia. Prussia then administered this province as the semi-autonomous Grand Duchy of Posen, which lost most of its exceptional status already after the 1830 November Uprising in Congress Poland, as the Prussian authorities feared a Polish national movement which would have swept away the Holy Alliance system in Central Europe. Instead Prussian Germanisation measures increased under Oberpräsident Eduard Heinrich von Flottwell, who had replaced Duke-governor Antoni Radziwiłł.
A first Greater Poland Uprising in 1846 failed, as the leading insurgents around Karol Libelt and Ludwik Mierosławski were reported to the Prussian police and arrested for high treason. Their trial at the Berlin Kammergericht court gained them enormous popularity even under German national liberals, who themselves were suppressed by the Carlsbad Decrees. Both were released in the March Revolution of 1848 and triumphantly carried through the streets.
At the same time a Polish national committee gathered at Poznań and demanded independence. The Prussian Army under General Friedrich August Peter von Colomb at first retired. King Frederick William IV of Prussia as well as the new Prussioan commissioner Karl Wilhelm von Willisen promised a renewed autonomy status. However, both under the German-speaking population in the province as well as in the Prussian capital anti-Polish sentiments arose. While the local Posen (Poznań) Parliament voted 26 to 17 votes against joining German Confederation, on 3 April 1848 the Frankfurt Parliament ignored the vote, forcing status change to a common Prussian province and its integration in the German Confederation.
The Frankfurt parliamentarian Carl Friedrich Wilhelm Jordan vehemently spoke against Polish autonomy. The assembly at first attempted to divide the Posen duchy into two parts: the Province of Poznań, which would have been given to the Germans and annexed to a newly-created Greater Germany, and the Province of Gniezno, which would have been given to the Poles and held outside Germany. Because of the protest of Polish politicians, these plans failed and the integrity of the duchy was preserved. Nevertheless, after the Greater Polish revolt had been finally crushed by Prussian troops, the authoritites on 9 February 1849, after a series of broken assurances, renamed the duchy to the Province of Posen. "Grand Duke of Posen" remained a title of the Hohenzollern dynasty and the name remained in official use until 1918.
With the unification of Germany after the Franco-Prussian War of 1871, the province of Posen became part of the German Empire and the city of Posen was officially named an imperial residence city. Under German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck renewed Germanisation policies began, such as an increase of police forces, a colonization commission, and the Kulturkampf. The German Eastern Marches Society (Hakata) pressure group was founded in 1894 and in 1904, special legislation was passed against the Polish population. The legislation of 1908 allowed the confiscation of Polish landed property. The Prussian authorities did not allow the development of industries, so the duchy's economy was dominated by high-level agriculture.
At the end of World War I, the fate of the province was undecided. The Poles demanded that the region be included in the newly independent Second Polish Republic, while the Germans refused any territorial concessions. Another Greater Poland Uprising broke out on 27 December 1918, a day after the speech of Ignacy Jan Paderewski. The uprising received little support from the Polish government established in Warsaw at that time. After the success of the uprising the Posen province was briefly (until mid-1919) an independent state with its own government, currency and military force. With the signing of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919, most of the province, primarily the areas with a Polish majority, were ceded to Poland and reformed as the Poznań Voivodship. The German remainder (with Bomst, parts of Czarnikau and Filehne, Fraustadt, Meseritz, Schneidemühl and Schwerin), about 2,200 km2, was merged with the western remains of former West Prussia and administered as Posen-West Prussia with Schneidemühl as its capital. This province was dissolved in 1938, when its territory was split between the neighboring Prussian provinces of Silesia, Pomerania and Brandenburg. In 1939, the territory of the former province of Posen was annexed by Nazi Germany and made part of Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia and Reichsgau Wartheland (initially Reichsgau Posen). When World War II ended in 1945, it was overrun by the Red Army.
Following Germany's defeat in World War II in 1945, all of the German territory east of the newly established Oder-Neisse Line according to the Potsdam Agreement was either turned over to the Poland or the Soviet Union. Therefore, all historical parts of the province came under Polish control and the remaining German ethnic population was expelled by force.
Religious and ethnic conflicts 
This region was inhabited by a Polish majority and German and Jewish minorities and a smattering of other peoples. Almost all the Poles were Roman Catholic, and about 90% of the Germans were Protestant. The small numbers of Jews were primarily to be found in the larger communities, mostly in skilled crafts, local commerce and regional trading. The smaller the community, the more likely it was to be either Polish or German. These "pockets of ethnicity" existed side by side, with German villages being the most dense in the northwestern areas. With Germanization policies, the population became more German until the end of the 19th century, when the trend reversed (in the Ostflucht). This was despite efforts of the government in Berlin, which established the Settlement Commission to buy land from Poles and make it available only to Germans.
The province's large number of resident Germans resulted from constant immigration of Germans since the Middle Ages, when the first settlers arrived in the course of the Ostsiedlung. Although many of those had been Polonized over time, a continuous immigration resulted in maintaining a large German community. The 18th century Jesuit-led Counter-Reformation enacted severe restrictions on German Protestants. The end of the 18th century turned the tables as Prussia seized the area during the Partitions of Poland.
During the first half of the 19th century, the German population grew due to state sponsored colonisation. In the second half, the Polish population grew gradually due to the Ostflucht and a higher birthrate among the Poles. In the Kulturkampf, mainly Protestant Prussia sought to reduce the Catholic impact on its society. Posen was hit severely by these measures due to its high, mainly Polish Catholic population. Many Catholic Germans in Posen joined with ethnic Poles in opposition to Kulturkampf measures. Following the Kulturkampf, the German Empire for nationalist reasons implied Germanisation programs. One measure was to set up a Settlement Commission, that was to attract German settlers to encounter the Polish population growth. However, this attempt failed, even when accompanied by additional legal measures. The Polish language was eventually banned from schools and government offices as part of the Germanisation policies.
|Ethnic composition of the Province of Posen|
There is a notable disparity between German statistics gathered by the Prussian administration, and the Polish estimates conducted after 1918. According to the Prussian census of 1905, the number of German speakers in the Province of Posen was approximately 38.5%, while after 1918 the number of Germans in the Poznan Voivodship, which closely corresponded to province of Posen, was only 7%. According to Witold Jakóbczyk, the disparity between the number of ethnic Germans and the number of German speakers is because Prussian authorities placed ethnic Germans and the German speaking Jewish minority into the same class. In addition, there was a considerable exodus of Germans from the Second Polish Republic after the latter's establishment. Another reason of the disparity refers to the fact that some border areas of the province, inhabited mostly by Germans (including Piła), remained in Germany after 1918.
Area: 28,970 km²
- 1816: 820,176
- 1868: 1,537,300 (Bromberg 550,900 - Posen 986,400)
- 1871: 1,583,843
- Religion: 1871
- Catholics 1,009,885
- Protestants 511,429
- Jews 61,982
- others 547
- Religion: 1871
- 1875: 1,606,084
- 1880: 1,703,397
- 1900: 1,887,275
- 1905: 1,986,267
- 1910: 2,099,831 (Bromberg 763,900 - Posen 1,335,900)
Prussian provinces were subdivided into government regions (Regierungsbezirke), in Posen:
These regions were again subdivided into districts called Kreise. Cities would have their own "Stadtkreis" (urban district) and the surrounding rural area would be named for the city, but referred to as a "Landkreis" (rural district). In the case of Posen, the Landkreis was split into two: Landkreis Posen West, and Landkreis Posen East.
|Kreis ("County")||Polish spelling||1905 Pop||Polish speakers||German speakers1||Jewish2||Origin|
|Regierunsbezirk Posen (southern)|
|City of Posen||Poznań||55%||45%|
|Posen Ost||Poznań, Wsch.||72%||28%||Posen|
|Posen West||Poznań, Zach.||87%||13%||Posen|
|Schwerin||Skwierzyna||5%||95%||Birnbaum - 1877|
|Regierungsbezirk Bromberg (northern)|
|City of Bromberg||Bydgoszcz||16%||84%|
1 includes bilingual speakers
2 only religious Jews, without regard of their native language
The German figure includes the German speaking Jewish population.
The province was headed by presidents (German: Oberpräsidenten).
|Time in Office||Name|
|1815–1824||Joseph Zerboni de Sposetti 1760–1831|
|1825–1830||Johann Friedrich Theodor von Baumann 1768–1830|
|1830–1840||Eduard Heinrich Flottwell 1786–1865|
|1840–1842||Adolf Heinrich Graf von Arnim-Boitzenburg 1803–1868|
|1843–1850||Carl Moritz von Beurmann 1802–1870|
|1850–1851||Gustav Carl Gisbert Heinrich Wilhelm Gebhard von Bonin (1.time in office) 1797–1878|
|1851–1860||Eugen von Puttkamer 1800–1874|
|1860–1862||Gustav Carl Gisbert Heinrich Wilhelm Gebhard von Bonin (2.time in office) 1797–1878|
|1862–1869||Carl Wilhelm Heinrich Georg von Horn 1807–1889|
|1869–1873||Otto Graf von Königsmarck 1815–1889|
|1873–1886||William Barstow von Guenther 1815–1892|
|1886–1890||Robert Graf von Zedtlitz-Trützschler 1837–1914|
|1890–1899||Hugo Freiherr von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff 1840–1905|
|1899–1903||Karl Julius Rudolf von Bitter 1846–1914|
|1903–1911||Wilhelm August Hans von Waldow-Reitzenstein 1856–1937|
|1911–1914||Philipp Schwartzkopf ?|
|1914–1918||Joh. Karl Friedr. Moritz Ferd. v. Eisenhart-Rothe 1862–1942|
Notable people 
(in alphabetical order)
(see also Notable people of Grand Duchy of Posen)
- Stanisław Adamski (1875–1967), Polish priest, social and political activist of the Union of Catholic Societies of Polish Workers (Związek Katolickich Towarzystw Robotników Polskich), founder and editor of the 'Robotnik' (Worker) weekly
- Tomasz K. Bartkiewcz (1865–1931), Polish composer and organist, co-founder of the Singer Circles Union (Związek Kół Śpiewackich)
- Czesław Czypicki (1855–1926), Polish lawyer from Kożmin, activist for the singers' societies
- Michał Drzymała (1857–1937), famous Polish peasant
- Ferdinand Hansemann (1861–1900), Prussian politician, co-founder of the German Eastern Marches Society
- Paul von Hindenburg (1847–1934), German field marshal and statesman, last President of Germany before Adolf Hitler.
- Józef Kościelski (1845–1911), Polish politician and parliamentarian, co-founder of the Straż (Guard) society
- Konstanty Kościnski, author of The Guide to Poznań and the Grand Duchy of Poznań (Przewodnik pod Poznaniu i Wielkim Księstwie Poznańskiem), Poznań 1909
- Józef Krzymiński (1858–1940), Polish physician, social and political activist, member of parliament
- Władysław Marcinkowski (1858–1947), Polish sculptor who created a monument of Adam Mickiewicz in Milosław
- Władysław Niegolewski (1819–85), Polish liberal politician and member of parliament, insurgent in 1846, 1848 and 1863, cofounder of TCL and CTG
- Cyryl Ratajski (1875–1942), president of Poznań 1922–34
- Arthur Ruppin (1876–1943), pioneering sociologist, Zionist thinker and leader, co-founder of Tel Aviv
- Karol Rzepecki (1865–1931), Polish bookseller, social and political activist, editor of Sokół (Falcon) magazine
- Antoni Stychel (1859–1935), Polish priest, member of parliament, president of the Union of the Catholic Societies of Polish Workers (Związek Katolickich Towarzystw Robotników Polskich)
- Roman Szymański (1840–1908), Polish political activist, publicist, editor of Orędownik magazine
- Aniela Tułodziecka (1853–1932), Polish educational activist of the Warta Society (Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Wzajemnego Pouczania się i Opieki nad Dziećmi Warta)
- Teofil Walicki
- Piotr Wawrzyniak (1849–1910), Polish priest, economic and educational activist, patron of the Union of the Earnings and Economic Societies (Związek Spółek Zarobkowych i Gospodarczych)
- Gerhard Köbler, Historisches Lexikon der Deutschen Länder: die deutschen Territorien vom Mittelalter bis zur Gegenwart, 7th edition, C.H.Beck, 2007, p.535, ISBN 3-406-54986-1
- Andrzej Chwalba - Historia Polski 1795-1918 Wydawnictwo Literackie 2000 Kraków
- Dieter Gosewinkel, Einbürgern und Ausschliessen: die Nationalisierung der Staatsangehörigkeit vom Deutschen Bund bis zur Bundesrepublik Deutschland, 2nd edition, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2001, p.116, ISBN 3-525-35165-8
- Preußische Ansiedlungskommission
- Historia 1789-1871 Page 224. Anna Radziwiłł and Wojciech Roszkowski.
- Scott M. Eddie, Ethno-nationality and property rights in land in Prussian Poland, 1886-1918, Buying the land from under the Poles' feet? in S. Engerman, Land rights, ethno-nationality and sovereignty in history, 2004, p.57, 
- Leszek Belzyt: Sprachliche Minderheiten im preußischen Staat 1815–1914. Marburg 1998, S.17
- Leszek Belzyt: Sprachliche Minderheiten im preußischen Staat 1815–1914. Marburg 1998, S.17f. ISBN 3-87969-267-X
- "Dzieje Wielkopolski" (red. Witold Jakóbczyk)
- Blanke, Richard (1993). Orphans of Versailles: the Germans in Western Poland, 1918-1939. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 33–34. ISBN 0-8131-1803-4. Retrieved 2009-09-05.
- Stefan Wolff, The German Question Since 1919: An Analysis with Key Documents, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2003, p.33, ISBN 0-275-97269-0
- Spisy ludności na ziemiach polskich do 1918 r
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Posen (province).|