Psalm 3

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Psalm 3 is a prayer by David.

Psalm 3 is the third Psalm of the Bible. It is a personal thanksgiving to God, who answered the prayer of an afflicted soul. Psalm 3 is attributed to David, in particular, when he fled from Absalom his son. David, deserted by his subjects, derided by Shimei, pursued for his crown and life by his ungracious son, turns to his God, makes his supplications, and confesses his faith. The story of Absalom is found in the 2 Samuel, Chapters 13-18.

In the original Hebrew[edit]

Scroll of the Psalms

In the original Hebrew, Psalm 3[1] reads as follows:

א מִזְמוֹר לְדָוִד: בְּבָרְחוֹ, מִפְּנֵי אַבְשָׁלוֹם בְּנוֹ.
ב יְהוָה, מָה-רַבּוּ צָרָי; רַבִּים, קָמִים עָלָי.
ג רַבִּים, אֹמְרִים לְנַפְשִׁי: אֵין יְשׁוּעָתָה לּוֹ בֵאלֹהִים סֶלָה.
ד וְאַתָּה יְהוָה, מָגֵן בַּעֲדִי; כְּבוֹדִי, וּמֵרִים רֹאשִׁי.
ה קוֹלִי, אֶל-יְהוָה אֶקְרָא; וַיַּעֲנֵנִי מֵהַר קָדְשׁוֹ סֶלָה.
ו אֲנִי שָׁכַבְתִּי, וָאִישָׁנָה; הֱקִיצוֹתִי--כִּי יְהוָה יִסְמְכֵנִי.
ז לֹא-אִירָא, מֵרִבְבוֹת עָם-- אֲשֶׁר סָבִיב, שָׁתוּ עָלָי.
ח קוּמָה יְהוָה, הוֹשִׁיעֵנִי אֱלֹהַי-- כִּי-הִכִּיתָ אֶת-כָּל-אֹיְבַי לֶחִי; שִׁנֵּי רְשָׁעִים שִׁבַּרְתָּ.
ט לַיהוָה הַיְשׁוּעָה; עַל-עַמְּךָ בִרְכָתֶךָ סֶּלָה.

In the Septuagint[edit]

In the original Koine Greek, according to the Septuagint, Psalm 3 reads as follows:

1 Ψαλμὸς τῷ Δαυΐδ, ὁπότε ἀπεδίδρασκεν ἀπὸ προσώπου Ἀβεσσαλὼμ τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ.
2 ΚΥΡΙΕ, τί ἐπληθύνθησαν οἱ θλίβοντές με; πολλοὶ ἐπανίστανται ἐπ᾿ ἐμέ·
3 πολλοὶ λέγουσι τῇ ψυχῇ μου· οὐκ ἔστι σωτηρία αὐτῷ ἐν τῷ Θεῷ αὐτοῦ. (διάψαλμα).
4 σὺ δέ, Κύριε, ἀντιλήπτωρ μου εἶ, δόξα μου καὶ ὑψῶν τὴν κεφαλήν μου.
5 φωνῇ μου πρὸς Κύριον ἐκέκραξα, καὶ ἐπήκουσέ μου ἐξ ὄρους ἁγίου αὐτοῦ. (διάψαλμα).
6 ἐγὼ ἐκοιμήθην καὶ ὕπνωσα· ἐξηγέρθην, ὅτι Κύριος ἀντιλήψεταί μου.
7 οὐ φοβηθήσομαι ἀπὸ μυριάδων λαοῦ τῶν κύκλῳ συνεπιτιθεμένων μοι.
8 ἀνάστα, Κύριε, σῶσόν με, ὁ Θεός μου, ὅτι σὺ ἐπάταξας πάντας τοὺς ἐχθραίνοντάς μοι ματαίως, ὀδόντας ἁμαρτωλῶν συνέτριψας.
9 τοῦ Κυρίου ἡ σωτηρία, καὶ ἐπὶ τὸν λαόν σου ἡ εὐλογία σου.

Text by: Psalm 3, LXX - Wikisource - Greek

In the Vulgate[edit]

St Jerome, main author of the Vulgate.

In the Vulgate, Psalm 3[2] is translated as follows:

1 canticum David cum fugeret a facie Abessalon filii sui
2 Domine quare multiplicati sunt hostes mei multi consurgunt adversus me
3 multi dicunt animae meae non est salus huic in Deo semper
4 tu autem Domine clipeus circa me gloria mea et exaltans caput meum
5 voce mea ad Dominum clamabo et exaudiet me de monte sancto suo semper
6 ego dormivi et soporatus sum evigilavi quia Dominus sustentavit me
7 non timebo milia populi quae circumdederunt me surge Domine salvum me fac Deus meus
8 quia percussisti omnium inimicorum meorum maxillam dentes impiorum confregisti
9 Domini est salus super populum tuum benedictio tua semper

In the English Authorised Version[edit]

Frontispiece to the King James' Bible, 1611, shows the Twelve Apostles at the top. Moses and Aaron flank the central text. In the four corners sit Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, authors of the four gospels, with their symbolic animals. At the top, over the holy spirit in a form of a dove, is the Tetragrammaton "יהוה" ("YHWH").

In the English Authorised version, Psalm 3[3] is translated as follows:

A Psalm of David, when he fled from Absalom his son

1 Lord, how are they increased that trouble me! many are they that rise up against me.

2 Many there be which say of my soul, There is no help for him in God. Selah.

3 But thou, O LORD, art a shield for me; my glory, and the lifter up of mine head.

4 I cried unto the LORD with my voice, and he heard me out of his holy hill. Selah.

5 I laid me down and slept; I awaked; for the LORD sustained me.

6 I will not be afraid of ten thousands of people, that have set themselves against me round about.

7 Arise, O LORD; save me, O my God: for thou hast smitten all mine enemies upon the cheek bone; thou hast broken the teeth of the ungodly.

8 Salvation belongeth unto the LORD: thy blessing is upon thy people. Selah.

Commentary[edit]

Commentary by Matthew Henry[4][edit]

In Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary, verse 1-3 represents David complaining to God of his enemies, and confiding in God. Verses 4-8 represents his triumphs over his fears, and giving God the glory, while taking to himself the comfort.

Commentary by Adam Clark[5][edit]

In Adam Clark's Commentary, verses 1-2 represents David's complaint, in great distress, of the number of his enemies, and the reproaches they cast on him, as one forsaken of God. Verse 3 represents as confidence, notwithstanding, that God will be his protector. Verse 4-5 mention David's prayers and supplications, and how God heard him. Verses 6-7 deride the impotent malice of his adversaries, and foretell their destruction. The final verse ascribes salvation to God.

Verse 1: Lord, how are they increased that trouble me? The hearts of all Israel went after Absalom (2 Samuel xv. 13), and David was astonished to find such a sudden and general revolt. Not only the common people, but his counsellors also, and many of his chief captains.

Verse 2: No help for him in God: one of many reproaches of his enemies. Shimei said: "Come out, come out, thou bloody man, and thou man of Belial: The LORD hath returned upon thee all the blood of the house of Saul, in whose stead thou hast reigned; and the LORD hath delivered the kingdom into the hand of Absalom thy son: and, behold, thou art taken in thy mischief, because thou art a bloody man." (2 Samuel xvi. 7-8) Such reproaches deeply affected David's heart, and he mentions them with that note which so frequently occurs in the Psalms, and occurs in Psalm 3 for the first time, 'selah', a word the Septuagint translate by diayalma diapsalma, "a pause in the Psalm." It either comes from ls sal, to raise or elevate, and may denote a particular elevation in the voices of the performers, which is very observable in the Jewish singing to the present day. It may come from hls salah, to strew or spread out, intimating that the subject to which the word is attached should be spread out, meditated on, and attentively considered by the reader.

Verse 3. Thou, O Lord art a shield: As a shield covers and defends the body from the strokes of an adversary, so wilt thou cover and defend me from them that rise up against me. The lifter up of mine head: Thou wilt restore me to the state from which my enemies have cast me down, as he speaks prophetically. He was satisfied that the deliverance would take place, hence his confidence in prayer; so that we find him, with comparative unconcern, laying himself down in his bed, expecting the sure protection of the Almighty.

Verse 4. I cried unto the Lord with my voice: Exposed to much danger, David had need of fervour. He heard me: Notwithstanding my enemies said, and my friends feared, that there was no help for me in my God. yet he heard me out of his holy hill. Selah: God never forsakes those who trust in him. He never shuts out the prayer of the distressed.

Verse 5. I laid me down and slept: He who knows that he has God for his Protector may go quietly and confidently to his bed, not fearing the violence of the fire, the edge of the sword, the designs of wicked men, nor the influence of malevolent spirits. I awaked: Though humanly speaking there was reason to fear I should have been murdered in my bed, as my most confidential servants had been corrupted by my rebellious son. yet God, my shield, protected me: I both slept and awaked; and my life is still whole in me.

Verse 6. I will not be afraid of ten thousands: Strength and numbers are nothing against the omnipotence of God. He who has made God his refuge certainly has no cause to fear.

Verse 7. Arise, O Lord: Though he knew that God had undertaken his defense, yet he knew that his continued protection depended on his continual prayer and faith. God never ceases to help as long as we pray. Thou hast smitten: That is, Thou wilt smite. David speaks in full confidence of God's interference; and knows as surely that he shall have the victory, as if he had it already. Breaking the jaws and the teeth are expressions which imply, confounding and destroying an adversary; treating him with extreme contempt; using him like a dog, &c.

Verse 8. Salvation belongeth unto the Lord: It is God alone who saves. He is the fountain whence help and salvation come; and to him alone the praise of all saved souls is due. His blessing is upon his people. Those who are saved from the power and the guilt of sin are his people. His mercy saved them; and it is by his blessing being continually upon them, that they continue to be saved. David adds his selah here also: 1. Salvation comes from God. 2. Salvation is continued by God.

Commentary by St. Augustine of Hippo[edit]

New Advent: St. Augustine, Exposition on Psalm 3

Musical Settings[edit]

Psalm 3 has been scored in music by many artists, including "Thou Art A Shield For Me",[6] by Byron Cage, "Christian Karaoke Praise Song Psalm 3 worship",[7] by Andrew Bain.

Uses[edit]

Judaism[edit]

Eastern Orthodox Church[edit]

  • Psalm 3 is the first Psalm, of "The Six Psalms", which are read as part of every Orthros (Matins) service. During the reading of the Six Psalms, movement and noise are strongly discouraged, as it is regarded as one of the most holy moments of the Orthros service.[11]

References[edit]

  1. ^ תְּהִלִּים
  2. ^ Psalm 3, Jerome's Latin Vulgate (405 A.D.), The Book of Psalms
  3. ^ Psalm 3 (King James Version), from Bible Gateway
  4. ^ Matthew Henry’s Concise Commentary on Psalm 3
  5. ^ Clark's Commentary on Psalm 3
  6. ^ Thou Art A Shield For Me Psalm 3 lyrics, by Byron Cage.
  7. ^ Christian Karaoke Praise Song Psalm 3 worship, by Andrew Bain.
  8. ^ The Complete Artscroll Siddur page 291
  9. ^ The Complete Artscroll Siddur page 63
  10. ^ The Complete Artscroll Siddur page 619
  11. ^ Dykstra, Tyler. "The Six Psalms". Saint George Antiochian Orthodox Church. Retrieved 4 July 2013.