Latin Psalters

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The "Golden psalter" open to psalm 51(52), Quid gloriaris in malitia, qui potens es in iniquitate?
"Beatus initial" for the start of Psalm 1 "Beatus vir", from the Leiden St Louis Psalter

The Latin Psalters are the translations of the Book of Psalms into the Latin language. They are the premier liturgical resource used in the Liturgy of the Hours of the Latin Rites of the Roman Catholic Church. These translations are typically placed in a separate volume or a section of the breviary called the psalter, in which the psalms are arranged to be prayed at the canonical hours of the day. In the Middle Ages, psalters were often lavish illuminated manuscripts, and in the Gothic period were the type of book most often chosen to be richly illuminated by the clergy.

Versions[edit]

The Latin Church has a diverse selection of more-or-less different translations of the psalms. Three of these translations, the Romana, Gallicana, and juxta Hebraicum, are traditionally ascribed to Jerome, the author of the Latin Vulgate. Two of these translations, the Pian and New Vulgate versions, were made in the 20th century.

Many of these translations are actually quite similar to each other, especially in style: the Roman, Gallican, Ambrosian, and Mozarabic psalters have relatively few differences between them. The concord among these similar psalters is attributable to a common original translation from the Greek Septuagint. The New Vulgate psalter, though stylistically similar to these, diverges rather more from these traditional psalters insofar as it more closely follows the Hebrew Masoretic text. Two of these psalters stand apart as independent translations from the Hebrew: Jerome's juxta Hebraicum and the Pian version.

Versio Vetus Latina[edit]

Also called the Psalterium Vetus, the psalter of the Old Latin Bible was used in the earliest days of the Latin liturgy in Rome, under Pope Damasus I.[1] A translation from the Septuagint, it provided the basis for Jerome's first revision of the psalter.

Versio Ambrosiana[edit]

This is the version used in the Ambrosian rite. It was made in the middle of the 4th century from the Septuagint.[1]

Versio Romana[edit]

The Roman Psalter, called also the Versio Romana or Psalterium Romanum, traditionally has been considered to be the same as Jerome's first revision of the psalms completed in 384, which was made from the Versio Vetus Latina, and corrected to bring it more in line with the Greek psalms. It is similar to the version used in the Ambrosian[2] and Mozarabic rites. The Roman version is used in the Roman Missal, but in the Divine Office, however, it was soon replaced throughout most of the west by Jerome's so-called "Gallican" version. It lived on in Britain where it continued to be used until the Norman Conquest in 1066 and in Saint Peter's Basilica in Rome and in St. Mark's Cathedral in Venice. It survives to this day in the Divine Office as the solemn chanted text of the Invitatory psalm, Psalm 94, where it is the sole survivor in a liturgy where the Gallican, Pian, or New Vulgate translation is otherwise used.

Versio Gallicana[edit]

The Versio Gallicana or Psalterium Gallicanum has traditionally been considered Jerome's second revision, which he made from the Greek of the Hexapla c. 386-391. This became the psalter of the Vulgate bible, and the basis for Gregorian chant. It became the standard psalter used in the canonical hours throughout the West from the time of Charlemagne until it was replaced in the 2nd edition of the Liturgy of the Hours by the Versio Nova Vulgata in 1986. It is still used today in some monasteries and churches and by traditionalist Catholics.

This most influential psalter has a distinctive style which is attributable to its origins as a translation of the Septuagint.[3] Following the Septuagint, it eschews anthropomorphisms. For instance, the term rock is applied to God numerous times in the Hebrew Psalter, but the Latin term petra does not occur as an epithet for God in the gallicana. Instead more abstract words like refugium, "refuge"; locus munitus, "place of strength"; or adiutor, "helper" are used.[4]

This psalter retains many Hebraisms by way of the Greek, the most noticeable being the redundant demonstrative. The relative pronoun is indeclinable in Hebrew, and so is accompanied by a redundant demonstrative. This use is reproduced in the Latin, although Latin has no need for it. For instance, Ps 18:4(19:3), quorum non audiantur voces eorum, which means, "whose voices, their voices, be not heard". Also Ps 32(33):12, Beata gens cujus est Dominus Deus ejus, "blessed is the nation whose God, its God, is the Lord". Ps 121(122):3, civitas, cujus participatio ejus in idipsum, "a city whose share, its share, is compact".

Another Hebraism is the use of the conditional "if" to mean the negative "not". Examples include Ps 88:36(89:34), si David mentiar, "if I lie to David", which means, "I will not lie to David". Ps 94(95):11, Si introibunt in requiem meam, "if they shall enter into my rest", which means, "they shall not enter into my rest. Ps 131(132):3, Si introiero in tabernaculum domus meae, "If I shall enter into the tabernacle of my house", which means, "I shall not enter into the tabernacle of my house". Ps 130(131) has a double negative, Si non humiliter sentiebam sed exaltavi animam meam, "If I was not humbly minded but exalted my soul", which is equivalent to "I was humbly minded and did not exalt my soul".

Hebrew has only two grammatical genders, masculine and feminine, while Latin also has a third, the neuter. Hebrew's lack of a neuter gender sometimes shows up in very idiosyncratic phrasing in the Gallican Psalter, for instance Ps. 26(27):4, unam petii a Domino, hanc requiram, "One thing I have asked of the Lord, this will I seek after", where "thing" is rendered feminine in the verse. A native speaker of Latin would have used a neuter instead: Unum petii a Domino, hoc requiram.

Classical Latin occasionally employs a dangling nominative for rhetorical flourish, but this construction is especially common in the Gallicana. Ps. 17(18):31 has, Deus meus, impolluta via ejus, "my God, his way is undefiled" to mean, "the way of my God is undefiled". Likewise Ps. 125(126):1 has, In convertendo Dominus captivitatem Sion, facti sumus sicut consolati for "The Lord, in bringing back the captivity of Zion, we became like men comforted", instead of, Cum converteret Dominus captivitatem Sion, facti sumus sicut consolati, meaning, "When the Lord brought back the captivity of Zion, we became like men comforted".

Versio juxta Hebraicum[edit]

This version was the last made by Jerome. It is often informally called the "Hebrew Psalter" despite being written in Latin. Rather than just revise the Gallicana, he translated these psalms anew from the Hebrew, using pre-Masoretic manuscripts ca. 392.[5] This psalter is found in a few of the oldest surviving manuscripts of the Vulgate. It was found in Spanish manuscripts of the Vulgate long after the Gallicanum supplanted it elsewhere.[6] It is not clear that it was ever used in the liturgy.

Versio Piana[edit]

Under Pius XII in 1945, a new translation of the psalms, the Versio Piana, Psalterium Vaticanum or simply Novum Psalterium, was published by the Pontifical Biblical Institute. One of its merits was that it was made from a reconstructed Hebrew text based largely on the Masoretic. Its Latin adopted a classical rather than a biblical style. This version is sometimes called the Bea psalter after its author, Augustin Bea.[7] Its use in the liturgy was widely encouraged but not required. It was adopted by some religious orders (e.g. Carmelites and Franciscans) for use in their liturgy, but its use was resisted in some quarters.[8] It can be found in most breviaries printed between 1945 and 1971.

Versio Nova Vulgata[edit]

In 1969, a new psalter was published which translated the Masoretic text while keeping much of the poetry and style of the Gallican psalter. It has proved to be a popular alternative to Jerome's Gallicana. While it is based on the Gallican, it shows the influence of other versions, e.g., in Psalm 95 it follows the Piana in translating מְרִיבָה and מסה as the proper names Meriba and Massa rather than as common nouns meaning exasperation and temptation; likewise מצער is transliterated as the proper name Misar rather than as a common adjective meaning "small" in Psalm 42. The 1969 psalter deviates from the previous versions in that it follows the Masoretic numbering of the psalms, rather than the Septuagint enumeration. It is the psalter used in the edition of the Roman Office published in 1986.[9]

Comparison[edit]

Below is a comparison of Jerome's three versions of the psalm Venite exsultemus with the older Ambrosian version as well as the two 20th century versions, which illustrates some of the distinctions noted above:

Versio Ambrosiana[10] Versio Romana[11] Versio Gallicana[12] Versio juxta Hebraicum[13] Versio Piana[14] Versio Nova Vulgata[15]
Psalmus 94 Psalmus 94 Psalmus 94 Psalmus 94 Psalmus 94 Psalmus 95
Venite, exultemus Domino: jubilemus Deo salutari nostro. Præveniamus faciem ejus in confessione: et in psalmis jubilemus illi. Quoniam Deus magnus Dominus: et Rex magnus super omnes deos. Venite, exsultemus Domino; iubilemus Deo salutari nostro. Præoccupemus faciem eius in confessione, et in psalmis iubilemus ei. Quoniam Deus magnus Dominus, et rex magnus super omnes deos. Venite, exsultemus Domino; jubilemus Deo salutari nostro; præoccupemus faciem ejus in confessione, et in psalmis jubilemus ei: quoniam Deus magnus Dominus, et rex magnus super omnes deos. venite laudemus Dominum iubilemus petrae Iesu nostro praeoccupemus vultum eius in actione gratiarum in canticis iubilemus ei quoniam fortis et magnus Dominus et rex magnus super omnes deos Venite, exsultemus Domino, Acclamemus Petrae salutis nostrae: Accedamus in conspectum eius cum laudibus, Cum canticis exsultemus ei. Nam Deus magnus est Dominus, Et Rex magnus super omnes deos. Venite, exsultemus Domino; iubilemus Deo salutari nostro. Praeoccupemus faciem eius in confessione et in psalmis iubilemus ei. Quoniam Deus magnus Dominus, et rex magnus super omnes deos.
Quoniam in manu ejus sunt omnes fines terræ: et altitudines montium ipsius sunt. Quoniam ipsius est mare, et ipse fecit illud, et aridam fundaverunt manus ejus. Quoniam non repellet Dominus plebem suam, quia in manu eius sunt omnes fines terræ, et altitudines montium ipse conspicit; quoniam ipsius est mare, et ipse fecit illud: et aridam fundaverunt manus eius. Quia in manu ejus sunt omnes fines terræ, et altitudines montium ipsius sunt; quoniam ipsius est mare, et ipse fecit illud, et siccam manus ejus formaverunt. in cuius manu fundamenta terrae et excelsa montium ipsius sunt cuius est mare ipse enim fecit illud et siccam manus eius plasmaverunt In manu eius sunt profunda terrae, Et altitudines montium ipsius sunt. Ipsius est mare: nam ipse fecit illud, Et terra sicca, quam formaverunt manus eius: Quia in manu eius sunt profunda terrae, et altitudines montium ipsius sunt. Quoniam ipsius est mare, et ipse fecit illud, et siccam manus eius formaverunt.
Venite, adoremus et procidamus ante eum: et ploremus coram Domino qui fecit nos. Quia ipse est Dominus Deus noster: nos autem populus ejus et oves manus ejus. Venite, adoremus, et procidamus ante Deum, ploremus coram Domino qui fecit nos, quia ipse est Dominus Deus noster, nos autem populus eius et oves pascuæ eius. Venite, adoremus, et procidamus, et ploremus ante Dominum qui fecit nos: quia ipse est Dominus Deus noster, et nos populus pascuæ ejus, et oves manus ejus. venite adoremus et curvemur flectamus genua ante faciem Domini factoris nostri quia ipse est Deus noster et nos populus pascuae eius et grex manus eius Venite, adoremus et procidamus, Et genua flectamus Domino qui fecit nos. Nam ipse est Deus noster, Nos autem populus pascuae eius et oves manus eius. Venite, adoremus et procidamus et genua flectamus ante Dominum, qui fecit nos, quia ipse est Deus noster, et nos populus pascuae eius et oves manus eius.
Hodie si vocem ejus audieritis, nolite obdurare corda vestra: sicut in exacerbatatione. Secundum diem tentationis in deserto, ubi tentaverunt me patres vestri: probaverunt et viderunt opera mea. Hodie si vocem eius audieritis "nolite obdurare corda vestra, sicut in exacerbatione secundum diem tentationis in deserto, ubi tentaverunt me patres vestri: probaverunt et viderunt opera mea. Hodie si vocem ejus audieritis, nolite obdurare corda vestra sicut in irritatione, secundum diem tentationis in deserto, ubi tentaverunt me patres vestri: probaverunt me, et viderunt opera mea. hodie si vocem eius audieritis nolite indurare corda vestra sicut in contradictione sicut in die temptationis in deserto ubi temptaverunt me patres vestri probaverunt me et viderunt opus meum Utinam hodie vocem eius audiatis: “Nolite obdurare corda vestra ut in Meriba, Ut die Massa in deserto, ubi tentaverunt me patres vestri, Probaverunt me, etsi viderunt opera mea. Utinam hodie vocem eius audiatis: “Nolite obdurare corda vestra, sicut in Meriba, secundum diem Massa in deserto, ubi tentaverunt me patres vestri: probaverunt me, etsi viderunt opera mea.
Quadraginta annis infensus fui generationi huic: et dixi: Semper hi errant corde. Ipsi autem non cognoverunt vias meas: quibus juravi in ira mea, si introibunt in requiem meam. Quadraginta annis proximus fui generationi huic, et dixi: Semper hi errant corde. Ipsi vero non cognoverunt vias meas, quibus iuravi in ira mea: Si introibunt in requiem meam". Quadraginta annis offensus fui generationi illi, et dixi: Semper hi errant corde. Et isti non cognoverunt vias meas: ut juravi in ira mea: Si introibunt in requiem meam. quadraginta annis displicuit mihi generatio illa et dixi populus errans corde est et non cognoscens vias meas et iuravi in furore meo ut non introirent in requiem meam Quadraginta annos taeduit me generationis illius, Et dixi: Populus errans corde sunt, Et non noverunt vias meas. Ideo iuravi in ira mea: Non introibunt in requiem meam”. Quadraginta annis taeduit me generationis illius et dixi: Populus errantium corde sunt isti. Et ipsi non cognoverunt vias meas; ideo iuravi in ira mea: Non introibunt in requiem meam”.

Enumeration[edit]

The enumeration of the psalms differs in the Nova Vulgata from that used in the earlier versions. The earlier versions take their enumeration from the Greek Septuagint. The Versio Nova Vulgata takes its enumeration from the Hebrew Masoretic Text.

Old enumeration used by the Vulgate and other early versions; taken from the Septuagint New enumeration used by the Versio Nova Vulgata and most modern English bibles; taken from the Masoretic Text
1-8
9 9-10
10-112 11-113
113 114-115
114-115 116
116-145 117-146
146-147 147
148-150
  • Psalms 9 and 10 in the Nova Vulgata are together as Psalm 9 in the older versions
  • Psalms 114 and 115 in the Nova Vulgata are Psalm 113 in the older versions
  • Psalms 114 and 115 in the older versions appear as Psalm 116 in the Nova Vulgata
  • Psalms 146 and 147 in the older versions form Psalm 147 in the Nova Vulgata
  • Psalms 10-112 and 116-145 (132 out of the 150) in the older versions are numbered lower by one than the same psalm in the Nova Vulgata.
  • Psalms 1-8 and 148-150, 11 psalms in total, are numbered the same in both the old versions and the new one.

Divisions[edit]

Apart from the schemata described below, it was customary in medieval psalters to divide the text of the psalms in numerical sequence into sections or divisions, the start of which were typically marked by a much larger and more decorated initial letter than for the other psalms. The "B" of Psalm 1, Beatus Vir, usually was the most enlarged and decorated, and often those two words occupied a full page, the rounded shape of the letter being very suitable for decoration. These are often referred to as "Beatus initials". In Early Medieval psalters a three-fold division with decorated letters at Psalms 1, 51, 101 was typical, but by the Gothic period French psalters were often divided into eight sections, and English ones into ten, at Psalms 1,26,38, 51, 52, 68, 80, 97, 101 and 109.[16]

Schemata[edit]

A scheme (Latin schema, plural schemata) is an arrangement of all or most of the psalms for distribution to the various canonical hours. In addition to the psalms proper, these schemata typically include psalm-like canticles from other books of the Bible. Historically, these schemata have distributed the entire 150 psalms with added canticles over a period of one week, although the 1971 Liturgy of the Hours omits a few psalms and some verses and distributes the remainder over a 4-week cycle. Some of the more important schemes are detailed below.[17][18]

In addition to the psalms, the schema lists canticles, that is, biblical texts from outside of the book of Psalms that are chanted as if they were psalms.

In addition to the psalter, the schema uses an ordinary which includes the texts that are to be chanted every day. These include the Invitatory, normally psalm 94(95), and the canticles Benedictus Dominus, Magnificat, and Nunc dimittis.

Schema of St. Benedict[edit]

St. Benedict of Nursia around the year 540 wrote a scheme for use in his monastery. This scheme is still used in some Benedictine monasteries today.

Schema of Pope St. Pius V[edit]

As commissioned by the Council of Trent, St. Pius V published a reform of the Roman Breviary in 1568 for use by the churches of the Roman rite. The scheme used in this breviary differs in some details from the Scheme of St. Benedict, but follows its overall pattern.

Schema of Pope St. Pius X[edit]

In 1911, St. Pius X reformed the Roman Breviary, re-arranging the psalms so that there was less repetition and so that each day of the week had approximately the same amount of psalm-chanting.

The following canticles are used in this schema:

  • Audite verbum Domini; Jer 31, 10-14
  • Auscultate, caeli; Deut 32, 1-18
  • Benedicite omnia; Dan 3,57-88
  • Benedictus Dominus; Lc 1, 68-79
  • Benedictus es; 1 Chr 29,10-13
  • Cantabo Domino; Exod 15, 1-18
  • Domine, audivi; Hab 3, 2-19
  • Ego dixi; Is 38, 10-20
  • Exultat cor meum; 1 Kgs 2, 1-10
  • Gratias ago tibi; Is 12, 1-6
  • Incipite Domino; Judt 16,2;16-20
  • Magnificat; Lc 1,46-55
  • Magnus es; Tob 13,1-10
  • Miserere nostri; Eccli 36, 1-16
  • Nunc dimittis; Lc 2,29-32
  • Vere tu es; Is 45, 15-26

The schema is:

Hour Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday
Matins, Nocturn I 1; 2; 3; 13; 14; 16; 34i; 34ii; 34iii 44i; 44ii; 45 61; 65i; 65ii 77i; 77ii; 77iii 104i; 104ii; 104iii
Matins, Nocturn II 8; 9i; 9ii 17i; 17ii; 17iii 36i; 36ii; 36iii 47; 48i; 48ii; 67i; 67ii; 67iii 77iv; 77v; 77vi 105i; 105ii; 105iii
Matins, Nocturn III 9iii; 9iv; 10 19; 20; 29 37i; 37ii; 38 49i; 49ii; 50 68i; 68ii; 68iii 78; 80; 82 106i; 106ii; 106iii
Lauds I 92; 99; 62; Benedicite omnia; 148; 46; 5; 28; Benedictus es; 116 95; 42; 66; Magnus es; 134 96; 64; 100; Incipite Domino; 145 97; 89; 35; Audite verbum Domini; 146 98; 142; 84; Vere tu es; 147 149; 91; 63; Miserere nostri; 150
Lauds II 50; 117; 62; Benedictus es; "148; 50; 5; 28; Gratias ago tibi; 116; 50; 42; 66; Ego dixi; 134; 50; 64; 100; Exultat cor meum; 145; 50; 89; 35; Cantabo Domino; 146; 50; 142; 84; Domine, audivi; 147; 50; 91; 63; Ascultate, caeli; 150;
Prime 117; 118i; 118ii; 23; 18i; 18ii; 24i; 24ii; 24iii; 25; 51; 52 22; 71i; 71ii 21i; 21ii; 21iii 93i; 93ii; 107
Terce 118iii; 118iv; 118v 26i; 26ii; 27 39i; 39ii; 39iii 53; 54i; 54ii 72i; 72ii; 72iii 79i; 79ii; 81 101i; 101ii; 101iii
Sext 118vi; 118vii; 118viii 30i; 30ii; 30iii; 40; 41i; 41ii 55; 56; 57 73i; 73ii; 73iii 83i; 83ii; 86 103i; 103ii; 103iii
None 118ix; 118x; 118xi 31; 32i; 32ii 43i; 43ii; 43iii 58i; 58ii; 59 74; 75i; 75ii 88i; 88ii; 88iii 108i; 108ii; 108iii
Vespers 109; 110; 111; 112; 113; 114; 115; 119; 120; 121; 122; 123; 124; 125; 126; 127; 128; 129; 130; 131; 132; 135i; 135ii; 136; 137 138i; 138ii; 139; 140; 141 143i; 143ii; 144i; 144ii; 144iii
Compline 4; 90; 133; 6; 7i; 7ii 11; 12; 15; 33i; 33ii; 60 69; 70i; 70ii 76i; 76ii; 85 87; 102i; 102ii

Psalm 94 (the Invitiatory) was recited every day at the beginning of Matins. With Lauds, there are two schemes. Lauds I were celebrated on all Sundays and ferias, except from Septuagesima until Palm Sunday inclusive, and on feasts celebrated at any time of the year. Lauds II, having a more penitential character, were used on the Sundays and ferias of Advent until the vigil of Christmas and from Septuagesima until Monday of Holy Week inclusive. They were also used on vigils of the second and third class outside of Paschaltide. When Lauds II were said, the omitted psalm was said as a fourth psalm at Prime, in order to include all 150 psalms each week during penitential seasons; on Sundays with Lauds II, the scheme became 92, 99, 118i, and 118ii. On feasts which used the Sunday psalms, 53, 118i, and 118ii were said at Prime. On Sundays after Epiphany and Pentecost, the Athanasian Creed was said fourth at Prime; it was omitted if a commemoration of a Double feast or of an octave occurred.[19]

Schema of Pope Paul VI[edit]

In 1971 with the release of a new edition of the Divine Office under Pope Paul VI, the Liturgia Horarum, a new schema was introduced which distributed 147 of the 150 psalms across a four-week cycle. In addition to the three omitted psalms, some 59 verses of other psalms are removed along with parts of two verses. These omissions are intended to make the psalms easier to understand so that the Divine Office can better be prayed by the laity. The reduced psalmody resulting from dividing the psalter over 4 weeks instead of 1 is also intended to ease lay participation.

Although the psalter of the 2000 edition[9] of the Liturgy of the Hours uses the translation of the Nova Vulgata,[20] the numeration used is that of the older editions of the Vulgate, with the new numeration in parenthesis where it differs. For instance, the psalm beginning Dominus pascit me is numbered 22(23), and Venite exsultemus is numbered 94(95).

Because some of the psalms are so much longer than others, the longer psalms are divided into divisios, that is parts to be chanted separately. This follows the Benedictine practice and was introduced into the Roman Office widely by Pope Pius X. In the Pius V schema only Ps. 118 was divided into parts, and it was said throughout Prime, Terce, Sext, and None every day. These parts are labelled with Roman numerals. In particular, psalm 118(119) was divided into 22 parts, one for each letter of the Hebrew alphabet, which are labelled 118(119)i – 118(119)xxii. Most of the longer psalms were divided into 3 parts, labelled i – iii.

The psalmody of each of the hours of the day except compline contains three psalms or parts of psalms. Lauds contains a canticle of the Old Testament in place of the second psalm, and Vespers contains a canticle of the New Testament in place of the third psalm.

The Canticles[edit]

There are 34 canticles in the psalter and 3 in the ordinary. The three canticles in the ordinary are from the gospels. The 26 psalter canticles for Lauds are from the Old Testament. The 8 psalter canticles for Vespers are from the New Testament excluding the gospels. The texts of the canticles and the references given below are from the Nova Vulgata.[20]

  • Alleluia;[21] Ap 19, 1-2. 5-7.
  • Audite caeli quae loquor; Deut 32, 1-12
  • Audite qui longe estis; Is 33,13-16
  • Audite verbum Domini gentes; Jer 31:10-14
  • Benedicite Dominum omnes electi; Tob 13, 8-11. 13-14ab. 15-16ab.
  • Benedicite omnia opera Domini Domino; Dan 3,57-88. 56
  • Benedictus Dominus; Lc 1, 68-79
  • Benedictus Deus et Pater; Eph 1, 3-10
  • Benedictus Deus vivens in aevum; Tob 13,2-8
  • Benedictus es Domine Deus Israel; 1 Chr 29, 10-13
  • Benedictus es Domine Deus patrum nostrorum I; Dan 3,26. 27. 39. 34-41
  • Benedictus es Domine Deus patrum nostrorum II; Dan 3,52-57
  • Cantate Domino canticum novum; Is 42, 10-16
  • Cantemus Domino; Ex 15,1-4b. 8-13. 17-18
  • Christus Iesus; Phil 2,6-11
  • Christus passus est pro vobis;[21] 1 Petr 2,21-24
  • Confitebor tibi Domine; Is 12,1-6
  • Deducant oculi mei lacrimam; Ier 14,17-21
  • Deus patrum meorum; Sap 9,1-6. 9-11
  • Dignus es; Ap 4,11; 5,9.10.12
  • Domine audivi auditionem tuam; Hab 3,2-4. 13a. 15-19
  • Ecce Dominus Deus in virtute venit; Is 40,10-17
  • Ego dixi In dimidio dierum meorum; Is 38,10-14. 17-20
  • Erit in novissimis diebus; Is 2,2-5
  • Exsultavit cor meum in Domino; 1 Sam 2,1-10
  • Gaudens gaudebo in Domino; Is 61,10 – 62,5
  • Gratias agamus Deo Patri; Col 1,12-20
  • Gratias agimus tibi; Ap 11,17-18; 12, 10b-12a
  • Incipite Deo meo in tympanis; Iudt 16,1-2. 13-15
  • Laetamini; Is 66,10-14a
  • Magna et mirabilia; Ap 15,3-4
  • Magnificat; Lc 1,46-55
  • Miserere nostri Deus omnium et respice nos; Sir 36,1-7. 13-16
  • Nunc dimittis; Lc 2,29-32
  • Tollam quippe vos de gentibus; Ez 36,24-28
  • Urbs fortis nobis in salutem; Is 26,1-4. 7-9. 12
  • Vere tu es Deus absconditus; Is 45,15-25

Week 1[edit]

The first week of the psalter is used for the first week of Advent, the week beginning with the first Sunday falling on or after December 25, the weeks beginning on the first and fifth Sundays of Lent, the fifth week of Easter, and the 1st, 5th, 9th, 13th, 17th, 21st, 25th, 29th, and 33rd weeks of Ordinary Time.

Day Office of Reading Lauds Hora media[22] Vespers Compline
Sunday Vigil 140(141); 141(142); Christus Jesus 4; 133(134)
Sunday 1; 2; 3; 62(63); Benedicite omnia; 149 117(118)i; 117(118)ii; 117(118)iii; 109(110); 113A(114); Alleluia[21] 90(91)
Monday 6; 9A(9)i; 9A(9)ii; 5; Benedictus es Domine Deus Israel; 28(29) 18B(19B); 7i; 7ii 10(11); 14(15); Benedictus Deus et Pater 85(86)
Tuesday 9B(10)i; 9B(10)ii; 11(12) 23(24); Benedictus Deus vivens; 32(33) 118(119)i; 12(13); 13(14) 19(20); 20(21); Dignus es 142(143)
Wednesday 17(18)i; 17(18)ii; 17(18)iii 35(36); Incipite; 46(47) 118(119)ii; 16(17)i; 16(17)ii 26(27)i; 26(27)ii; Gratias agamus Deo 30(31),2-6; 129(130)
Thursday 17(18)iv; 17(18)v; 17(18)vi 56(57); Audite verbum; 47(48) 118(119)iii; 24(25)i; 24(25)ii 29(30); 31(32); Gratias agimus tibi 15(16)
Friday 34(35)i; 34(35)ii; 34(35)iii 50(51); Vere tu es; 99(100) 118(119)iv; 25(26); 27(28) 40(41); 45(46); Magna et mirabilia 87(88)
Saturday 130(131); 131(132)i; 131(132)ii [23] 118(119)xix; Cantemus Domino; 116(117) 118(119)v; 33(34)i; 33(34)ii

Week 2[edit]

The second week of the psalter is used for the second week of Advent, the week beginning with the first Sunday falling on or after January 1, the weeks beginning on the second and sixth Sundays of Lent, the second and sixth weeks of Easter, and the 2nd, 6th, 10th, 14th, 18th, 22nd, 26th, 30th, and 34th weeks of Ordinary Time.

Day Office of Reading Lauds Hora media[22] Vespers Compline
Sunday Vigil 118(119)xiv; 15(16); Christus Jesus; 4; 133(134)
Sunday 103(104)i; 103(104)ii; 103(104)iii 117(118); Benedictus es Domine Deus patrum nostrorum II; 150 22(23); 75(76)i; 75(76)ii 109(110); 113B(115); Alleluia;[21] 90(91)
Monday 30(31)i; 30(31)ii; 30(31)iii 41(42); Miserere nostri; 18(19)A 118(119)vi; 39(40)i; 39(40)ii 44(45)i; 44(45)ii; Benedictus Deus et Pater; 85(86)
Tuesday 36(37)i; 36(37)ii; 36(37)iii 42(43); Ego dixi; 64(65) 118(119)vii; 52(53); 53(54) 48(49)i; 48(49)ii; Dignus es; 142(143)
Wednesday 38(39)i; 38(39)ii; 51(52); 76(77); Exsultavit cor meo in Dominum; 96(97) 118(119)viii; 54(55)i; 54(55)ii 61(62); 66(67); Gratias agamus Deo; 30(31),2-6; 129(130)
Thursday 43(44)i; 43(44)ii; 43(44)iii 79(80); Confitebor tibi Domine; 80(81) 118(119)ix; 55(56); 56(57) 71(72)i; 71(72)ii; Gratias agimus tibi; 15(16)
Friday 37(38)i; 37(38)ii; 37(38)iii 50(51); Domine audivi auditionem tuam; 147(147B) 118(119)x; 58(59); 59(60) 114(116A); 120(121); Magna et mirabilia; 87(88)
Saturday 135(136)i; 135(136)ii; 135(136)iii[24] 91(92); Audite caeli; 8 118(119)xi; 60(61); 63(64)

Week 3[edit]

The third week of the psalter is used for the third week of Advent, the week beginning on the third Sunday of Lent, the third and seventh weeks of Easter, and the 3rd, 7th, 11th, 15th, 19th, 23rd, 27th, and 31st weeks of Ordinary Time.

Day Office of Reading Lauds Hora media[22] Vespers Compline
Sunday Vigil 112(113); 115(116B); Christus Jesus; 4; 133(134)
Sunday 144(145)i; 144(145)ii; 144(145)iii 92(93); Benedicite omnia; 148 117(118)i; 117(118)ii; 117(118)iii 109(110); 110(111); Alleluia;[21] 90(91)
Monday 49(50)i; 49(50)ii; 49(50)iii 83(84); Erit in novissimis diebus; 95(96) 118(119)xii; 70(71)i; 70(71)ii 122(123); 123(124); Benedictus Deus et Pater; 85(86)
Tuesday 67(68)i; 67(68)ii; 67(68)iii 84(85); Urbs fortis; 66(67) 118(119)xiii; 73(74)i; 73(74)ii 124(125); 130(131); Dignus es; 142(143)
Wednesday 88(89)i; 88(89)ii; 88(89)iii 85(86); Audite qui longe estis; 97(98) 118(119)xiv; 69(70); 74(75) 125(126); 126(127); Gratias agamus Deo; 30(31),2-6; 129(130)
Thursday 88(89)iv; 88(89)v; 89(90) 86(87); Ecce Dominus Deus in virtute venit; 98(99) 118(119)xv; 78(79); 79(80) 131(132)i; 131(132)ii; Gratias agimus tibi; 15(16)
Friday 68(69)i; 68(69)ii; 68(69)iii 50(51); Deducant oculi mei lacrimam; 99(100) 21(22)i; 21(22)ii; 21(22)iii 134(135)i; 134(135)ii; Magna et mirabilia; 87(88)
Saturday 106(107)i; 106(107)ii; 106(107)iii 118(119)xix; Deus patrum meorum; 116(117) 118(119)xvi; 33(34)i; 33(34)ii

Week 4[edit]

The fourth week of the psalter is used for the fourth week of Advent, the days of Lent from Ash Wednesday until the following Saturday, the week beginning on the fourth Sunday of Lent, the fourth week of Easter, and the 4th, 8th, 12th, 16th, 20th, 24th, 28th, and 32nd weeks of Ordinary Time. If Christmas Day does not fall on a Saturday or Sunday, the fourth week of the psalter is used during Christmastide until the first Sunday of Christmas.

Day Office of Reading Lauds Hora media[22] Vespers Compline
Sunday Vigil 121(122); 129(130); Christus Jesus; 4; 133(134)
Sunday 23(24); 65(66)i; 65(66)ii 117(118); Benedictus es Domine Deus patrum nostrorum II; 150 22(23); 75(76)i; 75(76)ii 109(110); 111(112); Alleluia;[21] 90(91)
Monday 72(73)i; 72(73)ii; 72(73)iii 89(90); Cantate Domino; 134(135),1-12 118(119)vii; 81(82); 119(120) 135(136)i; 135(136)ii; Benedictus Deus et Pater; 85(86)
Tuesday 101(102)i; 101(102)ii; 101(102)iii 100(101); Benedictus es Domine Deus patrum nostrorum I; 143(144),1-10 118(119)xviii; 87(88)i; 87(88)ii 136(137); 137(138); Dignus es; 142(143)
Wednesday 102(103)i; 102(103)ii; 102(103)iii 107(108); Gaudens gaudebo in Domino; 145(146) 118(119)xix; 93(94)i; 93(94)ii 138(139)i; 138(139)ii; Gratias agamus Deo; 30(31),2-6; 129(130)
Thursday 43(44)i; 43(44)ii; 43(44)iii 142(143); Laetamini; 146(147A) 118(119)xx; 127(128); 128(129) 143(144)i; 143(144)ii; Gratias agimus tibi; 15(16)
Friday 54(55)i; 54(55)ii; 54(55)iii[25] 50(51); Benedicite Dominum; 147(147B) 118(119)xxi; 132(133); 139(140) 144(145)i; 144(145)ii; Magna et mirabilia; 87(88)
Saturday 49(50)i; 49(50)ii; 49(50)iii[26] 91(92); Tollam quippe vos de gentibus; 8 118(119)xxii; 44(45)i; 44(45)ii

Missing psalms and verses[edit]

The psalms missing from this schema are 57(58), 82(83), and 108(109). The missing verses are:

  • 5,11
  • 20(21),9-13
  • 27(28),4-5
  • 30(31),18-19
  • 34(35),3a-3b. 4-8. 20-21. 24-26
  • 39(40),15-16
  • 53(54),7
  • 54(55),16
  • 55(56),7c-8
  • 58(59),6-9. 12-16
  • 62(63),10-12
  • 68(69),23-29
  • 78(79),6-7. 12
  • 109(110),6
  • 136(137),7-9
  • 138(139),19-22
  • 139(140),10-12
  • 140(141),10
  • 142(143),12

Although the Invitatory, i.e. psalm 94(95), is missing from the psalter, it is present in the ordinary and is thus chanted every day. Psalms 77(78), 104(105), and 105(106) are sung only during Advent, Christmas, Lent and Easter.

Psalterium Monasticum[edit]

The Psalterium Monasticum is a book produced by the monks of Solesmes Abbey in 1981. In accordance with one of the schemes of the Benedictine Thesaurus, it contains a one week cycle for the chanting of all 150 psalms. This schema substantially follows the Rule of St Benedict and was produced for use in Benedictine monasteries as an alternative to the 4-week scheme of Paul VI.

External links[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Breviary", The Catholic Encyclopedia, 1917
  2. ^ Article on Saint Jerome, Catholic Online
  3. ^ A Grammar of the Vulgate, W.E. Plater and H.J. White, Oxford at the Clarendon Press, 1926
  4. ^ Nova Vulgata Bibliorum Sacrorum Editio, Praenotanda, IN PSALTERIO, Editio typica altera
  5. ^ Article, International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, 1915
  6. ^ Prefaces of the Stuttgart Vulgate, Biblia Sacra Vulgata, American Bible Society, ISBN 3-438-05303-9
  7. ^ The New Latin Psalter, by Augustin Bea, explains in detail the criteria and the reasons for his version
  8. ^ Translation from the Dutch of a review by Christine Mohrmann, 1953
  9. ^ a b Liturgia Horarum iuxta ritum Romanum, Editio typica altera, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1986
  10. ^ From Breviarium Ambrosianum
  11. ^ From Liber Hymnarius, 1993, ISBN 2-85274-076-1
  12. ^ From the Clementine Psalter
  13. ^ From the juxta hebraicum in the Stuttgart edition
  14. ^ From Biblia Vulgata, 1999, ISBN 84-7914-021-6
  15. ^ From the Editio Nova Vulgata Bibliorum Sacrorum at the Vatican website
  16. ^ McKendrick, Scott, Lowden, John and Doyle, Kathleen, (eds), Royal Manuscripts, The Genius of Illumination, p. 269, 2011, British Library, 9780712358156
  17. ^ 'Psalter Schemas' by Theo Keller
  18. ^ Article on the Breviary, Catholic Encyclopedia, 1913
  19. ^ The Hours of the Divine Office in English and Latin: a bilingual edition of the Roman Breviary text, in three volumes, Liturgical Press, Collegeville, Minn., 1964
  20. ^ a b Nova Vulgata Bibliorum Sacrorum Editio
  21. ^ a b c d e f The canticle Christus passus est pro nobis is chanted instead of the canticle Alleluia during Lent
  22. ^ a b c d The psalms in this column are chanted at one of the three Little Hours. If more than one of the Little Hours are prayed, then the psalms at the other two hours are taken from the Complementary Psalmody; at Terce, these are 119(120), 120(121), and 121(122); at Sext they are 122(123), 123(124), and 124(125); at None they are 125(126), 126(127), and 127(128).
  23. ^ Psalm 104(105)i-iii is used in place of 130(131) and 131(132) during the seasons of Advent, Christmas, Lent and Easter.
  24. ^ Psalm 105(106)i-iii is used in place of 135(136) during the seasons of Advent, Christmas, Lent and Easter.
  25. ^ Psalm 77(78)i-iii is used in place of 54(55) during the seasons of Advent, Christmas, Lent and Easter.
  26. ^ Psalm 77(78)iv-vi is used in place of 49(50) during the seasons of Advent, Christmas, Lent and Easter.