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A pseudo-top-level domain is a label or name for a computer network that is not participating in the world-wide official Domain Name System and may not even participate in the Internet, but may use a similar domain name hierarchy. Historically the best known large networks in this group were .bitnet, .csnet, and .uucp, for which many Internet mail forwarders provided connectivity. In addition, newer networks like .exit, .gnu, .i2p, .onion, .oz, .bit, .zkey and Freenet may be included. 
Some of these networks may use a naming syntax and hierarchy like the official top-level domains and they may serve the same function in creating names for network endpoints. They are used only for special purposes, typically for addressing hosts that were not reachable via the Internet Protocol for use in services such as E-mail and Usenet via UUCP.
Although these networks or domain names have no official status, some are generally regarded as having been unofficially grandfathered, and are unlikely ever to be allocated as top-level domains.
- Grothoff, Christian and Wachs, Matthias and Wolf, Hellekin and Appelbaum, Jacob (2014-03-03). "Special-Use Domain Names of Peer-to-Peer Systems". Internet Engineering Task Force. Retrieved 2012-07-03.
- "openissues.ca". openissues.ca. 2012-02-19. Retrieved 2012-06-30.
- What are Namecoins and .bit domains?, CoinDesk, 30-06-2013
- Namecoin (NMC), cryptocur.com, 30-06-2013
- Namecoin - A DNS alternative based on Bitcoin, BLUISH CODER, 30-06-2013
- Frey, Donnalyn; Adams, Richard L. (1994). "Pseudo Top-Level Domains". !%@:: a directory of electronic mail addressing & networks. In a Nutshell Series (4th ed.). O'Reilly & Associates. pp. 10–11. ISBN 978-1-56592-046-0.
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