Pseudonaja is a genus of venomous elapid snakes native to Australia. Members are known commonly as brown snakes and are considered to be one of the most dangerous snakes in the country; even young snakes are capable of delivering a fatal envenomation to a human.
- Dugite or Spotted Brown Snake , Pseudonaja affinis
- Pseudonaja aspidorhyncha 
- Speckled Brown Snake or Spotted Brown Snake , Pseudonaja guttata (Parker, 1926) — Northern Territory, Queensland, and South Australia.
- Peninsula Brown Snake, Pseudonaja inframacula (Waite, 1925) — South Australia, Western Australia, Eyre Peninsula.
- Ingram's Brown Snake, Pseudonaja ingrami (Boulenger, 1908) — Northern Territory, Queensland, and Western Australia.
- Pseudonaja mengdeni 
- Ringed Brown Snake, Pseudonaja modesta (Günther, 1872) — New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia, and Western Australia.
- Gwardar or Western Brown Snake, Pseudonaja nuchalis (Günther, 1858) — New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia, Victoria, and Western Australia.
- Eastern Brown Snake, Pseudonaja textilis (Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854) — New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia, Victoria, Western Australia, south-eastern West Papua, and both south-eastern (Central Province) and north-eastern (Oro & Milne Bay Provinces) Papua New Guinea.
Brown snakes are easily alarmed and may bite if approached closely, handled or threatened. Sudden, early collapse is often a feature of brown snake envenomation. A prominent effect of envenomation is venom-induced consumption coagulopathy and this can lead to death. Renal damage may also rarely occur.
Other clinical signs include: abdominal pain, breathing and swallowing difficulty, convulsions, ptosis, hemolysis, hypotension from depression of myocardial contractility, renal failure. Notably rhabdomyolysis is not a feature of envenomation by brown snakes.
The Eastern Brown Snake (Pseudonaja textilis) is the most toxic member of the genus and is considered by some to be the second most toxic land snake in the world, after the Inland Taipan (which is also found in Australia). The western brown snake is the tenth most venomous snake in the world.
Brown snakes can easily harm animals and livestock as well.
The venom fangs of the Pseudonajas are very short and the average yield of venom per bite is relatively low - for P. textilis, P. nuchalis und P. affinis about 4 bis 6,5 mg dry weight of the venom. Therefore most of the bites end up without serious medical consequences. Despite of its toxicitiy the smallest Pseudonaja P. modesta can even be considered as harmless. Bites by the bigger Pseudonajas, especially P. textilis and P. nuchalis are known for causing serious toxication or even fatalities; children are particularly at risk.
- (Skinner, 2009)
- (Skinner, 2009)
- Isbister, Geoff; et al. (2006). "Snake Bite: Current Approach to Treatment". Australian Prescriber 29 (5): 125–129.
- Mirtschin, P. J., G. R. Crowe und R. Davis: Dangerous Snakes Of Australia. In: P. Gopalakrishnakone, L. M. Chou: Snakes of Medical Importance. Venom and Toxin Research Group, National University of Singapore, 1990, page 49–77.
- Mirtschin, P. J., G. R. Crowe und R. Davis: Dangerous Snakes Of Australia. In: P. Gopalakrishnakone, L. M. Chou: Snakes of Medical Importance. Venom and Toxin Research Group, National University of Singapore, 1990, pages 49–77, especially page 49
- SKINNER, A. (2009), A multivariate morphometric analysis and systematic review of Pseudonaja (Serpentes, Elapidae, Hydrophiinae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 155: 171–197. doi: 10.1111/j.1096-3642.2008.00436.x
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