Psilocybe zapotecorum

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Psilocybe zapotecorum
Psilocybe.zapotecorum.jalisco.2.JPG
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Basidiomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Agaricales
Family: Strophariaceae
Genus: Psilocybe
Species: P. zapotecorum
Binomial name
Psilocybe zapotecorum
Heim emend Guzman
Synonyms[1]

Psilocybe candidipes Singer & A.H. Sm. (1958)
Psilocybe aggericola Singer & A.H. Sm. (1958)
Psilocybe aggericola var. alvaradoi Singer & A.H. Sm. (1958)
Psilocybe zapotecorum f. elongata R. Heim (1966)
Psilocybe bolivarii Guzmán (1968)
Psilocybe barrerae Cifuentes & Guzmán (1981)
Psilocybe sanctorum Guzmán (1982)
Psilocybe microcystidiata Guzmán & Bononi (1984)
Psilocybe zapotecorum var. ramulosum Guzmán & Bononi (1984)
Psilocybe zapotecorum var. ramulosa Guzmán & Bononi (1984)
Psilocybe ramulosa Guzmán & Bononi (1995)
Psilocybe subzapotecorum Guzmán (2000)
Psilocybe pseudozapotecorum Guzmán (2000)
Psilocybe chaconii Guzmán, Escalona & Ram.-Guill. (2004)

Psilocybe zapotecorum
View the Mycomorphbox template that generates the following list
Mycological characteristics
gills on hymenium

cap is conical

or convex

hymenium is adnate

or sinuate
stipe is bare
spore print is purple-brown
ecology is saprotrophic
edibility: psychoactive

Psilocybe zapotecorum is a psilocybin mushroom which has psilocybin and psilocin as main active compounds. It is in the section Zapotecorum, other members of this section include Psilocybe angustipleurocystidiata, Psilocybe aucklandii, Psilocybe collybioides, Psilocybe graveolens, Psilocybe kumaenorum, Psilocybe muliercula, Psilocybe pintonii, Psilocybe subcaerulipes, Psilocybe moseri, Psilocybe zapotecoantillarum, Psilocybe zapotecocaribaea, and Psilocybe antioquiensis.[1][2]

Etymology and History[edit]

It is named for the Zapotec Indians, who are native to Mexico, as well as the area they inhabited. According to Richard E. Schultes the Zapotec name translates as "Crown of thorns mushroom".[3] Other sources give the Zapotec name as badao zoo translated as "hongo borracho", "drunken mushroom". [4]

  • 1963: Roger Heim describes this mushroom in the work "Les Champignons Toxiques et Hallucinogènes."

Description[edit]

Psilocybe zapotecorum has a farinaceous smell and taste.

Cap[edit]

The cap is 2–13 cm, conical to convex, and very rarely expanding to plane in age. The margin wavy sometimes with an acute papilla or mamilla, usually umbonate or with a depressed center. In young specimens the margin has a scalloped edge which sometimes curls upwards as the mushroom matures. The cap is yellowish brown to tan, fading to cream-yellow then brown and finally black through age. The flesh is originally white but soon changes to a cyan blue, then quickly to black.

Gills[edit]

Psilocybe zapotecorum gills are a cream color when young and violet brown in age, with an attachment that is sinuate or adnate, and sometimes subdecurrent.

Spores[edit]

The spores are dark violet brown, oblong to subellipsoid to subrhomboid, and thin-walled with a short apiculus and truncate germ pore. They measure (5) 6 - 7 (-8) by (3-) 3.5 - 4.5 (-5) x 3 - 4 µm.[1]

Stipe[edit]

The stipe is 3–26 cm long, and 0.5–1 cm thick. It is central, flexuous, cylindric or slightly flattened, and hollow. It can be white to grey, turning yellowish, blue, and black in age. The entire stem is covered with many white scales which are more pronounced in the lower part of the stipe. The partial veil is white and arachnoid, disappearing in age. Often a long pseudorrhiza can be found attached the base of the stipe. Strongly bruising blue then black where damaged.

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Psilocybe zapotecorum grows solitarily or gregariously, sometimes in cespitose clusters of around a hundred mushrooms. It is found near rivers, creaks and ravines, sometimes growing directly from steep mossy ravine walls. Psilocybe zapotecorum is also found in humid and shadowed places in mesophytic forests, oak-and-pine forests, or cloud forests.

Psilocybe zapotecorum is often found in subtropical forests containing Alnus sp., Magnolia sp., Fraxinus sp., Quercus sp., large pines, and blackberry bushes.

Psilocybe zapotecorum grows in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, Guatemala, Venezuela, and Ecuador.[1]

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Guzmán, Gastón (2012). "New Taxonomical and Ethnomycological Observations on Psilocybe S.S. From Mexico, Africa and Spain". Acta Botanica Mexicana 100: 79–106. 
  2. ^ Ramírez-Cruz, Virginia; Guzmán, Gastón; Villalobos-Arámbula, Alma Rosa; Rodríguez, Aarón; Matheny, Brandon; Sánchez-García, Marisol; Guzmán-Dávalos, Laura (2013). "Phylogenetic inference and trait evolution of the psychedelic mushroom genus Psilocybe sensu lato (Agaricales)". Botany 91: 573–591. 
  3. ^ Schultes, Richard Evans (1993). "The Botanical Sources of New World Narcotics". In Leary, Timothy; Metzner, Ralph; Weil, Gunther M. The Psychedelic Reader: Classic Selections from the Psychedelic Review. Citadel Press. p. 100. ISBN 0-8065-1451-5. 
  4. ^ Orijel, Roberto Garibay (2009). "Los nombres zapotecos de los hongos". Revista mexicana de micología versión impresa 30. ISSN 0187-3180. 


External links[edit]