Псковский район (Russian)
Location of Pskovsky District in Pskov Oblast
|Federal subject||Pskov Oblast|
|Administrative structure (as of February 2009)|
|Administrative center||city of Pskov|
|Municipal structure (as of April 2011)|
|Municipally incorporated as||Pskovsky Municipal District|
|Area||3,600 km2 (1,400 sq mi)|
|Population (2010 Census)||34,323 inhabitants|
|Density||9.53 /km2 (24.7 /sq mi)|
|Time zone||MSK (UTC+03:00)|
|Pskovsky District on WikiCommons|
Pskovsky District (Russian: Пско́вский райо́н) is an administrative and municipal district (raion), one of the twenty-four in Pskov Oblast, Russia. It is located in the northwest of the oblast and borders with Gdovsky District in the north, Strugo-Krasnensky District in the northeast, Porkhovsky District in the east, Ostrovsky District in the south, and with Palkinsky and Pechorsky Districts in the southwest. Lake Peipus forms the border with Estonia in the west. The area of the district is 3,600 square kilometers (1,400 sq mi). Its administrative center is the city of Pskov (which is not administratively a part of the district). Population: 34,323 (2010 Census); 37,216 (2002 Census); 37,557 (1989 Census).
The district is located east and southeast of Lake Peipus, into which the rivers in the north of the district flow directly. The central and the southern parts of the district lie in the basin of the Velikaya River, a major tributary of Lake Peipus. The two biggest tributaries of the Velikaya within the district are the Pskova and the Cheryokha Rivers (both right). Minor areas in the east of the district lie in the basin of the Shelon River.
36% of the district's territory is covered by forests.
Remdovsky Zakaznik in the north of the district is one of three federally protected nature reserves in Pskov Oblast; it was established to protect lowlands adjacent to Lake Peipus.
The history of the area is essentially a part of the history of Pskov. According to the tradition, Saint Olga, wife of Prince Igor and one of the most important persons in the history of Kievan Rus', was born in the village of Vybuty, located within modern borders of the district. Until the 14th century, the area, together with Pskov, was dependent on Novgorod, then became independent, and in 1510 was annexed by the Grand Duchy of Moscow.
In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708 by Peter the Great, the area was included into Ingermanland Governorate (known since 1710 as Saint Petersburg Governorate). In 1727, separate Novgorod Governorate was split off, and in 1772, Pskov Governorate (which between 1777 and 1796 existed as Pskov Viceroyalty) was established. The area was a part of Pskovsky Uyezd of Pskov Governorate.
On August 1, 1927, the uyezds were abolished, and Pskovsky District was established, with the administrative center in the city of Pskov (which was not a part of the district). It included parts of former Pskovsky Uyezd. The governorates were abolished as well, and the district became a part of Pskov Okrug of Leningrad Oblast. On July 23, 1930, the okrugs were also abolished, and the districts were directly subordinated to the oblast. On February 15, 1935, parts of Pskovsky District were transferred to newly established Karamyshevsky and Palkinsky Districts. Between March 22, 1935 and September 19, 1940, Pskovsky District was a part of Pskov Okrug of Leningrad Oblast, one of the okrugs abutting the state boundaries of the Soviet Union. Between August 1941 and July 1944, Pskovsky District was occupied by German troops. On August 23, 1944, the district was transferred to newly established Pskov Oblast.
On August 1, 1927, Seryodkinsky District was established as well, with the administrative center in the selo of Seryodka. It included parts of former Gdovsky Uyezd of Saint Petersburg Governorate. The district was a part of Pskov Okrug of Leningrad Oblast. In 1935, a part of the district's territory was transferred to Polnovsky District. Between August 1941 and February 1944, Seryodkinsky District was occupied by German troops. On August 23, 1944, the district was transferred to Pskov Oblast. On February 15, 1958, Seryodkinsky District was abolished and split between Gdovsky and Pskovsky Districts.
Another district established on August 1, 1927 was Karamyshevsky District, with the administrative center in the settlement of Karamyshevo. It included parts of former Pskovsky Uyezd. The district was a part of Pskov Okrug of Leningrad Oblast. On September 20, 1931, Karamyshevsky District was abolished and merged into Pskovsky District. On February 15, 1935, it was re-established. Between August 1941 and February 1944, Karamyshevsky District was occupied by German troops. On August 23, 1944, the district was transferred to Pskov Oblast. On February 1, 1963, in the course of Khrushchev's abortive administrative reform, Karamyshevsky District was abolished, and after a number of administrative transformations its territory was eventually split between Pskovsky and Porkhovsky Districts.
Administrative and municipal status
Within the framework of administrative divisions, Pskovsky District is one of the twenty-four in the oblast. The city of Pskov serves as its administrative center, despite being incorporated separately as an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.
The western part of the district is included into a border security zone, intended to protect the borders of Russia from unwanted activity. In particular, the whole shore of Lake Peipus within the district is included into this restricted area. In order to visit the zone, a permit issued by the local Federal Security Service department is required.
The main agricultural specializations in the district are swine and cattle breeding, as well as growing of crops, potatoes, and vegetables.
Pskov is an important transport hub and, as it is completely surrounded by Pskovsky District, all communications leading to Pskov pass through the district. In particular, Pskov is connected by railroads with St. Petersburg, with Bologoye via Dno and Staraya Russa, with Tartu via Pechory, and with Riga via Ostrov and Pytalovo. All these railways cross the district. There is passenger traffic along all these railways.
The M20 highway which connects St. Petersburg and Vitebsk via Pskov crosses the district from north to south. There is a road connection from Pskov north to Gdov and further to Slantsy, another one from Pskov to Veliky Novgorod via Porkhov, and yet another one west to Riga via Izborsk, which is a part of European route E77. Pskov is the eastern terminus of this route. There are also local roads.
The lower course of the Velikaya River is navigable.
Culture and recreation
The district contains 32 cultural heritage monuments of federal significance and additionally 111 objects classified as cultural and historical heritage of local significance. The federally protected monuments include the ensembles of Krypetsky and Yelizarov monasteries, the 15th century Church of Iliya the Prophet in the pogost of Vybuty, the Intercession Church in the pogost of Znakhlitsy, the Assumption Church in the selo of Melyotovo, the St. Nicholas Church in the selo of Ustye,[clarification needed] and the St. George Church in the selo of Kamno, as well as a number of archeological sites and younger churches.
- Law #833-oz
- According to Article 6 of Law #833-oz, the structure and composition of the administrative districts match those of the municipal districts. The municipal aspect is described by Laws #419-oz and #420-oz.
- Law #419-oz
- Law #420-oz
- "Географическая характеристика" (in Russian). Портал муниципальных образований Псковской области. Retrieved June 11, 2012.
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №248-ФЗ от 21 июля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #248-FZ of July 21, 2014 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014.
- Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года[All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014.
- "Легенда о княгине Ольге" (in Russian). Администрация Псковской области. Retrieved June 11, 2012.
- "Псковский район (авг. 1927 - авг. 1944)" (in Russian). Справочник истории административно-территориального деления Ленинградской области. Retrieved June 11, 2012.
- "Середкинский район (авг. 1927 г. - авг. 1944 г.)" (in Russian). Справочник истории административно-территориального деления Ленинградской области. Retrieved June 11, 2012.
- "Фонды районных комитетов" (in Russian). Администрация Псковской области. Retrieved June 11, 2012.
- "Приказ ФСБ РФ от 2 июня 2006 года №242 "О пределах пограничной зоны на территории Псковской области"; Приказ ФСБ России от 21 апреля 2007 г. №201 "О внесении изменения в приказ ФСБ России 2 июня 2006 года №242 "О пределах пограничной зоны на территории Псковской области"". Rossiyskaya Gazeta (in Russian) 2006.
- "Экономика" (in Russian). Портал муниципальных образований Псковской области. Retrieved June 11, 2012.
- "Памятники истории и культуры народов Российской Федерации" (in Russian). Russian Ministry of Culture. Retrieved June 11, 2012.
- Псковское областное Собрание депутатов. Закон №833-оз от 5 февраля 2009 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Псковской области». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Псковская правда", №20, 10 февраля 2009 г. (Pskov Oblast Council of Deputies. Law #833-oz of February 5, 2009 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Pskov Oblast. Effective as of the official publication date.).
- Псковское областное Собрание депутатов. Закон №419-оз от 28 февраля 2005 г. «О границах и статусе действующих на территории области муниципальных образований». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Псковская правда", №41–43, 4 марта 2005 г. (Pskov Oblast Council of Deputies. Law #419-ы. of February 28, 2005 On the Borders and Status of the Municipal Formations Existing on the Oblast Territory. Effective as of the official publication date.).
- Псковское областное Собрание депутатов. Закон №420-оз от 28 февраля 2005 г. «Об установлении границ и статусе вновь образуемых муниципальных образований на территории Псковской области», в ред. Закона №1251-ОЗ от 7 февраля 2013 г. «О внесении изменения в статью 24 Закона Псковской области "Об установлении границ и статусе вновь образуемых муниципальных образований на территории Псковской области"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Псковская правда", №41-43, №44-46, №49-51, 4 марта 2005 г., 5 марта 2005 г., 11 марта 2005 г. (Pskov Oblast Council of Deputies. Law #420-oz of February 28, 2005 On Establishing the Borders and the Status of the Newly Formed Municipal Formations on the Territory of Pskov Oblast, as amended by the Law #1251-oz of February 7, 2013 On Amending Article 24 of the Law of Pskov Oblast "On Establishing the Borders and the Status of the Newly Formed Municipal Formations on the Territory of Pskov Oblast". Effective as of the official publication date.).