Psychedelic pop

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Psychedelic pop is a psychedelic musical style inspired by the sounds of psychedelic folk and psychedelic rock, but applied to a pop music setting. It reached its peak during the late 1960s, declining rapidly in the early 1970s. As psychedelia emerged as a mainstream and commercial force it began to influence pop music, which incorporated drug references, as well as the sounds of sitars, fuzz guitars, and tape effects. The Beach Boys under the leadership of Brian Wilson began to experiment with psychedelia, with records such as Pet Sounds (1966). The Beatles followed Pet Sounds with the psychedelically-tinged Revolver (1966). Pink Floyd's "Arnold Layne" and "See Emily Play" set the pattern for psychedelic pop in Britain. Psychedelic sounds were also incorporated into the output of early bubblegum pop acts like The Monkees. Scottish folk singer Donovan's transformation to 'electric' music gave him a series of pop hits, beginning with "Sunshine Superman", which reached number one in both Britain and the US.

Pop orientated psychedelia was popular among the emerging bands in Australia and New Zealand, including The Easybeats, formed in Sydney but who recorded their international hit "Friday on My Mind" (1966). A similar path was pursued by the Bee Gees, formed in Brisbane, but whose first album Bee Gees 1st (1967), recorded in London, gave them three major hit singles and contained folk, rock and psychedelic elements, heavy influenced by the Beatles. By the end of the 1960s psychedelic folk and rock were in retreat.

History[edit]

Origins and characteristics[edit]

The origins of psychedelic music were in folk and rock music of the mid-1960s, particularly the work of The Beach Boys, The Beatles, The Byrds, The Yardbirds, and The Grateful Dead.[1][2] As psychedelia emerged as a mainstream and commercial force it began to influence pop music, which incorporated hippie fashions, drug references, as well as the sounds of sitars, fuzz guitars, and tape effects, but often using the close harmony vocals associated with California-based groups and applying these elements to concise and catchy pop songs.[2]

Development[edit]

The Beach Boys under the leadership of Brian Wilson began to experiment with psychedelia, with records such as Pet Sounds (1966) and the single "Good Vibrations", which made use of a Tannerin (an easier to manipulate version of a Theremin).[3] The Beatles followed Pet Sounds with the psychedelically-tinged Revolver (1966), and many subsequent works of psychedelia would contain a distinct Beach Boys influence.[2] American pop-oriented rock bands that followed in this vein included The Mamas & the Papas,[4] Electric Prunes, Blues Magoos and Strawberry Alarm Clock; with their first and most famous hit "Incense and Peppermints".[5][6]

Pink Floyd's "Arnold Layne" and "See Emily Play", both written by Syd Barrett, helped set the pattern for psychedelic pop in Britain.[7][8] The Small Faces also began to embrace the genre with songs such as "Itchycoo Park" and "Lazy Sunday".[9] Some sunshine pop bands like The Association[10] and The Grass Roots with "Lets Live for Today" (1967) moved in a psychedelic direction.[11] The Beatles early 1967 single "Penny Lane"/"Strawberry Fields Forever" became a prototype for psychedelic pop and has been regarded as one of the greatest double A-side ever released.[12] Garage rock groups with pop leanings also moved into this territory, like The Beau Brummels with their album Triangle (1967)[13] and Tommy James and the Shondells with their number one "Crimson and Clover" (1969).[14] Psychedelic sounds were also incorporated into the output of early bubblegum pop acts like The Monkees, particularly on their album Head (1968) and The Lemon Pipers with their number one "Green Tambourine" (1968).[15]

Scottish folk singer Donovan's transformation to 'electric' music gave him a series of pop hits, beginning with "Sunshine Superman", which reached number one in both Britain and the US, to be followed by "Mellow Yellow" (1966) and "Atlantis" (1968).[1][16] Most British pop in this vein was less successful internationally, with manufactured group The Flower Pot Men (aka The Move) with "Let's Go To San Francisco" and The Move with "I Can Hear the Grass Grow" and "Flowers in the Rain", all reaching the top five in the UK in 1967, but making little impact elsewhere.[17] The Zombies produced some of the most highly regarded work in the genre with their album Odessey and Oracle (1968), but had already disbanded before one of the tracks, "Time of the Season", gave them their biggest hit in 1969, reaching number three in the Billboard 100.[18]

International expansion[edit]

The Easybeats in 1967

Pop orientated psychedelia was popular among the emerging bands in Australia and New Zealand, including The Easybeats, formed in Sydney but who recorded their international hit "Friday on My Mind" (1966) in London and remained there for their forays into psychedelic-tinged pop until they disbanded in 1970.[19] A similar path was pursued by the Bee Gees, formed in Brisbane, but whose first album Bee Gees 1st (1967), recorded in London, gave them three major hit singles and contained folk, rock and psychedelic elements, heavy influenced by the Beatles.[20] The Twilights, formed in Adelaide, also made to trip to London, recording a series of minor hits, absorbing the psychedelic scene, to return home to produce covers of Beatles' songs, complete with sitar, and the concept album Once Upon a Twilight (1968).[21] The most successful New Zealand band, The La De Das, produced the psychedelic pop concept album The Happy Prince (1968), based on the Oscar Wilde children's classic, but failed to break through in Britain and the wider world.[22]

Decline and revivals[edit]

By the end of the 1960s psychedelic folk and rock were in retreat. Many surviving acts moved away from psychedelia into either more back-to-basics "roots rock", traditional-based, pastoral or whimsical folk, the wider experimentation of progressive rock, or riff-laden heavy rock.[1] Psychedelic influences lasted a little longer in pop music, stretching into the early 1970s and playing a major part in the creation of bubblegum pop.[2] There were occasional mainstream acts that dabbled in neo-psychedelia, including Prince's mid-1980s work and some of Lenny Kravitz's 1990s output, but it has mainly been an influence on alternative and indie-rock bands and most neo-psychedelia has been within the field of rock music.[23] In the UK The Stone Roses[24] debut album in 1989 set out a catchy neo-psychedelic guitar pop, helping to create the Madchester scene, and influencing the early sound of 1990s Britpop bands like Blur,[25] and Oasis who drew on 1960s psychedelic pop and rock, particularly on the album Standing on the Shoulder of Giants.[26]

Artists[edit]

Psychedelic era[edit]

Later years[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d V. Bogdanov, C. Woodstra and S. T. Erlewine, All Music Guide to Rock: the Definitive Guide to Rock, Pop, and Soul (Milwaukee, WI: Backbeat Books, 3rd edn., 2002), ISBN 0-87930-653-X, pp. 1322-3.
  2. ^ a b c d "Psychedelic pop", Allmusic, retrieved 27 June 2010.
  3. ^ T. Holmes, Electronic and Experimental Music: Technology, Music, and Culture (London: Taylor & Francis, 3rd edn., 2008), ISBN 0-415-95781-8, p. 415.
  4. ^ Eder, Bruce. "The Mamas and the Papas". All music. 
  5. ^ Hogg, Brian. (1992). Strawberries Mean Love (1992 CD liner notes). 
  6. ^ Whitburn, Joel. (2008). Top Pop Singles 1955-2006. Record Research Inc. p. 814. ISBN 0-89820-172-1. 
  7. ^ a b J. Kitts and B. Tolinski, eds, Guitar World Presents Pink Floyd (Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard, 2002), ISBN 0-634-03286-0, p. 6.
  8. ^ N. Schaffner, Saucerful of Secrets: the Pink Floyd Odyssey" (London: Dell, 1992), ISBN 0-385-30684-9, p. 65.
  9. ^ "The Small Faces Biography". Allmusic. Retrieved 2011-01-28. 
  10. ^ a b B. Eder, "The Association", Allmusic, retrieved 2 July 2010.
  11. ^ a b "Let's Live for Today: The Grass Roots", Allmusic, retrieved 2 July 2010.
  12. ^ "British Psychedelia". Allmusic. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  13. ^ a b V. Bogdanov, C. Woodstra and S. T. Erlewine, All Music Guide to Rock: the Definitive Guide to Rock, Pop, and Soul (Milwaukee, WI: Backbeat Books, 3rd edn., 2002), ISBN 0-87930-653-X, pp. 80-1.
  14. ^ G. Case, Out of Our Heads: Rock 'n' Roll Before the Drugs Wore Off (Milwaukie, MI: Hal Leonard Corporation, 2010), ISBN 0-87930-967-9, pp. 70-1.
  15. ^ V. Bogdanov, C. Woodstra and S. T. Erlewine, All Music Guide to Rock: the Definitive Guide to Rock, Pop, and Soul (Milwaukee, WI: Backbeat Books, 3rd edn., 2002), ISBN 0-87930-653-X, pp. 646 and 754-5.
  16. ^ C. Grunenberg and J. Harris, Summer of Love: Psychedelic Art, Social Crisis and Counterculture in the 1960 (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2005), ISBN 0-85323-919-3, p. 140.
  17. ^ a b c P. Simpson, The Rough Guide to Cult Pop (London: Rough Guides, 2003), ISBN 1-84353-229-8, pp 58-9.
  18. ^ R. Unterbeger, "The Zombies", Allmusic, retrieved 3 July 2010.
  19. ^ V. Bogdanov, C. Woodstra and S. T. Erlewine, All Music Guide to Rock: the Definitive Guide to Rock, Pop, and Soul (Milwaukee, WI: Backbeat Books, 3rd edn., 2002), ISBN 0-87930-653-X, pp. 349-50.
  20. ^ a b V. Bogdanov, C. Woodstra and S. T. Erlewine, All Music Guide to Rock: the Definitive Guide to Rock, Pop, and Soul (Milwaukee, WI: Backbeat Books, 3rd edn., 2002), ISBN 0-87930-653-X, pp. 85-6.
  21. ^ a b T. Rawlings, Then, Now and Rare British Beat 1960-1969 (London: Omnibus Press, 2002), ISBN 0-7119-9094-8, p. 191.
  22. ^ a b V. Bogdanov, C. Woodstra and S. T. Erlewine, All Music Guide to Rock: the Definitive Guide to Rock, Pop, and Soul (Milwaukee, WI: Backbeat Books, 3rd edn., 2002), ISBN 0-87930-653-X, pp. 635-6.
  23. ^ a b c "Neo-psychedelia", Allmusic, retrieved 2 July 2010.
  24. ^ S. Erlewine, "The Stone Roses" Allmusic, retrieved 6 July 2011.
  25. ^ S. Erlewine, "Blur" Allmusic, retrieved 6 July 2011.
  26. ^ S. T. Erlewine, Standing on the Shoulder of Giants, Allmusic, retrieved 7 July 2010.
  27. ^ J. DeRogatis, Turn On Your Mind: Four Decades of Great Psychedelic Rock (Milwaukie, MI: Hal Leonard, 2003), ISBN 0-634-05548-8, pp. 35-9.
  28. ^ J. DeRogatis, Turn On Your Mind: Four Decades of Great Psychedelic Rock (Milwaukie, MI: Hal Leonard, 2003), ISBN 0-634-05548-8.
  29. ^ a b J. DeRogatis, Turn On Your Mind: Four Decades of Great Psychedelic Rock (Milwaukie, MI: Hal Leonard, 2003), ISBN 0-634-05548-8, pp. 558.
  30. ^ J. Mills, "The End", Allmusic, retrieved 3 July 2010.
  31. ^ "The Left Banke Biography". Allmusic. Retrieved 2010-02-02. 
  32. ^ "The Lemon Pipers Biography". Allmusic. Retrieved 2012-04-30. 
  33. ^ R. Unterberger, "The Lovin' Spoonful", Allmusic, retrieved 2 July 2010.
  34. ^ V. Bogdanov, C. Woodstra and S. T. Erlewine, All Music Guide to Rock: the Definitive Guide to Rock, Pop, and Soul (Milwaukee, WI: Backbeat Books, 3rd edn., 2002), ISBN 0-87930-653-X, pp. 754-5.
  35. ^ R. Unterberger, "The Neon Philharmonic", Allmusic, retrieved 2 July 2010.
  36. ^ Shmop, "A Boy Named Sue: Shmoop Music Guide", ISBN 1610620860, p. 7.
  37. ^ David N. Howard, Sonic alchemy: visionary music producers and their maverick recordings ,(Hal Leonard Corporation, 2004), ISBN 0-634-05560-7, p.132.
  38. ^ Unterberger, Richie (2006). "Review of Syd Barrett". Allmusic. 
  39. ^ B. Eder, "The World of Oz", Allmusic, retrieved 2 July 2010.
  40. ^ R. Unterberger, "The Zombies", Allmusic, retrieved 3 July 2010.
  41. ^ Challenging but appealing Psychedelic Pop from Animal Collective « Missed Music
  42. ^ Live Review: Ducktails @ MoMA: July 25, 2013
  43. ^ TheCalmingSeas.com » Country Pop Reborn under the Desert Sky by No Kind of Superstar
  44. ^ S. T. Erlewine, "The Dukes of Stratosphear: Biography", Allmusic, retrieved 4 January 2011.
  45. ^ Robyn Hitchcock, Womad.org, retrieved 17 February 2011.
  46. ^ Davis, H. William Bell Gardens "Full Sundown Assembly" review , Inyourspeakers.com, Retrieved 21 june, 2014.