|• addiction – a state characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding behavior or compulsive drug use, despite adverse consequences|
|• reinforcing stimuli – stimuli that increase the probability of repeating behaviors paired with them|
|• rewarding stimuli – stimuli that the brain interprets as intrinsically positive or as something to be approached.|
|• addictive drug – a drug that is both rewarding and reinforcing|
|• addictive behavior – a behavior that is both rewarding and reinforcing|
|• sensitization - an amplified response to a stimulus resulting from repeated exposure to it|
|• drug tolerance – the diminishing effect of a drug resulting from repeated administration at a given dose|
|• drug sensitization or reverse tolerance – the escalating effect of a drug resulting from repeated administration at a given dose|
|• drug dependence – an adaptive state associated with a withdrawal syndrome upon cessation of repeated drug intake|
|• physical dependence – dependence that involves physical–somatic withdrawal symptoms (e.g., fatigue)|
|• psychological dependence – dependence that involves emotional–motivational withdrawal symptoms (e.g., dysphoria and anhedonia)|
|(edit | history)|
In the APA Dictionary of Psychology, psychological dependence is defined as "dependence on a psychoactive substance for the reinforcement it provides."  Most times psychological dependence is classified under addiction. They are similar in that addiction is a physiological "craving" for something and psychological dependence is a "need" for a particular substance because it causes enjoyable mental affects.
A person becomes dependent on something to help alleviate specific emotions. Psychological dependence begins after the first trial which a person then becomes satisfied and the satisfaction increases with each use. This constant feeling leads to psychological reinforcement which eventually leads to dependence. Along with substances, people can also become dependent on activities as well; such as shopping, pornography, self-harm, and many more. While a psychologically dependent person attempts to recover, there are many withdrawal symptoms that one can experience throughout the process. Some of the withdrawal symptoms are: headache, poor judgement, trembling hands, and loss of attention span and focusing. When trying to over come psychological dependence on a drug, one can go to a substance abuse program.
- VandenBos, Gary R. APA Dictionary of Psychology. 1st ed. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2007. Print.
- Myers, David G. Psychology. 9th ed. New York: Worth, 2010. Print.
- Hanson, Glen, Peter J. Venturelli, and Annette E. Fleckenstein. Drugs and Society. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2009. Print.
- "Defining Addiction, Physical and Psychological Dependence to Drugs, Alcohol and Other Related Addictions." Drug Rehabilitation | Alcohol and Drug Rehab Clinic. Web. 02 Dec. 2010. <http://www.treatment-now.com/resources/addiction/>.
- The national center on addiction and substance abuse at Columbia University:"Wasting the Best and the Brightest: Substance Abuse at America’s Colleges and Universities", march 2007, also published on http://www.casacolumbia.org/templates/publications_reports.aspx?keywords=psychological+dependence