Psychological well-being

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This article is about a specific model of mental wellness. For information on mental wellness or psychological health in general, see Mental Health.

Psychological well-being refers to both a theory and measurement scales designed and advocated primarily by Carol Ryff. In her seminal paper, "Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being." she contrasts this with subjective well-being or hedonic well-being. Ryff attempted to combine different conceptions of well-being from the ancient Greek to the modern psychological such as theories of Individuation from Carl Jung, Self-actualization from Abraham Maslow and others.[1]


  1. Self-acceptance
  2. Personal growth
  3. Purpose in life
  4. Environmental mastery
  5. Autonomy
  6. Positive relations with others


Individual differences in both overall Eudaimonia, identified loosely with self-control and in the facets of eudaimonia are heritable. Evidence from one study supports 5 independent genetic mechanisms underlying the Ryff facets of this trait, leading to a genetic construct of eudaimonia in terms of general self-control, and four subsidiary biological mechanisms enabling the psychological capabilities of purpose, agency, growth, and positive social relations.[2]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Ryff, Carol D. (1 January 1989). "Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being.". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 57 (6): 1069–1081. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.57.6.1069. 
  2. ^ Archontaki, Despina; Lewis, Gary J.; Bates, Timothy C. (1 March 2012). "Genetic influences on psychological well-being: A nationally representative twin study". Journal of Personality: n/a–n/a. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6494.2012.00787.x.