|Classification and external resources|
|OMIM||603342 608923 603175 192430|
Psychosis (from the Greek ψυχή "psyche", for mind/soul, and -ωσις "-osis", for abnormal condition or derangement) refers to an abnormal condition of the mind, and is a generic psychiatric term for a mental state often described as involving a "loss of contact with reality". People suffering from psychosis are described as psychotic.
Psychosis (as a sign of a psychiatric disorder) is a diagnosis of exclusion. That is, a new-onset episode of psychosis is not considered a symptom of a psychiatric disorder until other relevant and known causes of psychosis are properly excluded. Medical and biological laboratory tests should exclude central nervous system diseases and injuries, diseases and injuries of other organs, illicit substances, toxins, and prescribed medications as causes of symptoms of psychosis before any psychiatric illness can be diagnosed. In medical training, psychosis as a sign of illness is often compared to fever since both can have multiple causes that are not readily apparent.
- 1 Signs and symptoms
- 2 Psychiatric disorder
- 3 Pathophysiology
- 4 Diagnosis
- 5 Prevention
- 6 Treatment
- 7 History
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
Signs and symptoms
A hallucination is defined as sensory perception in the absence of external stimuli. Hallucinations are different from illusions, or perceptual distortions, which are the misperception of external stimuli. Hallucinations may occur in any of the five senses and take on almost any form, which may include simple sensations (such as lights, colors, tastes, and smells) to experiences such as seeing and interacting with fully formed animals and people, hearing voices, and having complex tactile sensation,
Psychosis may involve delusional beliefs, some of which are paranoid in nature. Put simply, delusions are false beliefs that a person holds on to, without adequate evidence. It may be difficult to change the belief even with evidence to the contrary. Common themes of delusions are persecutory (person believes that others are out to harm him/her), grandiose (person believing that he or she has special powers or skills) etc. Depressed persons may have delusions consistent with their low mood e.g., delusions that they have sinned, or have contracted serious illness etc. Karl Jaspers has classified psychotic delusions into primary and secondary types. Primary delusions are defined as arising suddenly and not being comprehensible in terms of normal mental processes, whereas secondary delusions may be understood as being influenced by the person's background or current situation (e.g., ethnicity; religious, superstitious, or political beliefs).
Catatonia describes a profoundly agitated state in which the experience of reality is generally considered impaired. There are two primary manifestations of catatonic behavior. The classic presentation is a person who does not move or interact with the world in any way while awake. This type of catatonia presents with waxy flexibility. Waxy flexibility is when someone physically moves part of a catatonic person's body and the person stays in the position even if it is bizarre and otherwise nonfunctional (such as moving a person's arm straight up in the air and the arm stays there).
Thought disorder describes an underlying disturbance to conscious thought and is classified largely by its effects on speech and writing. Affected persons show loosening of associations, that is, a disconnection and disorganization of the semantic content of speech and writing. In the severe form speech becomes incomprehensible and it is known as "word salad".
From a diagnostic standpoint, organic disorders were those believed caused by physical illness affecting the brain (that is, psychiatric disorders secondary to other conditions), while functional disorders were considered disorders of the functioning of the mind in the absence of physical disorders (that is, primary psychological or psychiatric disorders). The materialistic view of the mind–body problem holds that mental disorders arise from physical processes; in this view, the distinction between brain and mind, and therefore between organic and functional disease, is an artificial one. Subtle physical abnormalities have been found in illnesses traditionally considered functional, such as schizophrenia. The DSM-IV-TR avoids the functional/organic distinction, and instead lists traditional psychotic illnesses, psychosis due to general medical conditions, and substance-induced psychosis.
- schizophrenia and schizophreniform disorder
- affective (mood) disorders, including severe depression, and severe depression or mania in bipolar disorder (manic depression). People experiencing a psychotic episode in the context of depression may experience persecutory or self-blaming delusions or hallucinations, while people experiencing a psychotic episode in the context of mania may form grandiose delusions.
- schizoaffective disorder, involving symptoms of both schizophrenia and mood disorders
- brief psychotic disorder, or acute/transient psychotic disorder
- delusional disorder (persistent delusional disorder)
- chronic hallucinatory psychosis
Psychotic symptoms may also be seen in
- schizotypal disorder
- certain personality disorders at times of stress (including paranoid personality disorder, schizoid personality disorder, and borderline personality disorder)
- major depressive disorder in its severe form although it is possible and more likely to have severe depression without psychosis
- bipolar disorder in severe mania and/or severe depression although it is possible to have severe mania and/or severe depression without psychosis as well, in fact that is more commonly the case
- post-traumatic stress disorder
- induced delusional disorder
- Sometimes in obsessive-compulsive disorder
Stress is known to contribute to and trigger psychotic states. A history of psychologically traumatic events, and the recent experience of a stressful event, can both contribute to the development of psychosis. Short-lived psychosis triggered by stress is known as brief reactive psychosis, and patients may spontaneously recover normal functioning within two weeks. In some rare cases, individuals may remain in a state of full-blown psychosis for many years, or perhaps have attenuated psychotic symptoms (such as low intensity hallucinations) present at most times.
Brief hallucinations are not uncommon in those without any psychiatric disease. Causes or triggers include
- Falling asleep and waking: hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations, which are entirely normal
- Bereavement, in which hallucinations of a deceased loved one are common
- Severe sleep deprivation
- Sensory deprivation and sensory impairment
- caffeine intoxication
- extremely stressful event
Subtypes of psychosis include:
- Menstrual psychosis, including circa-mensual (approximately monthly) periodicity, in rhythm with the menstrual cycle.
- Postpartum psychosis, occurring recently after childbirth
- Monothematic delusions
- Myxedematous psychosis
- Occupational psychosis
- Stimulant psychosis
- Tardive psychosis
- Shared psychosis
- Cycloid psychosis
Cycloid psychosis is psychosis that progresses from normal to full-blown usually within a few hours, not related to drug intake or brain injury. In addition, diagnostic criteria include at least four of the following symptoms:
- Mood-incongruent delusions
- Pan-anxiety, a severe anxiety not bound to particular situations or circumstances
- Happiness or ecstasy of high degree
- Motility disturbances of akinetic or hyperkinetic type
- Concern with death
- Mood swings to some degree, but less than what is needed for diagnosis of an affective disorders
Cycloid psychosis occurs in people of generally 15–50 years of age.
A very large number of medical conditions can cause psychosis, sometimes called secondary psychosis. Examples include:
- disorders causing delirium (toxic psychosis), in which consciousness is disturbed
- neurodevelopmental disorders and chromosomal abnormalities, including velocardiofacial syndrome
- neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and Parkinson's disease
- focal neurological disease, such as stroke, brain tumors, multiple sclerosis, and some forms of epilepsy
- malignancy (typically via masses in the brain, paraneoplastic syndromes, or drugs used to treat cancer)
- infectious and postinfectious syndromes, including infections causing delirium, viral encephalitis, HIV, malaria, Lyme disease, syphilis
- endocrine disease, such as hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, adrenal failure, Cushing's syndrome, hypoparathyroidism and hyperparathyroidism; sex hormones also affect psychotic symptoms and sometimes childbirth can provoke psychosis, termed puerperal psychosis
- inborn errors of metabolism, such as Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency, porphyria and metachromatic leukodystrophy
- nutritional deficiency, such as vitamin B12 deficiency
- other acquired metabolic disorders, including electrolyte disturbances such as hypocalcemia, hypernatremia, hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hypermagnesemia, hypercalcemia, and hypophosphatemia, but also hypoglycemia, hypoxia, and failure of the liver or kidneys
- autoimmune and related disorders, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus, SLE), sarcoidosis, Hashimoto's encephalopathy, and anti-NMDA-receptor encephalitis
- poisoning, by therapeutic drugs (see below), recreational drugs (see below), and a range of plants, fungi, metals, organic compounds, and a few animal toxins
- some sleep disorders, including hallucinations in narcolepsy (in which REM sleep intrudes into wakefulness)
Various psychoactive substances (both legal and illegal) have been implicated in causing, exacerbating, and/or precipitating psychotic states and/or disorders in users. This may be upon intoxication, for a more prolonged period after use, or upon withdrawal. Individuals who have a substance induced psychosis tend to have a greater awareness of their psychosis and tend to have higher levels of suicidal thinking compared to individuals who have a primary psychotic illness. Drugs that can induce psychotic symptoms include cannabis, cocaine, amphetamines, cathinones, psychedelic drugs (such as LSD and psilocybin), κ-opioid receptor agonists (such as enadoline and salvinorin A) and NMDA receptor antagonists (such as phencyclidine and ketamine).
Approximately three percent of people who are suffering from alcoholism experience psychosis during acute intoxication or withdrawal. Alcohol related psychosis may manifest itself through a kindling mechanism. The mechanism of alcohol-related psychosis is due to the long-term effects of alcohol resulting in distortions to neuronal membranes, gene expression, as well as thiamin deficiency. It is possible in some cases that alcohol abuse via a kindling mechanism can cause the development of a chronic substance induced psychotic disorder, i.e. schizophrenia. The effects of an alcohol-related psychosis include an increased risk of depression and suicide as well as causing psychosocial impairments.
According to some studies, the more often cannabis is used the more likely a person is to develop a psychotic illness, with frequent use being correlated with twice the risk of psychosis and schizophrenia. While cannabis use is accepted as a contributory cause of schizophrenia by some, it remains controversial, with pre-existing vulnerability to psychosis emerging as the key factor that influences the link between cannabis use and psychosis. Some studies indicate that the effects of two active compounds in cannabis, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), have opposite effects with respect to psychosis. While THC by itself has a tendency to induce psychotic symptoms in a small minority of users, CBD tends to reduce them, particularly in people who are at risk for or who already exhibit psychosis. However, cannabis used to attain a "high" is typically very low in CBD content, but conversely very high in THC content. Since black market cannabis contains much more THC than cannabidiol, CBD's protective effect may not be present, while THC's potentially detrimental effect can remain. Conversely, some strains of medical cannabis are grown with a very high CBD to THC ratio, but these are rarely available on the black market, creating a public need for access to this subset of medical cannabis in many patients. Importantly, cannabis use has increased dramatically over the past few decades whereas the rate of psychosis has not increased. Together, these findings suggest that cannabis use may hasten the onset of psychosis in those who may already be predisposed to psychosis. According to a study from the Institute of Psychiatry at King's College London, daily, high-potency cannabis use indeed tends to accelerate the onset of psychosis in predisposed patients.
Methamphetamine induces a psychosis in 26-46 percent of heavy users. Some of these people develop a long-lasting psychosis that can persist for longer than six months. Those who have had a short-lived psychosis from methamphetamine can have a relapse of the methamphetamine psychosis years later after a stress event such as severe insomnia or a period of heavy alcohol abuse despite not relapsing back to methamphetamine. Individuals who have long history of methamphetamine abuse and who have experienced psychosis in the past from methamphetamine abuse are highly likely to rapidly relapse back into a methamphetamine psychosis within a week or so of going back onto methamphetamine. Violence is common during a methamphetamine psychosis.
Administration, or sometimes withdrawal, of a large number of medications may provoke psychotic symptoms. Drugs that can induce psychosis experimentally and/or in a significant proportion of patients include amphetamine and other sympathomimetics, dopamine agonists, ketamine, corticosteroids (often with mood changes in addition), and some anticonvulsants such as vigabatrin.
The first brain image of an individual with psychosis was completed as far back as 1935 using a technique called pneumoencephalography (a painful and now obsolete procedure where cerebrospinal fluid is drained from around the brain and replaced with air to allow the structure of the brain to show up more clearly on an X-ray picture).
The purpose of the brain is to collect information from the body (pain, hunger, etc.), and from the outside world, interpret it to a coherent world view, and produce a meaningful response. The information from the senses enter the brain in the primary sensory areas. They process the information and send it to the secondary areas where the information is interpreted. Spontaneous activity in the primary sensory areas may produce hallucinations, which the secondary areas misinterpret as information from the real world.
For example, a PET or fMRI scan of a person who claims he hears voices may show activation in the primary auditory cortex, or parts of the brain involved in the perception and understanding of speech.
Tertiary brain cortex collects the interpretations from the secondary cortexes and creates a coherent world view of it. A study investigating structural changes in the brains of people with psychosis showed there was significant grey matter reduction in the right medial temporal, lateral temporal, and inferior frontal gyrus, and in the cingulate cortex bilaterally of people before and after they became psychotic. Findings such as these have led to debate about whether psychosis itself causes excitotoxic brain damage and whether potentially damaging changes to the brain are related to the length of psychotic episode. Recent research has suggested that this is not the case although further investigation is still ongoing.
Studies with sensory deprivation have shown that the brain is dependent on signals from the outer world to function properly. If the spontaneous activity in the brain is not counterbalanced with information from the senses, loss from reality and psychosis may occur after some hours. A similar phenomenon is paranoia in the elderly, when poor eyesight, hearing and memory make the person abnormally suspicious of the environment.
On the other hand, loss from reality may also occur if the spontaneous cortical activity is increased so that it is no longer counterbalanced with information from the senses. The 5-HT2A receptor seems to be important for this, since psychedelic drugs that activate them produce hallucinations.
However, the main feature of psychosis is not hallucinations, but the inability to distinguish between internal and external stimuli. Close relatives to psychotic patients may hear voices, but since they are aware that they are unreal they can ignore them, so that the hallucinations do not affect their reality perception. Hence they are not considered psychotic.
Psychosis has been traditionally linked to the neurotransmitter dopamine. In particular, the dopamine hypothesis of psychosis has been influential and states that psychosis results from an overactivity of dopamine function in the brain, particularly in the mesolimbic pathway. The two major sources of evidence given to support this theory are that dopamine receptor D2 blocking drugs (i.e., antipsychotics) tend to reduce the intensity of psychotic symptoms, and that drugs that boost dopamine activity (such as amphetamines and cocaine) can trigger psychosis in some people (see amphetamine psychosis). However, increasing evidence in recent times has pointed to a possible dysfunction of the excitory neurotransmitter glutamate, in particular, with the activity of the NMDA receptor.
This theory is reinforced by the fact that dissociative NMDA receptor antagonists such as ketamine, PCP and dextromethorphan (at large overdoses) induce a psychotic state more readily than dopaminergic stimulants, even at "normal" recreational doses. The symptoms of dissociative intoxication are also considered to mirror the symptoms of schizophrenia, including negative psychotic symptoms, more closely than amphetamine psychosis. Dissociative induced psychosis happens on a more reliable and predictable basis than amphetamine psychosis, which usually only occurs in cases of overdose, prolonged use or with sleep deprivation, which can independently produce psychosis. New antipsychotic drugs that act on glutamate and its receptors are currently undergoing clinical trials.
The connection between dopamine and psychosis is generally believed complex. While dopamine receptor D2 suppresses adenylate cyclase activity, the D1 receptor increases it. If D2-blocking drugs are administered the blocked dopamine spills over to the D1 receptors. The increased adenylate cyclase activity affects genetic expression in the nerve cell, which takes time. Hence antipsychotic drugs take a week or two to reduce the symptoms of psychosis. Moreover, newer and equally effective antipsychotic drugs actually block slightly less dopamine in the brain than older drugs whilst also blocking 5-HT2A receptors, suggesting the 'dopamine hypothesis' may be oversimplified. Soyka and colleagues found no evidence of dopaminergic dysfunction in people with alcohol-induced psychosis and Zoldan et al. reported moderately successful use of ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, in the treatment of levodopa psychosis in Parkinson's disease patients.
Psychiatrist David Healy has criticised pharmaceutical companies for promoting simplified biological theories of mental illness that seem to imply the primacy of pharmaceutical treatments while ignoring social and developmental factors that are known important influences in the aetiology of psychosis.
Some theories believe many psychotic symptoms are a problem with the perception of ownership of internally generated thoughts and experiences. For example, the hallucination of hearing voices may arise from internally generated speech that is mislabeled by the psychotic person as coming from an external source.
It has been suggested that persons with bipolar disorder may have increased activity of the left hemisphere compared to the right hemisphere of the brain, while persons with schizophrenia have increased activity in the right hemisphere.
Increased level of right hemisphere activation has also been found in people who have high levels of paranormal beliefs and in people who report mystical experiences. It also seems that people who are more creative are also more likely to show a similar pattern of brain activation. Some researchers have been quick to point out that this in no way suggests that paranormal, mystical or creative experiences are in any way by themselves a symptom of mental illness, as it is still not clear what makes some such experiences beneficial and others distressing.
In otherwise normal individuals, exogenous ligands can produce psychotic symptoms. NMDA receptor antagonists, such as ketamine, can produce a similar psychosis to that experienced in schizophrenia.
Prolonged or high dose use of psychostimulants can alter normal functioning, making it similar to the manic phase of bipolar disorder. NMDA antagonists replicate some of the so-called "negative" symptoms like thought disorder in subanesthetic doses (doses insufficient to induce anesthesia), and catatonia in high doses. Psychostimulants, especially in one already prone to psychotic thinking, can cause some "positive" symptoms, such as delusional beliefs, particularly those persecutory in nature.
Psychosis is first and foremost a diagnosis of exclusion. So a new-onset episode of psychosis cannot be considered a symptom of a psychiatric disorder until other relevant and known causes of psychosis are properly excluded, or ruled out. Many clinicians improperly perform, or entirely miss this step, introducing avoidable diagnostic error and misdiagnosis.
An initial assessment includes a comprehensive history and physical examination by a physician, psychiatrist, psychiatric nurse practitioner or psychiatric physician assistant. Biological tests should be performed to exclude psychosis associated with or caused by substance use, medication, toxins, surgical complications, or other medical illnesses.
Delirium should be ruled out, which can be distinguished by visual hallucinations, acute onset and fluctuating level of consciousness, indicating other underlying factors, including medical illnesses. Excluding medical illnesses associated with psychosis is performed by using blood tests to measure:
- Thyroid-stimulating hormone to exclude hypo- or hyperthyroidism,
- Basic electrolytes and serum calcium to rule out a metabolic disturbance,
- Full blood count including ESR to rule out a systemic infection or chronic disease, and
- Serology to exclude syphilis or HIV infection.
Other investigations include:
Because psychosis may be precipitated or exacerbated by common classes of psychiatric medications, such as antidepressants, ADHD stimulant medications, and sleep medications, medication-induced psychosis should be ruled out, particularly for first-episode psychosis. Both substance- and medication-induced psychosis can be excluded to a high level of certainty, using a
- Urinalysis and a
- Full serum toxicology screening.
Because some dietary supplements may also induce psychosis or mania, but cannot be ruled out with laboratory tests, a psychotic individual's family, partner, or friends should be asked whether the patient is currently taking any dietary supplements.
Common mistakes made when diagnosing people who are psychotic include:
- Not properly excluding delirium,
- Not appreciating medical abnormalities (e.g., vital signs),
- Not obtaining a medical history and family history,
- Indiscriminate screening without an organizing framework,
- Missing a toxic psychosis by not screening for substances and medications
- Not asking family or others about dietary supplements,
- Premature diagnostic closure, and
- Not revisiting or questioning the initial diagnostic impression of primary psychiatric disorder.
Only after relevant and known causes of psychosis are excluded, a mental health clinician may make a psychiatric differential diagnosis using a person's family history, incorporating information from the person with psychosis, and information from family, friends, or significant others.
Types of psychosis in psychiatric disorders may be established by formal rating scales. The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) assesses the level of 18 symptom constructs of psychosis such as hostility, suspicion, hallucination, and grandiosity. It is based on the clinician's interview with the patient and observations of the patient's behavior over the previous 2–3 days. The patient's family can also answer questions on the behavior report. During the initial assessment and the follow-up, both positive and negative symptoms of psychosis can be assessed using the 30 item Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS).
The evidence for the effectiveness of early interventions to prevent psychosis appeared inconclusive. Whilst early intervention in those with a psychotic episode might improve short term outcomes, little benefit was seen from these measures after five years. However more recently there has been some evidence that cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) may reduce the risk of becoming psychotic in those at high risk.
The treatment of psychosis depends on the specific diagnosis (such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or substance intoxication). The first line treatment for many psychotic disorders is antipsychotic medication (oral or intramuscular injection), and sometimes hospitalization is needed. However, there are significant problems associated with this class of drugs. There is evidence that they can cause brain damage including prefrontal cortex atrophy, long-lasting parkinsonian symtoms (tardive dyskinesia), and personality change. Nancy Andreasen has argued for an association between antipsychotic drugs and smaller grey matter volumes independent of illness severity. Furthermore, antipsychotic drugs can themselves induce psychotic symptoms if they are administered for a long time and then discontinued.
There is growing evidence that cognitive behavior therapy, acceptance and commitment therapy and family therapy can be effective in managing psychotic symptoms. When other treatments for psychosis are ineffective, electroconvulsive therapy or ECT (also known as shock treatment) is sometimes applied to relieve the underlying symptoms of psychosis due to depression. There is also increasing research suggesting that animal-assisted therapy can contribute to the improvement in general well-being of people with schizophrenia.
Many doctors are realizing that a deficiency in B-12 can be a cause of psychosis especially in people with no mental history. You must request a general practitioner for the test.
Early intervention in psychosis is on the observation that identifying and treating someone in the early stages of a psychosis can improve their longer term outcome. This approach advocates the use of an intensive multi-disciplinary approach during what is known as the critical period, where intervention is the most effective, and prevents the long term morbidity associated with chronic psychotic illness.
The word psychosis was introduced to the psychiatric literature in 1841 by Karl Friedrich Canstatt in his work Handbuch der Medizinischen Klinik. He used it as a shorthand for 'psychic neurosis'. At that time neurosis meant any disease of the nervous system, and Canstatt was thus referring to what was considered a psychological manifestation of brain disease. Ernst von Feuchtersleben is also widely credited as introducing the term in 1845, as an alternative to insanity and mania.
The term stems from the Greek ψύχωσις (psychosis), "a giving soul or life to, animating, quickening" and that from ψυχή (psyche), "soul" and the suffix -ωσις (-osis), in this case "abnormal condition".
The word was also used to distinguish a condition considered a disorder of the mind, as opposed to neurosis, which was considered a disorder of the nervous system. The psychoses thus became the modern equivalent of the old notion of madness, and hence there was much debate on whether there was only one (unitary) or many forms of the new disease. One type of broad usage would later be narrowed down by Koch in 1891 to the 'psychopathic inferiorities' - later renamed abnormal personalities by Schneider.
The division of the major psychoses into manic depressive illness (now called bipolar disorder) and dementia praecox (now called schizophrenia) was made by Emil Kraepelin, who attempted to create a synthesis of the various mental disorders identified by 19th century psychiatrists, by grouping diseases together based on classification of common symptoms. Kraepelin used the term 'manic depressive insanity' to describe the whole spectrum of mood disorders, in a far wider sense than it is usually used today.
In Kraepelin's classification this would include 'unipolar' clinical depression, as well as bipolar disorder and other mood disorders such as cyclothymia. These are characterised by problems with mood control and the psychotic episodes appear associated with disturbances in mood, and patients often have periods of normal functioning between psychotic episodes even without medication. Schizophrenia is characterized by psychotic episodes that appear unrelated to disturbances in mood, and most non-medicated patients show signs of disturbance between psychotic episodes.
During the 1960s and 1970s, psychosis was of particular interest to counterculture critics of mainstream psychiatric practice, who argued that it may simply be another way of constructing reality and is not necessarily a sign of illness. For example, R. D. Laing argued that psychosis is a symbolic way of expressing concerns in situations where such views may be unwelcome or uncomfortable to the recipients. He went on to say that psychosis could be also seen as a transcendental experience with healing and spiritual aspects.
Arthur J. Deikman suggested use of the term "mystical psychosis" to characterize first-person accounts of psychotic experiences that are similar to reports of mystical experiences. Thomas Szasz focused on the social implications of labeling people as psychotics, a label he argues unjustly medicalises different views of reality so such unorthodox people can be controlled by society. Psychoanalysis has a detailed account of psychosis that differs markedly from that of psychiatry. Freud and Lacan outlined their perspective on the structure of psychosis in a number of works.
Since the 1970s, the introduction of a recovery approach to mental health, which has been driven mainly by people who have experienced psychosis (or whatever name is used to describe their experiences), has led to a greater awareness that mental illness is not a lifelong disability, and that there is an expectation that recovery is possible, and probable with effective support.
Early civilizations considered madness a supernaturally inflicted phenomenon. Archaeologists have unearthed skulls with clearly visible drillings, some datable back to 5000 BC suggesting that trepanning was a common treatment for psychosis in ancient times. Written record of supernatural causes and resultant treatments can be traced back to the New Testament. Mark 5:8-13 describes a man displaying what would today be described as psychotic symptoms. Christ cured this "demonic madness" by casting out the demons and hurling them into a herd of swine. Exorcism, although largely antiquated, is still utilized in some religious circles as a treatment for psychosis presumed to be demonic possession. A research study of out-patients in psychiatric clinics found that 30 per cent of religious patients attributed the cause of their psychotic symptoms to evil spirits. Many of these patients underwent exorcistic healing rituals that, though largely regarded as positive experiences by the patients, had no effect on symptomology. Results did, however, show a significant worsening of psychotic symptoms associated with exclusion of medical treatment for coercive forms of exorcism.
The medical teachings of the fourth-century philosopher and physician, Hippocrates of Cos, proposed a natural, rather than supernatural, cause of human illness. In Hippocrates' work, the Hippocratic corpus, a holistic explanation for health and disease was developed to include madness and other "diseases of the mind." Hippocrates writes:
"Men ought to know that from the brain, and from the brain only, arise our pleasures, joys, laughter, and jests, as well as our sorrows, pains, griefs and tears. Through it, in particular, we think, see, hear, and distinguish the ugly from the beautiful, the bad from the good, the pleasant from the unpleasant…. It is the same thing which makes us mad or delirious, inspires us with dread and fear, whether by night or by day, brings sleeplessness, inopportune mistakes, aimless anxieties, absentmindedness, and acts that are contrary to habit."—Hippocrates of Cos, the Hippocratic corpus
Hippocrates espoused a theory of humoralism wherein disease is resultant of a shifting balance in bodily fluids including blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile. According to humoralism, each fluid or "humour" has temperamental or behavioral correlates. In the case of psychosis, symptoms are thought to be caused by an excess of both blood and yellow bile. Thus, the proposed surgical intervention for psychotic or manic behavior was bloodletting.
18th century physician, educator, and widely considered "Founder of American Psychiatry," Benjamin Rush, also prescribed bloodletting as a first-line treatment for psychosis. Although not a proponent of humoralism, Rush believed that active purging and bloodletting were efficacious corrections for disruptions in the circulatory system, a complication he believed was the primary cause of "insanity."  Although Rush's treatment modalities are now considered antiquated and brutish, his contributions to psychiatry, namely the biological underpinnings of psychiatric phenomenon including psychosis, have been invaluable to the field. In honor of such contributions, Benjamin Rush's image is in the official seal of The American Psychiatric Association.
Early 20th century treatments for severe and persisting psychosis were characterized by an emphasis on shocking the nervous system. Such therapies include insulin shock therapy, cardiazol shock therapy, and electroconvulsive therapy. Despite considerable risk, shock therapy was considered highly efficacious in the treatment of psychosis including schizophrenia. The acceptance of high-risk treatments led to more invasive medical interventions including psychosurgery.
In 1888, Swiss psychiatrist, Gottlieb Burckhardt, performed the first medically sanctioned psychosurgery in which the cerebral cortex was excised. Although some patients showed improvement of symptoms and became more subdued, one patient died and several developed aphasia and/or seizure disorders. Burckhardt would go on to publish his clinical outcomes in a scholarly paper. This procedure was met with criticism from the medical community and his academic and surgical endeavors were largely ignored. In the late 1930s, Egas Moniz conceived the leucotomy (AKA prefrontal lobotomy) in which the fibers connecting the frontal lobes to the rest of the brain were severed. Moniz’s primary inspiration stemmed from a demonstration by neuroscientists, John Fulton and Carlyle’s 1935 experiment in which two chimpanzees were given leucotomies and pre and post surgical behavior was compared. Prior to the leucotomy, the chimps engaged in typical behavior including throwing feces and fighting. After the procedure, both chimps were pacified and less violent. During the Q&A, Moniz asked if such a procedure could be extended to human subjects, a question that Fulton admitted was quite startling. Moniz would go on to extend the controversial practice to humans suffering from various psychotic disorders, an endeavor for which he received a Nobel Prize in 1949. Between the late 1930s and early 1970s, the leucotomy was a widely accepted practice, often performed in non-sterile environments such as small outpatient clinics and patient homes. Psychosurgery remained standard practice until the discovery of antipsychotic pharmacology in the 1950s.
The first clinical trial of antipsychotics (also commonly known as neuroleptics) for the treatment of psychosis took place in 1952. Chlorpromazine (brand name: Thorazine) passed clinical trials and became the first antipsychotic medication approved for the treatment of both acute and chronic psychosis. Although the mechanism of action was not discovered until 1963, the administration of chlorpromazine marked the advent of the dopamine antagonist, or first generation antipsychotic. While clinical trials showed a high response rate for both acute psychosis and disorders with psychotic features, the side-effects were particularly harsh, which included high rates of often irreversible Parkinsonian symptoms such as tardive dyskinesia. With the advent of atypical antipsychotics (also known as second generation antipsychotics) came a dopamine antagonist with a comperable response rate but a far different, though still extensive, side-effect profile that included a lower risk of Parkinsonian symptoms but a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Atypical antipsychotics remain the first-line treatment for psychosis associated with various psychiatric and neurological disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, dementia, and some autism spectrum disorders.
It is now known that dopamine is the primary neurotransmitter implicated in psychotic symptomology. Thus, blocking dopamine receptors (namely, the dopamine D2 receptors) and decreasing dopaminergic activity continues to be an effective but highly unrefined pharmacologic goal of antipsychotics. Recent pharmacological research suggests that the decrease in dopaminergic activity does not eradicate psychotic delusions or hallucinations, but rather attenuates the reward mechanisms involved in the development of delusional thinking; that is, connecting or finding meaningful relationships between unrelated stimuli or ideas. The author of this research paper acknowledges the importance of future investigation:
"The model presented here is based on incomplete knowledge related to dopamine, schizophrenia, and antipsychotics—and as such will need to evolve as more is known about these."—Shitij Kapur, From dopamine to salience to psychosis—linking biology, pharmacology and phenomenology of psychosis
- "Differential Diagnosis of Psychotic Symptoms: Medical "Mimics"". Psychiatric Times. Retrieved October 2013.
- Fusar-Poli, P.; Deste, G.; Smieskova, R.; Barlati, S.; Yung, AR.; Howes, O.; Stieglitz, RD.; Vita, A.; McGuire, P.; Borgwardt, S (Jun 2012). "Cognitive functioning in prodromal psychosis: a meta-analysis". Arch Gen Psychiatry 69 (6): 562–71. doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.1592. PMID 22664547.
- Brown, EC.; Tas, C.; Brüne, M. (Jan 2012). "Potential therapeutic avenues to tackle social cognition problems in schizophrenia". Expert Rev Neurother 12 (1): 71–81. doi:10.1586/ern.11.183. PMID 22149657.
- Harper, Douglas (November 2001). "hallucinate". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved October 15, 2006.
- Jaspers, Karl (1997-11-27) . Allgemeine Psychopathologie (General Psychopathology). Translated by J. Hoenig & M.W. Hamilton from German (Reprint ed.). Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-5775-9.
- World Health Organization, The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders: Clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines (CDDG), 1992.
- American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR), American Psychiatric Association, 2000.
- Cardinal, R.N. & Bullmore, E.T., The Diagnosis of Psychosis, Cambridge University Press, 2011, ISBN 978-0-521-16484-9
- Jauch, D. A.; William T. Carpenter, Jr. (February 1988). "Reactive psychosis. I. Does the pre-DSM-III concept define a third psychosis?". Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 176 (2): 72–81. doi:10.1097/00005053-198802000-00002. PMID 3276813.
- Ohayon, M. M.; R. G. Priest, M. Caulet, and C. Guilleminault (October 1996). "Hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations: pathological phenomena?". British Journal of Psychiatry 169 (4): 459–67. doi:10.1192/bjp.169.4.459. PMID 8894197. Retrieved 2006-10-21.
- Sharma, Verinder; Dwight Mazmanian (April 2003). "Sleep loss and postpartum psychosis". Bipolar Disorders 5 (2): 98–105. doi:10.1034/j.1399-5618.2003.00015.x. PMID 12680898. Retrieved 2006-09-27.
- Chan-Ob, T.; V. Boonyanaruthee (September 1999). "Meditation in association with psychosis". Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand 82 (9): 925–930. PMID 10561951.
- Devillieres, P.; M. Opitz, P. Clervoy, and J. Stephany (May–June 1996). "[Delusion and sleep deprivation]". L'Encéphale 22 (3): 229–31.
- Page 188 in: Frank Pillmann; Andreas Marneros (2004). Acute and transient psychoses. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-83518-6.
- Lesser JM, Hughes S (December 2006). "Psychosis-related disturbances. Psychosis, agitation, and disinhibition in Alzheimer's disease: definitions and treatment options". Geriatrics 61 (12): 14–20. PMID 17184138.
- McKeith, Ian G. (February 2002). "Dementia with Lewy bodies". British Journal of Psychiatry 180 (2): 144–7. doi:10.1192/bjp.180.2.144. PMID 11823325.
- Wedekind S (June 2005). "[Depressive syndrome, psychoses, dementia: frequent manifestations in Parkinson disease]". MMW Fortschr Med (in German) 147 (22): 11. PMID 15977623.
- Lisanby, S. H.; C. Kohler, C. L. Swanson, and R. E. Gur (January 1998). "Psychosis Secondary to Brain Tumor". Seminars in clinical neuropsychiatry 3 (1): 12–22. PMID 10085187.
- (Spanish) Rodriguez Gomez, Diego; Elvira Gonzalez Vazquez and Óscar Perez Carral (August 16–31, 2005). "Psicosis aguda como inicio de esclerosis multiple / Acute psychosis as the presenting symptom of multiple sclerosis / Psicose aguda como inicio de esclerose multipla". Revista de Neurología 41 (4): 255–6. PMID 16075405. Retrieved 2006-09-27.
- Evans, Dwight L.; Karen I. Mason, Jane Leserman, Russell Bauer And John Petitto (2002-02-01). "Chapter 90: Neuropsychiatric Manifestations of HIV-1 Infection and AIDS". In Kenneth L Davis, Dennis Charney, Joseph T Coyle, Charles Nemeroff. Neuropsychopharmacology: The Fifth Generation of Progress (5th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 1281–1301. ISBN 0-7817-2837-1. Retrieved 2006-10-16.
- Tilluckdharry, C. C.; D. D. Chaddee, R. Doon, and J. Nehall (March 1996). "A case of vivax malaria presenting with psychosis". West Indian Medical Journal 45 (1): 39–40. PMID 8693739.
- Fallon BA, Nields JA (November 1994). "Lyme disease: a neuropsychiatric illness". Am J Psychiatry 151 (11): 1571–83. PMID 7943444.
- Hess A, Buchmann J, Zettl UK, et al. (March 1999). "Borrelia burgdorferi central nervous system infection presenting as an organic schizophrenialike disorder". Biol. Psychiatry 45 (6): 795. doi:10.1016/S0006-3223(98)00277-7. PMID 10188012.
- van den Bergen HA, Smith JP, van der Zwan A (October 1993). "[Lyme psychosis]". Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd (in Dutch; Flemish) 137 (41): 2098–100. PMID 8413733.
- Kararizou E, Mitsonis C, Dimopoulos N, Gkiatas K, Markou I, Kalfakis N (May-Jun 2006). "Psychosis or simply a new manifestation of neurosyphilis?". J. Int. Med. Res. 34 (3): 335–7. doi:10.1177/147323000603400314. PMID 16866029.
- Brooke D, Jamie P, Slack R, Sulaiman M, Tyrer P (October 1987). "Neurosyphilis—a treatable psychosis". Br J Psychiatry 151 (4): 556. doi:10.1192/bjp.151.4.556. PMID 3447677.
- Hermle L, Becker FW, Egan PJ, Kolb G, Wesiack B, Spitzer M (1997). "[Metachromatic leukodystrophy simulating schizophrenia-like psychosis]". Der Nervenarzt (in German) 68 (9): 754–8. doi:10.1007/s001150050191. PMID 9411279.
- Black DN, Taber KH, Hurley RA (2003). "Metachromatic leukodystrophy: a model for the study of psychosis". The Journal of neuropsychiatry and clinical neurosciences 15 (3): 289–93. doi:10.1176/appi.neuropsych.15.3.289. PMID 12928504.free full text
- Kumperscak HG, Paschke E, Gradisnik P, Vidmar J, Bradac SU (2005). "Adult metachromatic leukodystrophy: disorganized schizophrenia-like symptoms and postpartum depression in 2 sisters". Journal of psychiatry & neuroscience : JPN 30 (1): 33–6. PMC 543838. PMID 15644995.
- Sethi NK, Robilotti E, Sadan Y (2005). "Neurological Manifestations Of Vitamin B-12 Deficiency". The Internet Journal of Nutrition and Wellness 2 (1).
- Masalha R, Chudakov B, Muhamad M, Rudoy I, Volkov I, Wirguin I (September 2001). "Cobalamin-responsive psychosis as the sole manifestation of vitamin B12 deficiency". Isr. Med. Assoc. J. 3 (9): 701–3. PMID 11574992.
- Rossman, Phillip L.; Robert M. Vock (September 1956). "Postpartum Tetany and Psychosis Due to Hypocalcemia". California Medicine 85 (3): 190–3. PMC 1531921. PMID 13356186.
- Jana, D. K.; L. Romano-Jana (October 1973). "Hypernatremic psychosis in the elderly: case reports". Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 21 (10): 473–7. PMID 4729012.
- Haensch, C. A.; G. Hennen and J. Jorg (April 1996). "[Reversible exogenous psychosis in thiazide-induced hyponatremia of 97 mmol/l]". Der Nervenarzt 67 (4): 319–22. PMID 8684511.
- Hafez, H.; J. S. Strauss, M. D. Aronson, and C. Holt (June 1984). "Hypokalemia-induced psychosis in a chronic schizophrenic patient". Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 45 (6): 277–9. PMID 6725222.
- Konstantakos, Anastasios K.; Enrique Grisoni (May 25, 2006). "Hypomagnesemia". eMedicine. WebMD. Retrieved October 16, 2006.
- Velasco, P. Joel; Manoochehr Manshadi, Kevin Breen, and Steven Lippmann (1 December 1999). "Psychiatric Aspects of Parathyroid Disease". Psychosomatics 40 (6): 486–90. doi:10.1016/S0033-3182(99)71186-2. PMID 10581976. Retrieved 2006-10-17.
- Rosenthal, M.; I. Gil and B. Habot (1997). "Primary hyperparathyroidism: neuropsychiatric manifestations and case report". Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related Sciences 34 (2): 122–125. PMID 9231574.
- Nanji, A. A. (November 1984). "The psychiatric aspect of hypophosphatemia". Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 29 (7): 599–600. PMID 6391648.
- Padder, Tanveer; Aparna Udyawar, Nouman Azhar, and Kamil Jaghab (December 2005). "Acute Hypoglycemia Presenting as Acute Psychosis". Psychiatry online. Retrieved 2006-09-27.
- Robert, M.; R. Sunitha, and N. K. Thulaseedharan (1 March 2006). "Neuropsychiatric manifestations systemic lupus erythematosus: A study from South India". Neurology India 54 (1): 75–7. doi:10.4103/0028-3886.24713. PMID 16679649. Retrieved 2006-09-29.
- Bona, Joseph R.; Sondralyn M. Fackler, Morris J. Fendley and Charles B. Nemeroff (1 August 1998). "Neurosarcoidosis as a Cause of Refractory Psychosis: A Complicated Case Report". American Journal of Psychiatry 155 (8): 1106–8. PMID 9699702. Retrieved 2006-09-29.
- Wilcox RA, To T, Koukourou A, Frasca J (November 2008). "Hashimoto's encephalopathy masquerading as acute psychosis". J Clin Neurosci 15 (11): 1301–4. doi:10.1016/j.jocn.2006.10.019. PMID 18313925.
- Gómez-Bernal GJ, Reboreda A, Romero F, Bernal MM, Gómez F (2007). "A Case of Hashimoto's Encephalopathy Manifesting as Psychosis". Prim Care Companion J Clin Psychiatry 9 (4): 318–9. doi:10.4088/PCC.v09n0411f. PMC 2018852. PMID 17934563.
- Ray M, Kothur K, Padhy SK, Saran P (May 2007). "Hashimoto's encephalopathy in an adolescent boy". Indian J Pediatr 74 (5): 492–4. doi:10.1007/s12098-007-0084-0. PMID 17526963.
- Nasky KM, Knittel DR, Manos GH (August 2008). "Psychosis associated with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibodies". CNS Spectr 13 (8): 699–703.
- Steinberg, D.; S. R. Hirsch, S. D. Marston, K. Reynolds, and R. N. Sutton (May 1972). "Influenza infection causing manic psychosis". British Journal of Psychiatry 120 (558): 531–535. doi:10.1192/bjp.120.558.531. PMID 5041533.
- Maurizi, C. P. (February 1985). "Influenza and mania: a possible connection with the locus ceruleus". Southern Medical Journal 78 (2): 207–209. doi:10.1097/00007611-198502000-00025. PMID 3975719.
- Keddie, K. M. (August 1965). "Toxic psychosis following mumps". British Journal of Psychiatry 111 (477): 691–696. doi:10.1192/bjp.111.477.691. PMID 14337417.
- Grant KM, LeVan TD, Wells SM, et al. (March 2012). "Methamphetamine-associated psychosis". J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 7 (1): 113–39. doi:10.1007/s11481-011-9288-1. PMC 3280383. PMID 21728034.
- Alcohol-Related Psychosis at eMedicine
- Moore THM, Zammit S, Lingford-Hughes A et al.. Cannabis use and risk of psychotic or affective mental health outcomes: a systematic review. Lancet. 2007;370(9584):319–328. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61162-3. PMID 17662880.
- Leweke FM, Koethe D. Cannabis and psychiatric disorders: it is not only addiction. Addict Biol. 2008;13(2):264–75. doi:10.1111/j.1369-1600.2008.00106.x. PMID 18482435.
- Sewell RA, Ranganathan M, D'Souza DC. Cannabinoids and psychosis. International review of psychiatry (Abingdon, England). 2009 Apr;21(2):152–62. doi:10.1080/09540260902782802. PMID 19367509.
- Henquet C, Di Forti M, Morrison P, Kuepper R, Murray RM. Gene-environment interplay between cannabis and psychosis. Schizophr Bull. 2008;34(6):1111–21. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbn108. PMID 18723841.
- McLaren JA, Silins E, Hutchinson D, Mattick RP, Hall W. Assessing evidence for a causal link between cannabis and psychosis: a review of cohort studies. Int. J. Drug Policy. 2010;21(1):10–9. doi:10.1016/j.drugpo.2009.09.001. PMID 19783132.
- Ben Amar M, Potvin S. Cannabis and psychosis: what is the link?. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs. 2007 Jun;39(2):131–42. doi:10.1080/02791072.2007.10399871. PMID 17703707.
- Bhattacharyya, S.; et al. (February 2010). "Opposite Effects of D-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol on Human Brain Function and Psychopathology". Neuropsychopharmacology 35 (3): 764–774. doi:10.1038/npp.2009.184. PMC 3055598. PMID 19924114.
- Degenhardt L, Hall W, Lynskey M (2001). Comorbidity between cannabis use and psychosis: Modelling some possible relationships (PDF). Technical Report No. 121. Sydney: National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre. Retrieved 2006-08-19.
- Marta Di Forti (17). "Daily Use, Especially of High-Potency Cannabis, Drives the Earlier Onset of Psychosis in Cannabis Users".
- Sander JW, Hart YM, Trimble MR, Shorvon SD (1991). "Vigabatrin and psychosis". Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 54 (5): 435–9. doi:10.1136/jnnp.54.5.435. PMC 488544. PMID 1865207.
- Moore, M T; Nathan D, Elliot AR, Laubach C (1935). "Encephalographic studies in mental disease". American Journal of Psychiatry 92 (1): 43–67.
- Copolov DL, Seal ML, Maruff P, et al. (April 2003). "Cortical activation associated with the experience of auditory hallucinations and perception of human speech in schizophrenia: a PET correlation study". Psychiatry Res 122 (3): 139–52. doi:10.1016/S0925-4927(02)00121-X. PMID 12694889.
- Pantelis, C; Velakoulis D, McGorry PD, Wood SJ, Suckling J, Phillips, LJ, Yung AR, Bullmore ET, Brewer W, Soulsby B, Desmond, P, McGuire PK (2003). "Neuroanatomical abnormalities before and after onset of psychosis: a cross-sectional and longitudinal MRI comparison". Lancet 25 (361 (9354)): 281–8. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(03)12323-9. PMID 12559861.
- Ho, BC; Alicata D, Ward J, Moser DJ, O'Leary DS, Arndt S, Andreasen NC (2003). "Untreated initial psychosis: relation to cognitive deficits and brain morphology in first-episode schizophrenia". American Journal of Psychiatry 160 (1): 142–8. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.160.1.142. PMID 12505813.
- Kapur S, Mizrahi R, Li M (November 2005). "From dopamine to salience to psychosis--linking biology, pharmacology and phenomenology of psychosis". Schizophr. Res. 79 (1): 59–68. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2005.01.003. PMID 16005191.
- Jones HM, Pilowsky LS (October 2002). "Dopamine and antipsychotic drug action revisited". Br J Psychiatry 181 (4): 271–5. doi:10.1192/bjp.181.4.271. PMID 12356650.
- Soyka, Michael; Thomas Zetzsche, Stefan Dresel, and Klaus Tatsch (May 2000). "FDG-PET and IBZM-SPECT Suggest Reduced Thalamic Activity but No Dopaminergic Dysfunction in Chronic Alcohol Hallucinosis". Journal of Neuropsychiatry & Clinical Neurosciences 12 (2): 287–288. doi:10.1176/appi.neuropsych.12.2.287. PMID 11001615.
- Zoldan, J.; G. Friedberg, M. Livneh, and E. Melamed. (July 1995). "Psychosis in advanced Parkinson's disease: treatment with ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist". Neurology 45 (7): 1305–1308. doi:10.1212/WNL.45.7.1305. PMID 7617188.
- Healy, David (2002). The Creation of Psychopharmacology. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-00619-4.
- Blakemore, SJ; Smith J, Steel R, Johnstone CE, Frith CD (2000). "The perception of self-produced sensory stimuli in patients with auditory hallucinations and passivity experiences: evidence for a breakdown in self-monitoring". Psychological Medicine 30 (5): 1131–9. doi:10.1017/S0033291799002676. PMID 12027049.
- Lohr, JB; Caligiuri MP (1997). "Lateralized hemispheric dysfunction in the major psychotic disorders: historical perspectives and findings from a study of motor asymmetry in older patients". Schizophrophrenia Research 30 (27 (2–3)): 191–8. doi:10.1016/S0920-9964(97)00062-5. PMID 9416648.
- Pizaagalli, D; Lehmann D, Gianotti L, Koenig T, Tanaka H, Wackermann J, Brugger P. (2000). "Brain electric correlates of strong belief in paranormal phenomena: intracerebral EEG source and regional Omega complexity analyses". Psychiatry Research 100 (3): 139–154. doi:10.1016/S0925-4927(00)00070-6. PMID 11120441.
- Makarec, K; Persinger, MA (1985). "Temporal lobe signs: electroencephalographic validity and enhanced scores in special populations". Perceptual and Motor Skills 60 (3): 831–42. doi:10.2466/pms.1918.104.22.1681. PMID 3927256.
- Weinstein, S; Graves RE (2002). "Are creativity and schizotypy products of a right hemisphere bias?". Brain and Cognition 49 (1): 138–51. doi:10.1006/brcg.2001.1493. PMID 12027399. Retrieved 2006-08-19.
- (Krystal,J Subanesthetic Effects of the Noncompetitive NMDA Antagonist, Ketamine, in Humans,Arch Gen Psychiatry, 1994)
- (Curran, C, Stimulant psychosis: systematic review, British Journal of Psychiatry, 2004)
- Nordqvist, Christian (2 Jun 2010). "What Is Schizoaffective Disorder? What Causes Schizoaffective Disorder?". Medical News Today. Retrieved March 2013.
- "Schizophrenia Diagnosis". News-Medical.net. Retrieved March 2013.
- Fortunati F, Mazure C, Preda A, Wahl R, Bowers M Jr (2002). "Plasma catecholamine metabolites in antidepressant-exacerbated mania and psychosis". Journal of Affective Disorders 68 (2–3): 331–334. doi:10.1016/S0165-0327(00)00327-X. PMID 12063160.
- A. T. Safeekh and Denzil Pinto (Oct–Dec 2009). "Venlafaxine-induced psychotic symptoms". Indian Journal of Psychiatry 51 (4): 308–09. doi:10.4103/0019-5545.58301.
- Lemoine P et al (Dec 2010). "Acute psychotic disorders related to bupropion: review of the literature". Encephale 36 (6): 461–71. doi:10.4088/JCP.v62n0107. PMID 11235925.
- Surles LK, May HJ, Garry JP. Adderall-induced psychosis in an adolescent. The Journal of The American Board of Family Practice. 2002;15:498-500. PMID 12463297.
- Kraemer M, Uekermann J, Wiltfang J, Kis B. Methylphenidate-induced psychosis in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: report of 3 new cases and review of the literature. Clinical Neuropharmacology. 2010;33:204-6. doi:10.1097/WNF.0b013e3181e29174. PMID 20571380.
- Chakraborty, K Sandeep, G. Methylphenidate-induced mania-like symptoms. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 2011;43:80-1.
- Ross, RG. Psychotic and manic-like symptoms during stimulant treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2006;163:1149-52. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.163.7.1149. PMID 16816217.
- Steven M. Berman, Ronald Kuczenski, James T. McCracken, and Edythe D. London (2009). "Potential Adverse Effects of Amphetamine Treatment on Brain and Behavior: A Review". Molecular Psychiatry 14 (2): 123–42. doi:10.1038/mp.2008.90. PMC 2670101. PMID 18698321.
- Markowitz JS, Brewerton TD. (June 1996). "Zolpidem-induced psychosis". Annals of Clinical Psychiatry 8 (2): 89–91. doi:10.3109/10401239609148806. PMID 8807033.
- Chiung-Lei H, Ching-Jui C, Ching-Feng H, Hsi-Len L. (May 2003). "Zolpidem-induced distortion in visual perception". Annals of Pharmacotherapy 37 (5): 683–86. doi:10.1345/aph.1C318.
- Thomas J. Kim, and H.W. LeBourgeois (2004). "Banned, but Not Forgotten: A Case of Ephedrine-Induced Psychosis". Primary Care Companion to the Journal of clinical psychiatry 6 (3): 136–7. doi:10.4088/PCC.v06n0307. PMC 474739.
- Retamero C, Rivera T, Murphy K (2011). ""Ephedra-free" diet pill-induced psychosis". Psychosomatics 6 (6): 579–82. doi:10.1016/j.psym.2011.06.003. PMID 22054631.
- Narasimha A, Shetty PH, Nanjundaswamy MH, Viswanath B, Bada Math S (2013). "Hydroxycut - Dietary supplements for weight loss: Can they induce mania?". The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. [Epub ahead of print] (12): 1205–6. doi:10.1177/0004867413493522. PMID 23761572.
- Overall JE, Gorham DR. The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Psychol Rep. 1962;10:799-812
- Kay, S.R., Fiszbien, A., & Opler, L.A. 1987. The Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANNS) for schizophrenia" Schizophrenia Bulletin 13, pp261-276
- Marshall M, Rathbone J. Early intervention for psychosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006;(4):CD004718. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004718.pub2. PMID 17054213.
- van Os J, Kapur S. Schizophrenia. Lancet. 2009;374(9690):635–45. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60995-8. PMID 19700006.
- Stafford, MR; Jackson, H; Mayo-Wilson, E; Morrison, AP; Kendall, T (Jan 18, 2013). "Early interventions to prevent psychosis: systematic review and meta-analysis". BMJ (Clinical research ed.) 346: f185. doi:10.1136/bmj.f185. PMC 3548617. PMID 23335473.
- USA (2013-03-25). "Randomized controlled trial of interventio... [J Clin Psychiatry. 2012] - PubMed - NCBI". Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2013-04-23.
- James, Adam (2 March 2008). "Myth of the Antipsychotic". Guardian.
- Whitaker, Robert (8 Feb 2011). "Andreasen Drops A Bombshell: Antipsychotics Shrink the Brain". Psychology Today.
- Remington G, Kapur S (September 2010). "Antipsychotic dosing: how much but also how often?". Schizophr Bull 36 (5): 900–3. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbq083. PMC 2930338. PMID 20650931.
- Birchwood, M; Trower P (2006). "The future of cognitive-behavioural therapy for psychosis: not a quasi-neuroleptic". British Journal of Psychiatry 188 (2): 108–108. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.105.014985. PMID 16449695.
- "APA website on empirical treatments". Retrieved 2009-09-01.
- Ruiz, F. J. (2010). "A review of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) empirical evidence: Correlational, experimental psychopathology, component and outcome studies". International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy 10 (1): 125–62.
- Haddock, G; Lewis S (2005). "Psychological interventions in early psychosis". Schizophrenia Bulletin 31 (3): 697–704. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbi029. PMID 16006594.
- Nathans-Barel, I.; P. Feldman, B. Berger, I. Modai and H. Silver (2005). "Animal-assisted therapy ameliorates anhedonia in schizophrenia patients". Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 74 (1): 31–35. doi:10.1159/000082024. PMID 15627854.
- Birchwood, M; P. Todd, C. Jackson (1998). "Early Intervention in Psychosis: The Critical Period Hypothesis". British Journal of Psychiatry 172 (33): 53–59. PMID 9764127.
- Burgy, M. (20 August 2008). "The Concept of Psychosis: Historical and Phenomenological Aspects". Schizophrenia Bulletin 34 (6): 1200–1210. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbm136. PMC 2632489. PMID 18174608.
- Beer, M D (1995). "Psychosis: from mental disorder to disease concept". Hist Psychiatry 6 (22(II)): 177–200. doi:10.1177/0957154X9500602204. PMID 11639691.
- "Psychosis, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, at Perseus". Perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved 2011-06-11.
- "Online Etymology Dictionary". Douglas Harper. 2001. Retrieved 2006-08-19.
- Berrios G E (1987). "Historical Aspects of Psychoses: 19th Century Issues". British Medical Bulletin 43 (3): 484–498. PMID 3322481.
- Berrios G E, Beer D (1994). "The notion of Unitary Psychosis: a conceptual history". History of Psychiatry 5 (17 Pt 1): 13–36. doi:10.1177/0957154X9400501702. PMID 11639278.
- Porter, Roy (2003). Madness: A Brief History. USA: Oxford University Press. p. 10. ISBN 0192802674.
- Vlachos, I.O; Beratis, Hartocollis (1997). "Magico religious beliefs and psychosis". Psychopathology 30 (2): 93–99. doi:10.1159/000285035. PMID 9168565.
- Pfeifer, S (September 1994). "Belief in demons and exorcism in psychiatric patients in Switzerland". British Journal of Medical Psychology 67 (3): 247–258. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8341.1994.tb01794.x.
- Bennet, S. (2008). "Mind and madness in classical antiquity". History of Psychiatry and Medical Psychology: 175–197. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-34708-0_3. ISBN 978-0-387-34707-3.
- Spring, B; L. Weinstein, M. Lemon, A. Haskell (1991). "Schizophrenia from Hippocrates to Kraepelin". Clinical Psychology: 259–277. doi:10.1007/978-1-4757-9715-2_10. ISBN 978-1-4757-9717-6.
- Rush, M.D., Benjamin (1830). Medical Inquiries and Observations upon Diseases of the Mind. Philadelphia. pp. 98–190. ISBN 978-0559921674.
- Shorter, Edward (1998). A History of Psychiatry: From the Era of the Asylum to the Age of Prozac. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0471245313.
- Stone, J.L. (March 2010). "Dr. Gottlieb Burckhardt--the pioneer of psychosurgery". Journal of the History of the Neurosciences 10 (1): 79–92. doi:10.1076/jhin.10.1.79.5634. PMID 11446267.
- Gross, D.; G. Schâfer (April 2011). "Egas Moniz and the "invention" of modern psychosurgery: A historical and ethical reanalysis under special consideration of portuguese original sources". Neurosurgical Focus 30 (2): 8–10. doi:10.3171/2011.3.FOCUS10214a.
- Pressman, J. (2002). Last resort: Psychosurgery and the limits of medicine. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. pp. 18–40. ISBN 978-0521353717.
- Berrios, G.E. (March 1997). "The origins of psychosurgery: Shaw, burckhardt and moniz". Hist. Psychiatry 8 (29): 61–81. doi:10.1177/0957154X9700802905. PMID 11619209.
- Pressman, Jack (1998). Last Resort: Psychosurgery and the Limits of Medicine (Cambridge Studies in the History of Medicine). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. pp. 18–40. ISBN 0521353718.
- Mashour, George; Erin E. Walker, Robert L. Martuza (7 September 2005). "Psychosurgery: past, present, and future". Brain Research Reviews 48 (3): 409–419. doi:10.1016/j.brainresrev.2004.09.002. PMID 15914249.
- Stip, Emmanuel (22 January 2002). "Happy birthday neuroleptics! 50 year later: la folie du doute". European Psychiatry 17 (3): 115–119. doi:10.1016/S0924-9338(02)00639-9. PMID 12052571.
- Crossley, Nicolas; Miguel Constante (2010). "Efficacy of atypical v. typical antipsychotics in the treatment of early psychosis: meta-analysis". The British Journal of Psychiatry 196 (6): 434–439. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.109.066217. PMC 2878818. PMID 20513851.
- Maher, Alicia; Margaret Maglione, Steven Bagley, Marika Suttorp, Jian-Hui Hu, Brett Ewing, Zhen Wang, Martha Timmer, David Sultzer, Paul Shekelle (28 September 2011). "Efficacy and Comparative Effectiveness of Atypical Antipsychotic Medications for Off-Label Uses in Adults A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis". The Journal of the American Medical Association 306 (12): 1359–1369. doi:10.1001/jama.2011.1360. PMID 21954480.
- Kapur, S.; M. Rominia, L. Ming (November 2005). "From dopamine to salience to psychosis—linking biology, pharmacology and phenomenology of psychosis". Schizophrenia Research 79 (1): 59–68. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2005.01.003. PMID 16005191.
- Sims, A. (2002). Symptoms in the mind: An introduction to descriptive psychopathology (3rd edition). Edinburgh: Elsevier Science Ltd. ISBN 0-7020-2627-1
- Murray ED, Buttner N, Price BH. (2012). Depression and Psychosis in Neurological Practice. In: Neurology in Clinical Practice, 6th Edition. Bradley WG, Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic J (eds.) Butterworth Heinemann. April 12, 2012. ISBN 1437704344 | ISBN 978-1437704341
- Williams, Paris (2012). Rethinking Madness: Towards a Paradigm Shift In Our Understanding and Treatment of Psychosis, Sky’s Edge Publishing.
- Personal accounts
- Dick, P.K. (1981) VALIS. London: Gollancz. [Semi-autobiographical] ISBN 0-679-73446-5
- Hinshaw, S.P. (2002) The Years of Silence are Past: My Father's Life with Bipolar Disorder. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Jamison, K.R. (1995) An Unquiet Mind: A Memoir of Moods and Madness. London: Picador.
- Schreber, Daniel Paul (2000) Memoirs of My Nervous Illness. New York: New York Review of Books. ISBN 0-940322-20-X
- McLean, R (2003) Recovered Not Cured: A Journey Through Schizophrenia. Allen & Unwin. Australia. ISBN 1-86508-974-5
- The Eden Express by Mark Vonnegut
- James Tilly Matthews
- Saks, Elyn R. (2007) The Center Cannot Hold—My Journey Through Madness. New York: Hyperion. ISBN 978-1-4013-0138-5
- psychosis-bipolar.com - For persons afflicted, relatives and professionals: information, trialog, interactive therapy portal
- Understanding psychotic experiences from mental health charity Mind