The pteridophytes are vascular plants (plants with xylem and phloem) that produce neither flowers nor seeds, and are hence called vascular cryptogams. Instead, they reproduce and disperse only via spores. Pteridophytes include horsetails, ferns, club mosses, and quillworts. They are used for medicinal purposes, as soil -binders, and are frequently planted as ornamentals.
Pteridophyte classification 
- the Lycopodiophyta (club mosses, spike mosses, and quillworts),
In addition to these living groups of pteridophytes are several groups now extinct and known only from fossils. These groups include the Rhyniophyta, Zosterophyllophyta, Trimerophytophyta, and the progymnosperms.
Modern studies of the land plants agree that all the pteridophytes share a single common ancestor. However, they are not a clade (monophyletic group) because the seed plants are also descended from within this group—probably close relatives of the progymnosperms.
Pteridophyte sexuality 
These plants are generally sporophyte-oriented; that is, the normal plant is the diploid sporophyte, with the only haploid structure being the gametophyte (prothallium) in season. This basic pattern is like that found in the seed plants but with an important exception. Unlike the seed plants, the pteridophytes have a gametophyte stage that is free-living. As a result, pteridophyte sexuality is more complicated than that of the seed plants. There are several basic categories of sexuality in pteridophytes. The terms distinguish between types of gametophyte sexuality:
- Dioicous pteridophytes produce only antheridia (male organs) or archegonia (female organ) on a single gametophyte body.
- Monoicous pteridophytes produce both antheridia and archegonia on the same gametophyte body.
See also 
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- Smith, Alan R.; Kathleen M. Pryer, Eric Schuettpelz, Petra Korall, Harald Schneider, & Paul G. Wolf (2006). "A classification for extant ferns" (PDF). Taxon 55 (3): 705–731. doi:10.2307/25065646. JSTOR 25065646.
- Gifford, Ernest M. & Foster, Adriance S. (1988). Morphology and Evolution of Vascular Plants, (3rd ed.). New York: W. H. Freeman and Company. ISBN 0-7167-1946-0.
- Raven, Peter H., Evert, Ray F., & Eichhorn, Susan E. (2005). Biology of Plants (7th ed.). New York: W. H. Freeman and Company. ISBN 0-7167-1007-2.