A public–public partnership (PuP) is a partnership between a government body or public authority and another such body or a non-profit organization to provide services and/or facilities, sometimes with the goal of transferring technical skills and expertise within international development projects. Partners can include other local, regional, state, provincial, first nations or aboriginal governments, national or federal governments, school boards, parks boards, non-governmental organizations, unions, pension funds, professional organizations, and governments, labour, non-governmental organizations and community groups in developing countries.
Public–public partnerships exist in contrast to public–private partnerships (P3s or PPPs). PPPs involve governments contracting corporations to design, build, finance, maintain and operate public projects like schools, hospitals and bridges. They usually involve large global corporations with contracts often lasting decades.
PUPs in water
The Yokohama Waterworks Bureau first started training partnerships in the 1980s to help staff in other Asian countries. Far more countries have hosted PUPs than PPPs (44 countries with private participation).
Water PUPs have been around for over 20 years and are in all regions of the world. They have been growing in number more rapidly the last few years. They are used as an alternative tool for improvements in public water management. 
- Department for Communities and Local Government (June 2006). Rethinking Service Delivery. Volume 3: Shared Service and Public/Public Partnerships. DCLG Publications. ISBN 978-1-85112-837-2. Retrieved 2009-05-26.
- Greasley, K.; Watson, P. J.; Patel, S. (2008). "The formation of public-public partnerships: A case study examination of collaboration on a “back to work” initiative". International Journal of Public Sector Management 21 (3): 305–313. doi:10.1108/09513550810863204.
- Battaglio, R. P.; Khankarli, G. A. (2008). "Toll Roads, Politics, and Public–Public Partnerships: the Case of Texas State Highway 121". Public Works Management & Policy 13 (2): 138. doi:10.1177/1087724X08323844.
- Hukka, J.; Vinnari, E. (2007). "Public–public partnerships in the Finnish water services sector". Utilities Policy 15 (2): 86–89. doi:10.1016/j.jup.2007.01.002.
- "Community forests in Baden-Württemberg (Germany): A case study for successful Public-Public-Partnership". Small-Scale Forestry 4 (3): 229–250. 2005. doi:10.1007/s11842-005-0015-8 (inactive 2014-03-30).
- Lobina, Emanuele; Hall, David (2006). Public-Public Partnerships as a catalyst for capacity building and institutional development: Lessons from Stockholm Vatten’s experience in the Baltic region. Public Services International Research Unit, University of Greenwich.
- Public–public partnerships in health and essential services
- Public–public partnership for water management proposed
- Public–public partnerships: a backgrounder on successful water/wastewater re-engineering programs
- Public-public partnerships in water: advancing towards an efficient water service
- PuPS at the IDRC
- Public-public partnerships (PUPs) in water Water Justice Project at the Transnational Institute
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