Public Against Violence
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Public Against Violence (Slovak: Verejnosť proti násiliu, VPN) was a political movement established in Bratislava, Slovakia, on 20 November 1989. It was the Slovak counterpart of the Czech Civic Forum (the VPN was founded some 2 hours before the Civic Forum).
It played an important role in the Velvet Revolution.
At an extraordinary party congress held on 27 April 1991, a new party called Movement for a Democratic Slovakia split off from the VPN. It won the 1992 elections. The remaining VPN quickly lost popular support and most members created the Civic Democratic Union (Občianska demokratická únia, ODÚ), which however ceased to exist by November 1992.
- Paal Sigurd Hilde, "Slovak Nationalism and the Break-Up of Czechoslovakia." Europe-Asia Studies, Vol. 51, No. 4 (Jun., 1999): 647-665.
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