Public housing in Puerto Rico

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Public housing in Puerto Rico is a subsidized system of housing units, mostly consisting of housing projects (Residenciales, Barriadas, or Caserios Publicos, in Spanish), which are provided for low-income families in Puerto Rico. The system is mainly financed with programs from the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and the US Department of Agriculture (USDA). There are 322 public housing developments in Puerto Rico.[1]

Introduction[edit]

Neighborhoods in Puerto Rico are often divided into three types: barrio, urbanización (urbanization) and residencial público (public housing).[2] An urbanización is a type of housing where land is developed into lots, often by a private developer, and where single-family homes are built. More recently, non single-family units, such as condominiums and townhouses are being built which also fall into this category.[3] (In Puerto Rico, a condominiun is a housing unit located in a high-rise building. It is popularly called an "apartamento", or, alternatively, "apartamiento" (English: apartment), whether or not its resident owns the unit or lives it as a renter.) Public housing, on the other hand, are housing units built with government funding. These have traditionally consisted multi-family dwellings in housing complexes called a Barriada or a Caserío Publico (and more recently a Residencial), and where all exterior grounds consist of shared areas. Increasingly, however, public housing developments are being built that consist of other than the traditional multi-family dwellings with all exterior grounds consisting of shared outside area, for example, public housing may consist of single family garden apartments units. Finally, a home that is located in neither an urbanizacion nor of a public housing development is said to be located in (and to be a part of) a barrio. [4] In Puerto Rico, a "barrio" also has a second and very different meaning official meaning: the geographical area into which a municipios is divided for official administrative purposes. In this sense, urbanizaciones as well as public housing developments (as well as one or several "barrios" in the popular sense) may be located in one of these 901 official geographic areas.[5]

History[edit]

Puerto Rico's Department of Housing, created in the 1970s, succeeded the Urban Renewal and Housing Corporation, or Corporación de Renovación Urbana y Vivienda (CRUV, its Spanish acronym), which was created in the late 1950s to succeed the Puerto Rico Housing Authority, created by Gov. Luis Muñoz Marín and headed by César Cordero Dávila, to consolidate several state and municipal housing agencies.[citation needed] Puerto Rico Housing and CRUV were responsible for the design and construction of many of the older "residenciales" in Puerto Rico. Henry Klumb provided early support for those efforts and one of his protégés, George McClintock was the first Architect-in-Chief of Puerto Rico Housing in the early-to-mid 1950's.[citation needed] Among Klumb's designs are the 1945 design work for the Cataño, San Lorenzo, Lares and Aguadilla Puerto Rico Housing projects, Naranjito Public Housing Project in 1957, Comerío Public Housing Project in 1958, and Residencial Las Virtudes, designed and built between 1969 ad 1976.[citation needed] Klumb had previously done work for several municipal housing agencies, including Mayagüez' and Ponce's.[citation needed]

In 1973, José Enrique Arrarás became the first Secretary of Housing. He was appointed by Gov. Rafael Hernández Colón.

Organization[edit]

Rear view of a public housing project, near Plaza Las Americas.

Operating funds are provided by HUD for tenant rent subsidizing and for the construction, acquisition, maintenance, and operations of public housing projects, which are in turn administered by several entities throughout the island called Public Housing Agencies (PHAs). The main Public Housing Agency in Puerto Rico is the Public Housing Administration (Administración de Vivienda Pública, or AVP, in Spanish) under the Puerto Rico Department of Housing (Departamento de Vivienda in Spanish). Other Public Housing Agencies include certain municipalities which are authorized by HUD and commonwealth law to operate housing projects independent of the main state PHA. All PHAs can contract a Management Agent (usually a for-profit enterprise) to manage day-to-day operations, including processing tenant complaints, housing unit repairs, and overall project maintenance.

HUD also allows private non-profit organizations and for-profit enterprises to manage housing projects as PHAs, offering program funding and tax incentives in order to compensate for operating costs. However, these types of public housing projects are not as common in Puerto Rico as those which are managed by the state.

The PHA is responsible for providing adequate living arrangements for program tenants, in compliance with Housing Quality Standards (HQS) set by HUD. Additionally, the PHA must manage all federal funds received in an efficient and reasonable way, in compliance with HUD prescribed guidelines and with Chapter 24 of the US Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Management Agents are also required to comply with these standards.

The USDA provides federal loan programs (including direct loans or loan guarantees) to PHAs for the construction of new public housing projects or acquisition of existing living complexes to convert into public projects.

Eligible tenants[edit]

The tenant rent subsidizing system allows low-income and impoverished individuals and families to reside in a subsidized housing unit just as long as their income status complies with federal regulations. Families wanting to participate must first be included in a Waiting List, which includes all citizens applying for subsidized housing by order of application date. Families must therefore "wait until their turn" for eligibility as the PHA selects families by that order, a process which in Puerto Rico may take several years. Applicants must provide evidence of low-income status (HUD recommends a copy of a filed income tax return) and are Given a housing unit for which HUD will subsidize its rent.

Criticism[edit]

Supporters of the system argue that Puerto Rico's annual income per person is $12,000 (2004),[6] a figure which is much lower than in the United States and which explains why a relatively larger portion of the island population participates in the system.

List of public housing projects in Puerto Rico[edit]

The following is a list of public housing projects located in Puerto Rico, and includes those that are managed by the Government of Puerto Rico, by municipalities, and by private non-profit and for-profit entities:

Adjuntas[edit]

  • Villa Valle Verde
  • Alturas de Adjuntas

Aguadilla[edit]

  • Jose A.Aponte
  • Agustin Stahl
  • Las Muñecas
  • Cuesta Vieja
  • Juan Garcia Ducos
  • La Montaña
  • Muñeki Apartments I y II
  • Puesta del Sol
  • Bernardino Villanueva
  • José de Diego
  • Villamar

Aibonito[edit]

  • Liborio Ortiz
  • Villas de la Rosa
  • Golden Village
  • Villa Verde

Añasco[edit]

  • Francisco Figueroa

Arecibo[edit]

  • Trina Padilla de Sanz
  • Ramon Marin Sola
  • EXT. MANUEL ZENO GANDIA
  • Bella Vista
  • Antonio Marquez Arbona
  • La Meseta
  • El Cotto
  • Villa de los Santos I
  • Villa de los Santos II

Barceloneta[edit]

  • Antonio Dávila Freytes
  • Plazuela Catalina
  • Quintas de Barceloneta

Barranquitas[edit]

  • Villa Universitaria
  • Reparto San Antonio

Bayamón[edit]

  • Valencia
  • La Alhambra
  • Alturas de Bayamón
  • Jardines de Caparra
  • José Celso Barbosa
  • La Alegría Apts
  • Las Gardenias
  • Los Dominicos
  • Magnolia Gardens
  • MonteRey
  • Rafael "Falín" Torrech
  • San Fernando
  • Sierra Linda
  • Virgilio Dávila
  • Bella Vista Heights
  • Brisas de Bayamon
  • Bayamón Country Club (Sold for private housing)
  • Bayamon Housing
  • Miraflores II & III
  • Santa Catalina
  • Los Laureles
  • Campo Verde

Caguas[edit]

  • Jose Gautier Benitez
  • Juan Jimenez Garcia
  • Turabo Heights
  • Raul Castellon
  • Brisas del Turabo I y II
  • Villa del Rey 2
  • Jardines de Condado Moderno
  • Bonneville Heights
  • Jardines de San Carlos
  • Torre de Tokio
  • Balcones las Catalinas
  • Ext. La Granja
  • Brisas de San Alfonso
  • Savarona
  • Villas de castro Gardens
  • Villa Blanca
  • El Mirador
  • Caguax
  • Barrio Tomas de Castro

Canovanas[edit]

  • Jesús T. Piñero
  • Alborada

Carolina[edit]

  • Torres De Sabana Antiguas
  • Sabana Abajo
  • Felipe Sanchez Osorio
  • Los Mirtos
  • Los Naranjales
  • Lagos de Blasina
  • Vista mar Plaza
  • Alturas de Country club
  • Loma Alta
  • El Coral
  • Las Carolinas
  • Catañito Gardens
  • El Faro (Carolina walkup)
  • La Esmeralda
  • Roberto Clemente
  • Row Houses
  • Carolina Housing
  • Monserrate Towers
  • I.C.U Pegloe.
  • Santa Catalina
  • Parque Ecuestre

Cataño[edit]

  • Juana Matos I, II & III
  • El Coquí
  • Rosendo Matienzo Citron
  • Las Palmas
  • Jardines de Cataño
  • Las Vegas
  • Angelio Apartments

Cayey[edit]

  • Brisas de Cayey
  • Jardines de Montellano
  • Luis Muñoz Morales
  • Beningo Fernandez Garcia
  • Alturas De Montellano
  • Jardines De Buena Vista
  • Los Laureles

PRIVATIZADO

  • Las Muesas

Ciales[edit]

  • Brisas de Ciales
  • Jaguas
  • Fernando Sierra Berdecia
  • Dos Ríos
  • Alturas de Ciales

Cidra[edit]

  • Praxedes Santiago
  • Jardines de Cidra
  • Cidra Housing

Coamo[edit]

  • San Antonio
  • Jardin Del Eden

Corozal[edit]

  • Alturas de Cibuco
  • Enrique Landrón

Dorado[edit]

  • Manuel Morales

Fajardo[edit]

  • Veve Calzada
  • Puerto Real
  • Valle Puerto Real
  • Pedro Rosario Nieves

Florida[edit]

  • Florida Housing
  • Villas de Florida

Guayama[edit]

  • Luis Palés Matos
  • Jardines Guamani
  • Carioca
  • Calimano
  • Valles

Guayanilla[edit]

  • Padre Nazario
  • Bahía

Guaynabo[edit]

  • Jardines de Guaynabo
  • La Rosaleda
  • Rafael Martinez Nadal
  • Villas de Mabo
  • Zenon Diaz Varcarcel
  • Flambo
  • Hannia Maria Apartments

Gurabo[edit]

  • Luis del Carmen Echevarrias

Hormigueros[edit]

  • Gabriel Soler Catalá

Humacao[edit]

  • Antonio Roig
  • Jardines del Oriente
  • Padre Rivera
  • DR. Palou

Juana Díaz[edit]

  • Cayabo
  • Tocadillo
  • Kennedy
  • Villas del Parque
  • Leonardo Santiago

Juncos[edit]

  • Colinas de Magnolia
  • Antulio Lopez
  • Narcizo Varona
  • Sanabria
  • Palou Castro

Lares[edit]

  • Casa Castañer
  • Residencial Dr. Sein

Las Piedras[edit]

  • Jardines de Yudelly
  • Dorilinda
  • LA RIBERA

Loíza[edit]

  • Yuquiyu
  • San Patricio
  • Castor Ayala
  • Loíza Gardens
  • Jardines

Luquillo[edit]

  • Diego Zalduondo
  • Yuquiyu
  • EL CEMI

Manatí[edit]

  • Los Murales
  • Enrique Zorrilla Norma
  • Brisas de Campo Alegre
  • Plaza Apartments
  • Villa Evangelina

Mayagüez[edit]

  • Candelaria
  • Kennedy
  • Columbus Landing
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt
  • Eleonor Roosvelt
  • Sabalos Gardens
  • Cuesta Las Piedras
  • Manuel Hernandez Rosa
  • El Carmen
  • Rafael Hernandez
  • Mar y Sol
  • Ext. Sabalos Gardens
  • Ramirez de Arellano
  • Monte Isleño
  • Jardines de Concordia
  • Mayagüez Gardens
  • Flamboyan Gardens
  • Parque Sultana
  • Mayagüez Housing
  • La Arboleda
  • Yagüez
  • Igualdad
  • Marini
  • Jardines de Mayagüez
  • Villas de Mayagüez

Moca[edit]

  • Moca Housing
  • Jose N. Gandara

Morovis[edit]

Naguabo[edit]

  • Ignacio Morales Davila
  • Villa del Rio
  • Torres del Rio
  • Hucares 1 y 2
  • Naguabo Valley

Ponce[edit]

Dr. Rafael Lopez Nussa was memorialized with the name of a housing development in the city of Ponce

Quebradillas[edit]

  • Francisco Vigo Salas
  • Guarionex

Río Grande[edit]

  • Galateo
  • Jose H. Ramirez

San Germán[edit]

  • Las Lomas
  • El Recreo
  • Manuel F. Rossy

San Juan[edit]

  • Brisas de Cupey
  • Las Acacias (Demolished in 2000)
  • Luis Lloréns Torres (Largest Public Housing Project in Puerto Rico[citation needed])
  • Jardines de Monte Hatillo
  • Manuel A. Perez
  • Nemesio R. Canales
  • Jardines de Selles
  • Jardines de Berwind (remain 2 of 4 Demolished)
  • Lopez Sicardo
  • Vista Hermosa
  • Villa España
  • Las Gladiolas (demolished on July 25, 2011)
  • Puerta De Tierra
  • El Prado
  • Las Dalias
  • Bahía
  • Las Margaritas
  • San juan Bautista
  • Park Court
  • El Mirador
  • Juan César Cordero Dávila (Quintana)
  • El Trébol
  • Los Flamboyanes
  • El Prado
  • Ernesto Ramos Antonini
  • Falansterio
  • Fray Bartolomé de Las Casas
  • Jardines de Campo Rico
  • Jardines de Cupey
  • Jardines de Country Club
  • Jardines del Paraiso
  • Jardines de la Nueva Puerta de San Juan
  • La Orquídea
  • La Perla Del Caribe
  • La Rosa
  • Leopoldo Figueroa
  • Los Peña
  • Monte Hatillo
  • Monte Park
  • Parque de San Agustín
  • Jardines de Quintana
  • San Agustin
  • San Antonio
  • San Fernando
  • Santa Elena
  • San Jose
  • San Martín
  • Valles de Berwind
  • Villa Kennedy
  • Villa Olímpica
  • Antigua Via
  • Los Lirios
  • Los Laureles
  • Los Manantiales
  • Villa Esperanza
  • villa Andalucia
  • Villa Palmera
  • Alturas de Cupey
  • Manuel A. Perez

San Lorenzo[edit]

  • Lorenzana
  • Hato Grande

San Sebastian[edit]

  • Andres Mendez Liciaga/San Sebastian Court
  • Villa Soigal
  • San Andres

Toa Alta[edit]

  • Ramon Perez
  • Piñas
  • Jardines de San Fernando
  • Sheila

Toa Baja[edit]

  • El Toa
  • Angel E. Melecio
  • Campanilla
  • Villa del Sabana
  • Villas Del Campanero

Trujillo Alto[edit]

  • Nuestra Señora de Covadonga.
  • Los Rosales
  • Pedro Regalado Diaz
  • Torres Los Cedros
  • Los Claveles
  • Los Laureles
  • Los Cedros

Villalba[edit]

  • Efraín Suárez
  • Jardines Del Paraiso
  • Maximino Miranda

Yabucoa[edit]

  • Dr. Victor Berrios

Yauco[edit]

  • Mont Blanc
  • Santa Catalina Nuevo Nombre "Ana Catalina Rodríguez Velez"
  • Yauco Housing

Vega Alta[edit]

  • El Batey
  • Alturas de Monte Verde
  • Las Violetas
  • Francisco Vega Sanchez

Vega Baja[edit]

  • Enrique Catoni

Vieques[edit]

  • Jardines de Vieques

Public Housing Authorities[edit]

Public Housing Authorities are government agencies designated by the US Department of Housing and Urban Development to administer federally subsidized housing units.

Source: Public Housing Agency (HA) Profiles, US Department of Housing and Urban Development
PHA Code
(RQ Number)
  
Name   Government
type
  
Type of
public housing

  
Total rentable units  
RQ005 A2 Puerto Rico Public Housing Authority State Low-Rent 53,610
RQ006 San Juan Municipality of San Juan Local Section 8 5,127
RQ007 Caguas Municipality of Caguas Local Section 8 1,291
RQ008 Ponce Municipality of Ponce Local Section 8 1,608
RQ009 Mayagüez Municipality of Mayagüez Local Section 8 842
RQ010 Moca Municipality of Moca Local Section 8 67
RQ011 Bayamón Municipality of Bayamón Local Section 8 2,207
RQ012 Aguadilla Municipality of Aguadilla Local Section 8 265
RQ013 Trujillo Alto Municipality of Trujillo Alto Local Section 8 679
RQ014 Carolina Municipality of Carolina Local Section 8 741
RQ015 Dorado Municipality of Dorado Local Section 8 277
RQ016 Guaynabo Municipality of Guaynabo Local Section 8 383
RQ017 Guayama Municipality of Guayama Local Section 8 264
RQ018 Cayey Municipality of Cayey Local Section 8 239
RQ019 Peñuelas Municipality of Peñuelas Local Section 8 240
RQ020 Arecibo Municipality of Arecibo Local Section 8 928
RQ021 Guayanilla Municipality of Guayanilla Local Section 8 146
RQ022 Toa Baja Municipality of Toa Baja Local Section 8 244
RQ023 Corozal Municipality of Corozal Local Section 8 139
RQ024 Morovis Municipality of Morovis Local Section 8 53
RQ025 Humacao Municipality of Humacao Local Section 8 276
RQ026 San Sebastian Municipality of San Sebastian Local Section 8 139
RQ027 Loíza Municipality of Loíza Local Section 8 5
RQ028 Manatí Municipality of Manatí Local Section 8 182
RQ029 Maricao Municipality of Maricao Local Section 8 35
RQ030 San Germán Municipality of San Germán Local Section 8 88
RQ031 Quebradillas Municipality of Quebradillas Local Section 8 141
RQ032 Vega Baja Municipality of Vega Baja Local Section 8 277
RQ033 Utuado Municipality of Utuado Local Section 8 197
RQ034 Comerío Municipality of Comerio Local Section 8 118
RQ035 Hormigueros Municipality of Hormigueros Local Section 8 103
RQ036 Fajardo Municipality of Fajardo Local Section 8 78
RQ037 San Lorenzo Municipality of San Lorenzo Local Section 8 107
RQ038 Juana Díaz Municipality of Juana Díaz Local Section 8 115
RQ039 Hatillo Municipality of Hatillo Local Section 8 73
RQ040 Camuy Municipality of Camuy Local Section 8 156
RQ041 Gurabo Municipality of Gurabo Local Section 8 143
RQ042 Coamo Municipality of Coamo Local Section 8 60
RQ043 Añasco Municipality of Añasco Local Section 8 110
RQ044 Guanica Municipality of Guanica Local Section 8 54
RQ045 Yabucoa Municipality of Yabucoa Local Section 8 117
RQ046 Las Marías Municipality of Las Marías Local Section 8 40
RQ047 Naguabo Municipality of Naguabo Local Section 8 121
RQ048 Sabana Grande Municipality of Sabana Grande Local Section 8 156
RQ049 Villalba Municipality of Villalba Local Section 8 84
RQ050 Río Grande Municipality of Río Grande Local Section 8 78
RQ052 Ciales Municipality of Ciales Local Section 8 74
RQ053 Toa Alta Municipality of Toa Alta Local Section 8 181
RQ054 Barceloneta Municipality of Barceloneta Local Section 8 125
RQ055 Adjuntas Municipality of Adjuntas Local Section 8 52
RQ056 Vega Alta Municipality of Vega Alta Local Section 8 76
RQ057 Patillas Municipality of Patillas Local Section 8 83
RQ058 Santa Isabel Municipality of Santa Isabel Local Section 8 70
RQ059 Aibonito Municipality of Aibonito Local Section 8 58
RQ060 Barranquitas Municipality of Barranquitas Local Section 8 180
RQ061 Cabo Rojo Municipality of Cabo Rojo Local Section 8 107
RQ062 Cidra Municipality of Cidra Local Section 8 190
RQ063 Las Piedras Municipality of Las Piedras Local Section 8 125
RQ064 Naranjito Municipality of Naranjito Local Section 8 123
RQ065 Lares Municipality of Lares Local Section 8 73
RQ066 Isabela Municipality of Isabela Local Section 8 86
RQ067 Rincón Municipality of Rincón Local Section 8 34
RQ068 Arroyo Municipality of Arroyo Local Section 8 217
RQ069 Salinas Municipality of Salinas Local Section 8 97
RQ070 Ceiba Municipality of Ceiba Local Section 8 41
RQ071 Lajas Municipality of Lajas Local Section 8 69
RQ072 FloridaF Municipality of Florida Local Section 8 45
RQ073 Aguada Municipality of Aguada Local Section 8 121
RQ074 Vieques Municipality of Vieques Local Section 8 116
RQ075 Canóvanas Municipality of Canóvanas Local Section 8 34
RQ076 Jayuya Municipality of Jayuya Local Section 8 4
RQ077 Juncos Municipality of Juncos Local Section 8 55
RQ080 Orocovis Municipality of Orocovis Local Section 8 47
RQ081 Luquillo Municipality of Luquillo Local Section 8 69
RQ082 Aguas Buenas Municipality of Aguas Buenas Local Section 8 161
RQ083 Yauco Municipality of Yauco Local Section 8 95
RQ901 Guanica Puerto Rico Department of Housing Res. Jardines de Guanica State Section 8 8,510
RQ911 A3 Puerto Rico Housing Finance Company State Section 8 2,577

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Public Housing Projects in PR Retrieved November 3, 2009.
  2. ^ La realidad de las mujeres en las cárceles del país. Primera Hora. 7 April 2014. Retrieved 11 April 2014.
  3. ^ La realidad de las mujeres en las cárceles del país. Primera Hora. 7 April 2014. Retrieved 11 April 2014.
  4. ^ La realidad de las mujeres en las cárceles del país. Primera Hora. 7 April 2014. Retrieved 11 April 2014.
  5. ^ Los alcaldes de los barrios. Rafael Torrech San Inocencio. "Barrios del Sur." El Sur a la Vista. Ponce, Puerto Rico. 16 January 2011. Retrieved 11 April 2014.
  6. ^ "Trouble on Welfare Island", The Economist, May 25, 2005, retrieved July 13, 2006
  7. ^ a b c MENSAJE DE PRESUPUESTO: AÑO FISCAL 2011-2012. Page 29. Hon. María “Mayita” Meléndez Altieri, Mayor. Autonomous Municipality of Ponce. Ponce, Puerto Rico. 30 May 2011. Retrieved 7 October 2011.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Listado de Residenciales: Ponce. Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico. Departamento de la Vivienda. Administracion de Vivienda Publica. Retrieved 2 December 2011.
  9. ^ a b Sunny A. Cabrera Salcedo. Hacia un Estudio Integral de la Toponimia del Municipio de Ponce, Puerto Rico. Ph. D. dissertation. May 1999. University of Massachusetts Amherst. Graduate School. Department of Spanish and Portuguese. Page 160.
  10. ^ a b MENSAJE DE PRESUPUESTO: AÑO FISCAL 2011-2012. Page 31. Hon. María “Mayita” Meléndez Altieri, Mayor. Autonomous Municipality of Ponce. Ponce, Puerto Rico. 30 May 2011. Retrieved 7 October 2011.
  11. ^ SENADO DE PUERTO RICO, RESOLUCION CONJUNTA R. C. del S. 898. Senator Seilhamer Rodríguez. GOBIERNO DE PUERTO RICO. 16ta Asamblea 6ta Sesión. Legislativa Ordinaria. SENADO DE PUERTO RICO. R. C. del S. 898. 5 October 2011. Retriived 11 October 2011.
  12. ^ Sunny A. Cabrera Salcedo. Hacia un Estudio Integral de la Toponimia del Municipio de Ponce, Puerto Rico. Ph. D. dissertation. May 1999. University of Massachusetts Amherst. Graduate School. Department of Spanish and Portuguese. Page 165.
  13. ^ not to be confused with Urbanizacion Las Delicias, a private single-family homes development
  14. ^ Sunny A. Cabrera Salcedo. Hacia un Estudio Integral de la Toponimia del Municipio de Ponce, Puerto Rico. Ph. D. dissertation. May 1999. University of Massachusetts Amherst. Graduate School. Department of Spanish and Portuguese. Page 174.
  15. ^ a b Radican cargos por robo a hermanos que simulaban asalto en Ponce. El Sur a la Vista. Ponce, Puerto Rico. 12 July 2011. Retrieved 4 October 2011.
  16. ^ Sunny A. Cabrera Salcedo. Hacia un Estudio Integral de la Toponimia del Municipio de Ponce, Puerto Rico. Ph. D. dissertation. May 1999. University of Massachusetts Amherst. Graduate School. Department of Spanish and Portuguese. Page 180.
  17. ^ Arrestan a 33 en Ponce y Juana Díaz. Jason Rodríguez Grafal. La Perla del Sur. Ponce, Puerto Rico. 5 October 2011. Retrieved 5 October 2011.
  18. ^ Sunny A. Cabrera Salcedo. Hacia un Estudio Integral de la Toponimia del Municipio de Ponce, Puerto Rico. Ph. D. dissertation. May 1999. University of Massachusetts Amherst. Graduate School. Department of Spanish and Portuguese. Page 166.
  19. ^ a b Sunny A. Cabrera Salcedo. Hacia un Estudio Integral de la Toponimia del Municipio de Ponce, Puerto Rico. Ph. D. dissertation. May 1999. University of Massachusetts Amherst. Graduate School. Department of Spanish and Portuguese. Page 176.
  20. ^ a b Sunny A. Cabrera Salcedo. Hacia un Estudio Integral de la Toponimia del Municipio de Ponce, Puerto Rico. Ph. D. dissertation. May 1999. University of Massachusetts Amherst. Graduate School. Department of Spanish and Portuguese. Page 173.
  21. ^ Not to be confused with Urbanizacion Lirios del Sur, a private single-family homes development
  22. ^ Mensaje de Situacion y Presupuesto del Alcalde de Ponce, Hon. Francisco Zayas Seijo, a la Legislatura Municipal de Ponce Correspondiente al Ano Fiscal 2008-2009. Hon. Francisco Zayas Seijo. Ponce, Puerto Rico. Page 54. Primera Hora. San Juan, Puerto Rico.
  23. ^ Sunny A. Cabrera Salcedo. Hacia un Estudio Integral de la Toponimia del Municipio de Ponce, Puerto Rico. Ph. D. dissertation. May 1999. University of Massachusetts Amherst. Graduate School. Department of Spanish and Portuguese. Page 175.
  24. ^ “Alcaldesa en Tu Comunidad” llega a residencial Ponce De León. El Sur a la Vista. Ponce, Puerto Rico. 19 August 2011. Retrieved 4 October 2011.
  25. ^ a b c Sunny A. Cabrera Salcedo. Hacia un Estudio Integral de la Toponimia del Municipio de Ponce, Puerto Rico. Ph. D. dissertation. May 1999. University of Massachusetts Amherst. Graduate School. Department of Spanish and Portuguese. Page 181.
  26. ^ Not to be confused with barrio Portugues, one of the 31 barrios of Ponce);also not to be confused with Barriada Portugues, a low-income urban community. (See Sunny A. Cabrera Salcedo. Hacia un Estudio Integral de la Toponimia del Municipio de Ponce, Puerto Rico. Ph. D. dissertation. May 1999. University of Massachusetts Amherst. Graduate School. Department of Spanish and Portuguese. Page 32.)
  27. ^ Sunny A. Cabrera Salcedo. Hacia un Estudio Integral de la Toponimia del Municipio de Ponce, Puerto Rico. Ph. D. dissertation. May 1999. University of Massachusetts Amherst. Graduate School. Department of Spanish and Portuguese. Page 182.
  28. ^ Alcaldesa visita Residencial Pedro J. Rosaly. El Sur a la Vista. Ponce, Puerto Rico. 17 August 2011. Retrieved 4 October 2011.
  29. ^ Sunny A. Cabrera Salcedo. Hacia un Estudio Integral de la Toponimia del Municipio de Ponce, Puerto Rico. Ph. D. dissertation. May 1999. University of Massachusetts Amherst. Graduate School. Department of Spanish and Portuguese. Page 184.
  30. ^ Sunny A. Cabrera Salcedo. Hacia un Estudio Integral de la Toponimia del Municipio de Ponce, Puerto Rico. Ph. D. dissertation. May 1999. University of Massachusetts Amherst. Graduate School. Department of Spanish and Portuguese. Page 187.
  31. ^ Not to be confused with barrio Tibes, one of the 31 barrios of Ponce);also not to be confused with Tibes, a sector low-income urban community. (See Sunny A. Cabrera Salcedo. Hacia un Estudio Integral de la Toponimia del Municipio de Ponce, Puerto Rico. Ph. D. dissertation. May 1999. University of Massachusetts Amherst. Graduate School. Department of Spanish and Portuguese. Page 33.)
  32. ^ Sunny A. Cabrera Salcedo. Hacia un Estudio Integral de la Toponimia del Municipio de Ponce, Puerto Rico. Ph. D. dissertation. May 1999. University of Massachusetts Amherst. Graduate School. Department of Spanish and Portuguese. Page 188.
  33. ^ Mayita anuncia la primera fase de (SITRAS). El Sur a la Vista. Ponce, Puerto Rico. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 12 October 2011.
  34. ^ Mayita escucha a los vecinos de Villas del Caribe. El Sur a la Vista. Ponce, Puerto Rico. 29 September 2011. Retrieved 7 October 2011.
  35. ^ Sunny A. Cabrera Salcedo. Hacia un Estudio Integral de la Toponimia del Municipio de Ponce, Puerto Rico. Ph. D. dissertation. May 1999. University of Massachusetts Amherst. Graduate School. Department of Spanish and Portuguese. Page 189.

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