A public journal (official gazette, official journal, official newspaper or official diary) is a periodical publication that records the business and proceedings of a government and has been authorised to publish public or legal notices. It is usually established by statute or official action and publication of notices within it, whether by the government or a private party, is usually considered sufficient to comply with legal requirements for public notice. A public journal is not necessarily released into the public domain.
Public journal by country
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- Albania: Fletorja Zyrtare
- Argentina: Boletín Oficial de la República Argentina
- Australia: Commonwealth of Australia Gazette
- Azerbaijan: Azərbaycan
- Belgium: Belgian Official Journal
- Brazil: Diário Oficial da União
- Bulgaria: Държавен вестник
- Canada: Canada Gazette
- Colombia: Diario Oficial
- Croatia: Narodne Novine
- Czech Republic: Sbírka zákonů
- Denmark: Lovtidende (legistative), Statstidende (executive).
- Egypt: Al-Waqa'i'a al-Masriya
- Estonia: Riigi Teataja
- Ethiopia: Negarit Gazeta
- European Union: Official Journal of the European Union
- European Patent Office: Official Journal of the European Patent Office
- Finland: Virallinen lehti
- France: Journal Officiel de la République Française
- Germany: Bundesgesetzblatt
- Greece: Journal of Government
- Guatemala: Diario de Centro América
- Hong Kong: The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Gazette
- India: The Gazette of India
- Iran: Ruznaame-ye Rasmi-e Jumhoori-e Islaami-e Iraan
- Iraq: Official Gazette of Iraq
- Ireland: Iris Oifigiúil
- Israel: Reshumot
- Italy: Gazzetta Ufficiale
- Latvia: Latvijas Vēstnesis
- Mexico: Diario Oficial de la Federación
- Netherlands: Staatscourant
- New Zealand: The New Zealand Gazette
- Perú: El Peruano
- Philippines: Official Gazette
- Poland: Dziennik Ustaw and Monitor Polski
- Portugal: Diário da República
- Romania: Monitorul Oficial
- South Africa: Government Gazette of South Africa
- Spain: Boletín Oficial del Estado
- Sweden: Post- och Inrikes Tidningar
- Switzerland: Bundesblatt
- Thailand: Royal Thai Government Gazette
- Turkey: TC Resmi Gazete
- United Kingdom:
- United States: Federal Register
Publication within privately owned periodicals
In some jurisdictions, privately owned newspapers may also register with the public authorities in order to publish public and legal notices. Likewise, a private newspaper may be designated by the courts for publication of legal notices, such as notices of fictitious business names. These are referred to as "legally adjudicated newspapers".
Journals of legislative bodies
Several jurisdictions also publish a separate periodical record of the proceedings of their legislature.
The journals of the British Houses of Parliament, alongside the Hansard, contain an official record of the Houses of Parliament. The journals are a lengthened account written from the "Votes and Proceedings" (in the House of Lords called "Minutes of Proceedings"), made day by day by the Clerks at the Table, and printed on the responsibility of the Clerk of the House. In the Commons the Votes and Proceedings, but not the Journal, bear the Speaker's signature in fulfilment of a former order that he should "peruse" them before publication. The journals of the British House of Commons begin in the first year of the reign of Edward VI in 1547, and are complete, except for a short interval under Elizabeth I. Those of the House of Lords date from the first year of Henry VIII in 1509. Before that date the proceedings in parliament were entered in the Rolls of Parliament, which extend from 1278 to 1503. The journals of the Lords are "records" in the judicial sense; those of the Commons are not. The Hansard, which is available from 1803, contains printed transcripts of parliamentary debates.
The Congressional Record is the official record of the proceedings and debates of the United States Congress. It is published by the United States Government Printing Office, and is issued when the United States Congress is in session. Indexes are issued approximately every two weeks. At the end of a session of Congress, the daily editions are compiled in bound volumes constituting the permanent edition.
- Martin, Shannon E. (1998). Newspapers of record in a digital age: from hot type to hot link. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. p. 5. ISBN 0-275-95960-0.
- Black's Law Dictionary, 6th edn. West Publishing. 1990. ISBN 90-6544-631-1.
- See, for example, L.N. 362 of 1997 of The Government of The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Gazette
- "Texas Local Government Code – Section 52.004. Official Newspaper".
- "City of McCleary, Official Newspaper".
- "Fictitious Names: Adjudicated Newspapers". County Clerk. County of Sonoma. Retrieved 4 October 2012.
- (see Erskine May, Parliamentary Practice, 1906, pages 201–202)