Public menorah

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A public menorah is a large menorah displayed publicly during the Jewish holiday of Hanukkah. It is done to celebrate the holiday and publicize the miracle of Hanukkah, and is typically accompanied by a public event during one of the nights of Hanukkah attended by invited dignitaries who are honored with lighting the menorah.[1]

Public menorah lighting were initiated by Rabbi Menachem M. Schneerson in 1974. The most prominent public menorah celebration takes place in Washington DC, and is known as the National Menorah. In 2013 Chabad planned 15,000 public menorah lighting events across the globe.

History[edit]

The concept of lighting a menorah in a way that allows the public to see it dates back to ancient times, where menorahs were lit outside of people's homes in order to publicize the miracle of Hanukkah. The concept of lightning a large menorah in public, was initiated by Rabbi Menachem M. Schneerson, known as the Rebbe.

In 1973 Rabbi Menachem M. Schneerson announced his Hanukkah-awareness campaign, encouraging his followers and emissaries to reach out to their fellow Jews and give them the opportunity to kindle the Hanukkah lights. That year they distributed some 60,000 tin menorahs.[2] In 1974, in continuation of Rabbi Schneersons Hanukkah awareness campaign, when Rabbi Abraham Shemtov kindled a menorah at the foot of the Liberty Bell at Independence Hall.[3] The following year, in 1975, legendary rock prompter Bill Graham sponsored Chabad's menorah in San Francisco.[4][5]

Since 1974, the concept of public menorahs has expanded. In 1979, President Jimmy Carter participated in the lighting of the public menorah erected by Chabad. In 2013 Chabad planned 15,000 public menorah lighting events across the globe.[6] And in 2014, the public menorah in Washington DC will be kindled by Vice President Joe Biden.

Scholars have cited this initiative by Rabbi Schneerson as a prime factor in Hanukkah becoming such a widely celebrated festival.[7][8][9]

Notable Public Menorah Lightings[edit]

United States[edit]

White House National Menorah[edit]

US President Jimmy Carter attends Chabad's Menorah Lighting in Washington, D.C. in 1979
Main article: National Menorah

Since 1979, the National Menorah has been lit on the White House grounds in celebration of Hanukkah. President Jimmy Carter attended that first ceremony, and President Ronald Reagan designated it the National Menorah.[10] In 2009 the ceremony included then-White House Chief of Staff Rahm Emanuel (now mayor of Chicago),[11] followed by Chief of Staff Jack Lew in 2010 and 2011.[10] In 2012, the first candle was lit with the help of Jeffrey Zients, director of the White House Office of Management and Budget.[10]

New York City[edit]

The world's largest menorah stands at 32 feet and is lit at Fifth Avenue and 59th Street in Manhattan near Central Park. A 4,000-pound structure, it is the work of Israeli artist Yaacov Agam. Because of the menorah’s height, Con Edison assists the lighting by using a crane to lift each person to the top. A Guinness World Record is pending.[1]

United Kingdom[edit]

British Parliament[edit]

Each year, the House of Commons of the United Kingdom holds a menorah lighting at the home of the Speaker of the House of Commons. The menorah currently used was commissioned by the Rt. Hon. Michael J. Martin MP, former Speaker of the House of Commons.[12]

Trafalgar Square[edit]

Since 2007, Chabad has organized a public menorah celebration at Trafalgar Square. Each year the event is sponsored by Chabad, the Jewish Leadership Council, the London Jewish Forum and the mayor of London.[13]

Israel[edit]

Public Hanukkah menorah in Nicosia, Cyprus

Public menorahs are prominently displayed throughout Israel, notably in the Ben Gurion airport[14]

Cyprus[edit]

Each year Nicosia has lit a National Menorah in celebration of Hanukkah. Nicosia as the capital of the Republic of Cyprus has been the pioneer city to put a Menorah in its city center.

Controversy[edit]

A large Chabad-style menorah in front of the Karlsruhe castle in Karlsruhe, Germany before a public Chabad-Lubavitch menorah lighting ceremony (2006).

The success of the public menorah campaign has not been without controversy. In 1989, the County of Allegheny with the support of Chabad, won in the United States Supreme Court against the ACLU in County of Allegheny v. ACLU over the display of a Chabad-owned public menorah. In 1988, the American Jewish Congress produced a 28-page report entitled "The Year of the Menorah", criticizing Chabad's public menorah campaign and the litigation that went with it. It complained of the increase in the number of menorahs placed on public lands, arguing that it was causing tension both within the community and with non-Jews.[15]

In 1989, the city of Burlington, Vermont denied the local Chabad chapter, headed by Rabbi Yitzchok Raskin permission to erect a menorah in the city's main park during Hanukkah.[16] Raskin appealed the decision on two occasions after an initial hearing 1987 found the display to be unconstitutional under the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment. The ACLU assisted the City of Burlington in a final appeal in the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit in 1991, and the menorah ban was upheld.[17][18] There have been similar cases involving Chabad public menorahs with the courts ruling against Chabad, including Chicago (1990)[19] Iowa (1986),[20] Cincinnati (1991),[21] and Georgia (1991).[22] In addition, in 1991, in White Plains, New York, the Common Council unanimously rejected the display of a Chabad menorah in a public space in the town with the support of many Jews, affirming a local tradition of keeping parks free of religious and political displays.[23]

On the other hand, in 2002, the U.S. Supreme Court allowed Rabbi Sholom B. Kalmanson of Chabad of Southern Ohio to light an 18-foot menorah in Cincinnati's Fountain Square. Justice John Paul Stevens upheld a lower court ruling that the city could not ban the menorah and other religious displays from the square.[24][25]

Due to the menorah being a Jewish symbol, menorahs in public have been subject to anti-Semitic violence. For instance, in 2009 in Moldova, a group of fundamentalist Orthodox Christians took down a public menorah and replaced it with a cross.[26] The same year, in Vienna, Austria, a Chabad rabbi was attacked by a Muslim man while leading the candle lighting ceremony.[26]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Lernar, Dana. "The World's Largest Menorah". NYC: NYU Jurnalism Institute. Retrieved 21 December 2009. 
  2. ^ http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/12/18/menorah-medina/?_r=0
  3. ^ Spreading like wildfire, but public menorah lightings still controversial, JTA, December 5, 2006
  4. ^ Fishkoff, Sue. "The Rebbe's Army, page 288
  5. ^ Martinfield, Sean. "FIRST LIGHTING OF HANUKKAH SUNDAY IN TRADITIONAL SAN FRANCISCO UNION SQUARE OBSERVANCE". SF: San Francisco Sentinel. Retrieved 5 January 2012. 
  6. ^ Chabad.org "Chabad-Lubavitch's Global Chanukah Campaign"
  7. ^ Joshua Eli Plaut, A Kosher Christmas: 'Tis the Season to be Jewish. Rutgers University Press, 2012. Page 167.
  8. ^ Joseph Telushkin, Rebbe: The Life and Teachings of Menachem M. Schneerson, the Most Influential Rabbi in Modern History. HarperCollins, 2014. Page 269.
  9. ^ Menachem Posner, 40 Years Later: How the Chanukah Menorah Made It's Way to the Public sphere. December 1, 2014.
  10. ^ a b c "Lighting of national menorah marks the beginning of Hanukkah". CNN. 9 December 2012. Retrieved 12 December 2012. 
  11. ^ "Rahm Emanuel Lights National Menorah At White House (PHOTOS)". The Associated Press. 13 December 2009. Retrieved 12 December 2012. 
  12. ^ "M.P. Levene Special Commissions". Retrieved 19 December 2009. 
  13. ^ https://www.london.gov.uk/get-involved/events/chanukah-in-the-square
  14. ^ Massive Chanukah Menorah will Greet Airborne Guests
  15. ^ Menorah displays stir Jewish rift, Miami Herald, June 14, 1987
  16. ^ Mark A. Kaplan v. City of Burlington and Robert Whalen (12/12/89)United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit, No. 89-7042; 891 F.2d 1024
  17. ^ Chabad-Lubavitch of Vermont v. City of Burlington, 936 F.2d 109 (C.A.2 (Vt.), 1991)
  18. ^ New Twist to Old Fight: Menorah in Vermont Park, Sally Johnson, New York Times, December 20, 1987
  19. ^ Lubavitch Chabad House, Inc. v. City of Chicago, 917 F.2d 341 (C.A.7 (Ill.), 1990)
  20. ^ Lubavitch of Iowa, Inc. v. Walters, 808 F.2d 656 (C.A.8 (Iowa), 1986),
  21. ^ Congregation Lubavitch v. City of Cincinnati, 923 F.2d 458 (C.A.6 (Ohio), 1991)
  22. ^ Chabad-Lubavitch of Georgia v. Miller, 5 F.3d 1383 (C.A.11 (Ga.), 1993)
  23. ^ White Plains Council Blocks Electric Menorah for Park, Lisa W. Foderaro, New York Times December 3, 1991
  24. ^ Supreme Court rules on public chanukiot, Joe Berkofsky, Jewish Telegraphic Agency, December 6, 2002
  25. ^ Chabad Of Southern Ohio et al. v. City of Cincinnati, 537 U.S. 1501, (2002) (per curiam)
  26. ^ a b "Moldovan Christians Tear Down Public Menorah". Baltimore Jewish Times (Budapest). JTA Wire Service. December 17, 2009. Retrieved December 17, 2009. 

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