Letter of Lentulus

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The Letter of Lentulus is an epistle supposedly written by Publius Lentulus to the Roman Senate, giving a physical and personal description of Jesus. Publius Lentulus was, according to the Deeds of the Divine Augustus, a Roman Consul during the reign of Augustus (63 BC-14 AD), and is said to have been Governor of Judea before Pontius Pilate.

An English translation of the letter was published in 1680.[1]

Authenticity[edit]

The letter of Lentulus is regarded as apocryphal[2] for a number of reasons. No Governor of Jerusalem; no Procurator of Judea is known to have been called Lentulus and a Roman governor would not have addressed the Senate in the way represented,[3] but the Deeds of the Divine Augustus list a Publius Lentulus as being elected as a Roman Consul during the reign of Augustus (27 BC-14 AD).[4] Lastly a Roman writer would not have employed the expressions, "prophet of truth", "sons of men" or "Jesus Christ". The former two are Hebrew idioms, the third is taken from the New Testament. The letter, therefore, gives a description of Jesus such as Christian piety conceived him.

Origin[edit]

The letter was first printed in the "Life of Christ" by Ludolph the Carthusian (Cologne, 1474), [5] and in the "Introduction to the works of St. Anselm" (Nuremberg, 1491).[6] But it is neither the work of St. Anselm nor of Ludolph. According to the manuscript of Jena, a certain Giacomo Colonna found the letter in 1421 in an ancient Roman document sent to Rome from Constantinople. It must be of Greek origin, and translated into Latin during the thirteenth or fourteenth century, though it received its present form at the hands of a humanist of the fifteenth or sixteenth century.[7] Christopher Mylius, the 18th century librarian of Jena, stated the letter was written in golden letters on red paper and richly bound, and lost. [8]

Friedrich Münter believes he can trace the letter down to the time of Diocletian; but this is not generally accepted. [9]

The letter[edit]

The purported letter reads, in translation:

Lentulus, the Governor of the Jerusalemites to the Roman Senate and People, greetings. There has appeared in our times, and there still lives, a man of great power (virtue), called Jesus Christ. The people call him prophet of truth; his disciples, son of God. He raises the dead, and heals infirmities. He is a man of medium size (statura procerus, mediocris et spectabilis); he has a venerable aspect, and his beholders can both fear and love him. His hair is of the colour of the ripe hazel-nut, straight down to the ears, but below the ears wavy and curled, with a bluish and bright reflection, flowing over his shoulders. It is parted in two on the top of the head, after the pattern of the Nazarenes. His brow is smooth and very cheerful with a face without wrinkle or spot, embellished by a slightly reddish complexion. His nose and mouth are faultless. His beard is abundant, of the colour of his hair, not long, but divided at the chin. His aspect is simple and mature, his eyes are changeable and bright. He is terrible in his reprimands, sweet and amiable in his admonitions, cheerful without loss of gravity. He was never known to laugh, but often to weep. His stature is straight, his hands and arms beautiful to behold. His conversation is grave, infrequent, and modest. He is the most beautiful among the children of men.

Different manuscripts vary from the foregoing text in several details: Ernst von Dobschütz [10] enumerates the manuscripts and gives an "apparatus criticus". The description agrees with the so-called Abgar picture of Jesus; it also agrees with the portrait of Jesus Christ drawn by Nicephorus, St. John Damascene, and the Book of Painters (of Mt. Athos). [11]

Effects[edit]

The letter saw widespread publication and was taken as an eyewitness account for a long time. [12] It also gave various artists, such as Dirk Bouts a model on which to base the face and appearance of Jesus Christ. [13]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Publius Lentulus, His Report to the Senate of Rome concerning Jesus Christ (London: Francis Smith, 1680). [1]
  2. ^ Wilhelm Schneemelcher (editor), New Testament Apocrypha: Gospels and Related Writings, Volume 1, page 66 (James Clarke & Co., 1991). ISBN 0-227-67915-6
  3. ^ The Catholic Encyclopedia: An International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church, Volume 9 (Universal Knowledge Foundation, 1913).
  4. ^ 6:1, "[In the consulship of Marcus Vinicius and Quintius Lucrecius (19 BC)] and later in that of Publius Lentulus and Gnaeus L[entulus (18 BC) and a third time in that of Paullus Fabius Maximus and Quintus Tubero (11 BC) the senate and the Roman people agreed] that [I should be made sole guardian of the laws and morals with the highest authority, but I did not accept any magistracy, though offered, which was contrary to the custome of our ancestors." Robert Kenneth Sherk (editor and translator), The Roman Empire: Augustus to Hadrian, page 43 (Translated documents of Greece & Rome 6, Cambridge University Press, 1988). ISBN 0-521-33887-5. See also [2].
  5. ^ Irena Dorota Backus, Historical Method and Confessional Identity in the Era of the Reformation (1378-1615), page 259 (Brill, Leiden; 2003). ISBN 90-04-12928-6
  6. ^ Edward Taylor, Charles W. Mignon, Upon the Types of the Old Testament, Volume 1, page 860 (University of Nebraska Press, 1989). ISBN 0-8032-3075-3
  7. ^ The Catholic Encyclopedia
  8. ^ John McClintock, James Strong, Cyclopaedia of Biblical, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Literature (New York: Harper, 1891). Volume 5, page 348[3]
  9. ^ Friedrich Münter, "Die Sinnbilder und Kunstvorstellungen der alten Christen" (Altona 1825, p. 9)
  10. ^ Ernst von Dobschütz, "Christusbilder" (Leipzig, 1899)
  11. ^ The Catholic Encyclopedia
  12. ^ Erik Inglis, Faces of Power and Piety, page 23 (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum/British Library, 2008). ISBN 978-0-7123-0981-3
  13. ^ John Oliver Hand, Catherine Metzger, Ron Spronk, Prayers and Portraits: Unfolding the Netherlandish Diptych, page 40 (Yale University Press, 2006). ISBN 978-0-300-12155-1

Further reading[edit]

  • Didier Martens, Dirk Bouts en de iconografie; keuzes van de schilder, de 'adviseur' ende opdrachtgevern in Catheline Perier-D'Ieteren, Dirk Bouts: Het volledige oeuvre, 2005, page 62.

External links[edit]

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainHerbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Publius Lentulus". Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company.