Arkansas River Walk in Pueblo
|Nickname(s): Home of Heroes, Steel City|
|Motto: "A City Of Excellence"|
Location in Pueblo County and the state of Colorado
Location of Colorado in the United States
|County||Pueblo – county seat|
|Incorporated||November 15, 1885|
|• Type||Home Rule Municipality|
|• Total||45.4 sq mi (117.5 km2)|
|• Land||45.1 sq mi (116.7 km2)|
|• Water||0.3 sq mi (0.8 km2)|
|Elevation ||4,692 ft (1,430 m)|
|• Total||106,595 (US: 246th)|
|• Estimate (2012)||107,772|
|• Density||2,265.5/sq mi (874.7/km2)|
|Time zone||MST (UTC−7)|
|• Summer (DST)||MDT (UTC−6)|
|GNIS feature ID||0204798|
|Highways||I-25, US 50, SH 45, SH 47, SH 78, SH 96, SH 227|
|Website||Official Website of Pueblo Colorado|
Pueblo // is a Home Rule Municipality that is the county seat and the most populous city of Pueblo County, Colorado, United States. The population was 106,595 in 2010 census, making it the 259th most populous city in the United States.
Pueblo is situated at the confluence of the Arkansas River and Fountain Creek 112 miles (180 km) south of the Colorado State Capitol in Denver, and 43 miles south of Colorado Springs. The area is considered to be semi-arid desert land, with approximately 12 inches (304.80 mm) of precipitation annually. With its location in the "banana belt", Pueblo tends to get less snow than the other major cities in Colorado. Pueblo is the heart of the Pueblo Metropolitan Statistical Area and an important part of the Front Range Urban Corridor. Pueblo is one of the largest steel-producing cities in the United States; because of this Pueblo is referred to as the "Steel City". The Historic Arkansas River Project (HARP) is a river walk in the Union Avenue Historic Commercial District, and shows the history of the Pueblo Flood.
Pueblo has the least expensive residential real estate of any city in Colorado. The median home price for homes currently on the market in Pueblo is $147,851.
Pueblo is the primary city in the Pueblo metropolitan statistical area (MSA) totaling over 160,000 people.
As of 2014 Pueblo is the primary city of the Pueblo Canon City combined statistical area (CSA) totaling about 208,000 people making it the 134th largest in the nation.
- 1 History
- 2 Education
- 3 Geography
- 4 Culture and contemporary life
- 5 Tourism
- 6 Economy
- 7 Demographics
- 8 Crime
- 9 Aviation
- 10 Notable People
- 11 Pueblo in popular culture
- 12 Sister cities
- 13 See also
- 14 References
- 15 External links
James Beckwourth, George Simpson, and other trappers such as Mathew Kinkead, claimed to have helped construct the plaza that became known as El Pueblo or Fort Pueblo around 1842. George married Juana Maria Suaso and lived there for a year or two before moving; however, Simpson had no legal title to the land. The adobe structures were built with the intention of settlement and trade next to the Arkansas River, which then formed the U.S./Mexico border. About a dozen families lived there, trading with Native American tribes for hides, skins, livestock, as well as (later) cultivated plants, and liquor. Evidence of this trade, as well as other utilitarian goods, such as Native American pottery shards were found at the recently excavated site. According to accounts of residents who traded at the plaza (including that of George Simpson), the fort was raided sometime between December 23 and December 25, 1854, by a war party of Utes and Jicarilla Apaches under the leadership of Tierra Blanca, a Ute chief. They allegedly killed between fifteen and nineteen men and captured two children and one woman. The trading post was abandoned after the raid, but it became important again between 1858 and 1859 during the Colorado Gold Rush of 1859.
City of Pueblo
The current city of Pueblo represents the consolidation of four towns: Pueblo (incorporated 1870), South Pueblo (incorporated 1873), Central Pueblo (incorporated 1882), and Bessemer (incorporated 1886). Pueblo, South Pueblo, and Central Pueblo legally consolidated as the City of Pueblo between March 9 and April 6, 1886. Bessemer joined Pueblo in 1894.
The consolidated city was once a major economic and social center of Colorado, and was home to important early Colorado families such as the Thatchers, the Ormans and the Adamses. Until a series of major floods culminated in the Great Flood of 1921, Pueblo was considered the 'Saddle-Making capital of the World'. Roughly one-third of Pueblo's downtown businesses were lost in this flood, along with a substantial number of buildings. Pueblo has long struggled to come to grips with this loss, and has only recently begun a resurgence in growth.
The economic situation of Pueblo was further exacerbated by the decline of American steel in the 1970s and 1980s, and Pueblo still actively seeks to diversify its economic base. The City features a riverwalk, extensive trail system, industrial park, and revitalized downtown area to this effect.
The Steel Mill
The main industry in Pueblo for most of its history was the Colorado Fuel and Iron (CF&I) steel mill on the south side of town. The steel-market crash of 1982 led to the decline of the company. After going through several bankruptcies, the company was acquired by Oregon Steel Mills and changed its name to Rocky Mountain Steel Mills. As Rocky Mountain Steel, the company was plagued with labor problems, mostly due to accusations of unfair labor practices. The problems culminated with a major strike in 1997, leading to most of the workforce being replaced.
However, in September 2004, both local Unions 2102 & 3267 won the strike and the unfair labor practice charges. All of the striking steel workers were returned to their jobs, and the company was forced to repay them a record amount of back pay for the 7 years they were on strike. Some have called this a significant win for the labor union and the many families affected by the 7 year strike. In 2007, not long after Oregon Steel made amends with the union and its workers, Evraz Group, one of Russia's biggest steel producers, agreed to buy the company for $2.3 billion.
Of the many production and fabrication mills which once existed on the site, only the steel production (electric furnaces, used for scrap recycling), rail, rod, bar, and seamless tube mills are still in operation. The wire mill was sold in the late 1990s to Davis Wire, which still produces products such as fence and nails under the CF&I brand name.
The facility operated blast furnaces until 1982, when the bottom fell out of the steel market. The main blast furnace structures were torn down in 1989, but due to asbestos content, many of the adjacent stoves still remain. The stoves and foundations for some of the furnaces can be easily seen from Interstate 25, which runs parallel to the plant's west boundary.
Several of the administration buildings, including the main office building, dispensary, and tunnel gatehouse were purchased in 2003 by the Bessemer Historical Society. In 2006, they underwent renovation. In addition to housing the historic CF&I Archives, they also house the Steelworks Museum of Industry and Culture.
Colorado Mental Health Institute at Pueblo
Historically the other major employer in Pueblo was the State Hospital, which formerly served the entire state. Established in 1879 as the Colorado State Insane Asylum, it was known as the Colorado State Hospital after 1917. In 1991, the name was changed to the Colorado Mental Health Institute at Pueblo (CMHIP). Currently under construction is the new Forensic Medium and Maximum Security Center, a 200-bed, state-of-the-art high-security facility.
Home of Heroes
Pueblo is the hometown of four Medal of Honor recipients - Drew D. Dix, Raymond G. Murphy, William J. Crawford, and Carl L. Sitter. U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower upon presenting Raymond G. "Jerry" Murphy with his Medal in 1953 commented, "What is it... something in the water out there in Pueblo? All you guys turn out to be heroes!" In 1993, the City Council adopted the tagline "Home of Heroes" because it can claim more recipients per capita than any other city in the United States. On July 1, 1993, the Congressional Record recognized Pueblo as the "Home of Heroes." There is a memorial to the recipients of the medal at the Pueblo Convention Center. Central High School is known as the "School of Heroes," as it is the alma mater of two recipients, Sitter and Crawford, more than any other high school in the country.
President Woodrow Wilson, on a speaking tour to gather support for the entry of the United States into the League of Nations, collapsed on September 25, 1919 following a speech in Pueblo. He suffered a stroke a week later which incapacitated him for the rest of his presidency.
President Dwight D. Eisenhower Jan. 16, 1957, toured drought-stricken regions of Pueblo County amid 20-degree weather.
President George H. W. Bush visited the Pueblo Nature Center's Raptor Center to release an American Bald Eagle that had its wings healed.
In the 2008 presidential campaign, both major party candidates, Barack Obama and John McCain, visited Pueblo as part of their campaigns. Colorado was considered a key swing state in that election, with Obama becoming the first Democratic candidate since Clinton in 1992 to win the state's electoral votes.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (March 2011)|
Pueblo is home to Colorado State University-Pueblo (CSU-Pueblo), a regional comprehensive university. It is part of the Colorado State University System (CSU System), with about 6,000 students. On May 8, 2007, CSU-Pueblo got approval from the Board of Governors of the Colorado State University System to bring back football as a member of the Rocky Mountain Athletic Conference. The first game was played in the fall of 2008 at the Thunderbowl, a new stadium at CSU-Pueblo which holds over 12,000 people.
Pueblo Community College (PCC) is a two-year, public, comprehensive community college, one of thirteen community colleges within the Colorado Community College System (CCCS). It operates three campuses serving a widely dispersed eight-county region in Southern Colorado. The main campus is located in Pueblo and serves Pueblo County. The Fremont Campus is located approximately 35 miles (56 km) west of Pueblo in Cañon City and serves Fremont and Custer Counties. The Southwest Campus, 280 miles (450 km) southwest of Pueblo, serves Montezuma, Dolores, La Plata, San Juan, and Archuleta counties. PCC is a Hispanic Serving Institution as designated by the Federal Government. Approximately 5,000 students attend PCC per semester.
Pueblo City Schools
Pueblo County has thirteen high schools. Pueblo Centennial High School was founded just north of downtown on Eleventh St. in 1876, the year Colorado became a state. Centennial was rebuilt on a new site to the northwest in 1973. Pueblo Central High School was founded in Bessemer in 1882. Central's present campus on E. Orman Ave. was built in the 1920s and expanded in the early 1970s. Its original building still stands four blocks away on E. Pitkin Ave. Pueblo South High School and Pueblo East High School were built in the late 1950s to accommodate the Baby Boomers. Pueblo County High School, east of the city in Vineland, serves rural residents. Rye High School is in a foothills town southwest of Pueblo. Pueblo West High School is located in the northwestern suburb of Pueblo West. The former Pueblo Catholic High School became Roncalli Middle School in the early 1970s. Dolores Huerta Preparatory High School, the city's only charter high school, was founded in 2004, and relocated to its current building in 2007. It features the only Early College Program in Pueblo recognized by the State of Colorado where many students graduate with their Associate Degree from Pueblo Community College while also earning credit from Colorado State University-Pueblo. Other Pueblo area high schools include Southern Colorado Early College, School of Engineering and Biomedical Science (formerly Pueblo Technical Academy), Parkhill Christian Academy and the Health Academy.
Pueblo is located at (38.266933, −104.620393).
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 45.4 square miles (117.6 km2), of which, 45.1 square miles (116.8 km2) is land and 0.3 square miles (0.78 km2) is water (99.34% and 0.66% respectively).
Pueblo sits in a high desert area of terrain in southern Colorado and is near the western edge of the Southwestern Tablelands ecology region. Pueblo has a steppe climate (Köppen BSk), with four distinct seasons. Winter days are usually mild, but the high does not surpass freezing on an average 15.3 days per year, and lows fall to 0 °F (−18 °C) or below on 7.8 nights. Snowfall usually falls in light amounts, and due to the high altitude, and the accompanying stronger sun, rarely remains on the ground for long. January is the snowiest month, followed by March, and the seasonal average is 31.8 inches (81 cm); however, snow is uncommon in October, and May or September snow is exceedingly rare, with an average first and last date of measurable (≥0.1 in/0.25 cm) snowfall being November 6 and April 15, respectively. Summers are hot and dry, with 90 °F (32 °C) or greater highs are on average seen 66.7 days per year, with 100 °F (38 °C) or greater on 10.2 days. Diurnal temperature ranges are large throughout the year, averaging 33.4 °F (18.6 °C).
Precipitation is generally low, with the winter months receiving very little. Sunshine is abundant throughout the year, with an annual total of nearly 3470, or 78% of the possible total. Pueblo is considered a high desert climate, and sits on the desert lands in southern Colorado between Pueblo and the Royal Gorge.
|Climate data for Pueblo, Colorado (1981–2010 normals, extremes 1888–present)|
|Record high °F (°C)||81
|Average high °F (°C)||47.0
|Average low °F (°C)||14.0
|Record low °F (°C)||−29
|Precipitation inches (mm)||0.35
|Snowfall inches (cm)||6.5
|Avg. precipitation days||4.0||3.7||6.3||6.6||7.9||7.1||9.1||9.5||5.6||4.1||3.9||4.1||71.9|
|Avg. snowy days||4.3||3.5||3.8||2.1||0.3||0||0||0||0.2||0.7||2.7||4.3||21.8|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||232.5||228.8||285.2||315.0||344.1||360.0||359.6||337.9||300.0||275.9||219.0||210.8||3,468.8|
|Source: NOAA, HKO (sun only, 1961–1990)|
Culture and contemporary life
Entertainment and performing arts
Pueblo is the home to Colorado's largest single event, the Colorado State Fair, held annually in the late summer, and the largest parade, the state fair parade, as well as an annual Chile & Frijoles Festival.
- Pueblo Ice Arena
- Lake Pueblo State Park / Reservoir
- Pueblo Zoo
- Steelworks Museum
- Weisbrod Aircraft Museum
- River Trail System
- The Historic Carousel #72
- El Pueblo State Historical Museum
Pueblo is the hometown of Dutch Clark, the first man from Colorado in the NFL Hall of Fame. A football stadium in Pueblo is named after him. There are two long-standing high school rivalries that take place at this stadium, The Bell Game, which is played by The Pueblo Central Wildcats and the Pueblo Centennial Bulldogs and also the Cannon Game which is played by the Pueblo South Colts and the Pueblo East Eagles.
Pueblo is home to the PBR (Professional Bull Riders) team finals held at the state fair events center during the Colorado state fair and shown all over the world. In 2008 the PBR moved their corporate headquarters to Pueblo.
Pueblo is the home of the Federal Citizen Information Center, operated by the General Services Administration, and its Consumer Information Catalog. For over 30 years, public service announcements invited Americans to write for information at "Pueblo, Colorado, 81009". In recent times GSA has incorporated Pueblo into FCIC's toll-free telephone number.
Vestas built the largest (nearly 700,000 square feet) wind turbine tower manufacturing plant in the world at Pueblo's industrial park. A number of scientific studies now list Pueblo as the state's best place for solar energy and a good place for solar companies to locate.
According to Pueblo's 2011 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city are:
|#||Employer||# of Employees|
|1||Pueblo City Schools||2,478|
|2||Parkview Medical Center||2,352|
|5||Pueblo County School District 70||1,100|
|6||St. Mary-Corwin Medical Center||1,058|
|8||Colorado Mental Health Institute at Pueblo||1,000|
|10||City of Pueblo||647|
As of the census of 2000, there were 102,121 people, 40,307 households, and 26,118 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,265.5 people per square mile (874.6/km2). There were 43,121 housing units at an average density of 956.6 per square mile (369.3/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 76.21% White, 2.41% African American, 1.73% Native American, 0.67% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 15.20% from other races, and 3.71% from two or more races. Latinos made up 44.13% of the population. 10.1% were of German, 8.1% Italian, 6.0% American, 5.5% English and 5.4% Irish ancestry according to Census 2000.
According to the 2005 Census estimates, the city had grown to an estimated population of 104,951 and had become the ninth most populous city in the state of Colorado and the 245th most populous city in the United States.
There were 40,307 households out of which 29.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.5% were married couples living together, 15.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 35.2% were non-families. 30.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 3.03.
In the city the population was spread out with 25.1% under the age of 18, 10.3% from 18 to 24, 26.6% from 25 to 44, 21.4% from 45 to 64, and 16.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 93.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.2 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $29,650, and the median income for a family was $35,620. Males had a median income of $29,702 versus $22,197 for females. The per capita income for the city was $16,026. About 13.9% of families and 17.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.3% of those under age 18 and 9.1% of those age 65 or over.
As of the 2010 census, the population of Pueblo was 106,544 (259th most populous U.S. city), the population of the Pueblo Metropolitan Statistical Area was 159,063 (190th most populous MSA), the population of the Pueblo-Cañon City, CO Combined Statistical Area was 205,887, and the population of the Front Range Urban Corridor in Colorado was an estimated 4,166,855.
As of the April 2010 census the racial makeup of the city was: 75.2% White, 2.5% Black or African American, 2.2% American Indian and Alaska Native, 0.8% Asian, 0.1% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, 4.1% Two or More Races. Hispanic or Latino (of any race) were 49.8% and Non-Hispanic Whites were 45.2% of the population.
The crime rate in Pueblo is higher than the national average. In 2005, Pueblo reported 13 murders, 22 rapes, 162 robberies, 489 assaults, 1,525 burglaries, 4,978 larceny thefts, and 478 auto thefts. In 2011, Pueblo reported 12 murders, 40 rapes, 173 robberies, 606 assaults, 1,590 burglaries, 3,434 larceny thefts, and 470 auto thefts.
The local airport, Pueblo Memorial Airport, lies to the east of the city. It is home to the Pueblo Weisbrod Aircraft Museum (named for Fred Weisbrod, late city manager), reflecting the airport's beginnings as an Army Air Corps base in 1943.
- Frank E. Evans, U.S. Representative from January 3, 1965 – January 3, 1979.
- Dana Perino, White House Press Secretary in 2007–2009, graduated from Colorado State University-Pueblo in 1994.
- John E. Rickards, first Lieutenant Governor of Montana and second Governor of Montana
- Bat Masterson, Sheriff of South Pueblo.
- Joseph Arridy, pardoned in 2010 as first and only gubernatorial posthumous pardon; mentally disabled man convicted of murder and rape, put to death in the 1930s.
Music, Film and Television
- Kelo Henderson, actor, starred with Tristram Coffin on 26 Men, a syndicated Western television series during late 1950s.
- John Meston, co-creator and script writer of CBS Western television series Gunsmoke.
- Kelly Reno, child actor from The Black Stallion and its sequel.
- Dan Rowan, star of Rowan & Martin's Laugh-In, lived in McClelland Orphanage in Pueblo and graduated from Pueblo Central High School.
- Damon Runyon, authored "Guys and Dolls", newspaperman, playwright, spent his boyhood here; mentioned Pueblo in many of his newspaper columns (notably his "Our Old Man" pieces).
- E.J. Peaker, actress, star of Hello Dolly, graduated from Centennial High School in 1958.
- Bat Masterson, Sheriff of South Pueblo, celebrity of the old west.
- Michael K. White, writer Broken Gopher Ink.
- Grant Withers, Hollywood actor, from the silents to 1950s.
- The Haunted Windchimes.
Sports and Recreation
- Earl (Dutch) Clark, football player 1934–1938 and charter member of the NFL Hall of Fame, graduated from Pueblo Central High School.
- Tony Falkenstein, football fullback and quarterback for the Green Bay Packers, Brooklyn Tigers, and Boston Yanks.
- Dave Feamster, ice hockey player and businessman.
- John Gill, world-famous climber, father of modern bouldering; taught at University of Southern Colorado (CSU-Pueblo).
- Tony Mendes, PBR bull rider.
- Frank Papish, Major League Baseball pitcher (1945 to 1950); sheriff deputy after his career in baseball.
- Harry Simmons, 1982 Colorado Sports Hall of Fame inductee after winning 701 games during his 40-season basketball coaching career.
- Kory Sperry, football tight end for Miami Dolphins and San Diego Chargers; attended Pueblo County High School.
- Cedric Tillman, professional football player
Congressional Medal of Honor
- William J. Crawford, Medal of Honor recipient for his service in World War II
- Drew Dennis Dix, Medal of Honor recipient for his service in the Vietnam War
- Raymond G. Murphy, Medal of Honor recipient for his service in the Korean War
- Carl L. Sitter, Medal of Honor recipient for his service in the Korean War
Industry and Innovation
- David Packard, co-founder of Hewlett-Packard, graduated from Pueblo Centennial High School in 1930.
- Jim Bishop, creator of Bishop Castle
- Mary Babnik Brown, became notable for donating her hair to the World War II effort in helping to make the Norden bombsights for United States military bomber aircraft.
- Charles Goodnight, legendary Texas cattleman, lived in Pueblo in the 1870s.
- Robert M. Stillman, U.S. Air Force general.
- Frank DeSimone, organized crime boss, born in Pueblo.
Pueblo in popular culture
- Pueblo as a frontier town is the setting for Louis L'Amour's 1981 western novel Milo Talon.
- Pueblo is portrayed as a ghostly, radiated ruin in the Darwin's World novel Burning Lands.
- The Food Network show Unwrapped is often shot in Pueblo.
- Food Wars, a series on cable television’s Travel Channel, came to Pueblo to stage a contest between the Sunset Inn's and Gray's Coors Tavern's versions of the slopper. The episode first aired in August 2010.
- Pueblo is portrayed as the city where MacGruber is laid to rest in 2000 in the 2010 film which bears his name.
- In the South Park episode "The Losing Edge", Pueblo is one of the towns in which the South Park team competes.
- Pueblo is mentioned in the song "Stuart" by the satirical punk rock band Dead Milkmen, as the source of the pamphlet entitled "Do you know what the queers are doing to our soil?".
- Many of the Colorado and Kansas scenes of the 1983 film National Lampoon's Vacation were filmed in and around Pueblo. Highway 50 East of Pueblo is the site of Cousin Eddie's house and the hotel in "Creede" Colorado is actually near St. Mary Corwin Hospital.
- The 1980s film Curse of the Blue Lights was set in Pueblo and was filmed on location.
- Weifang, China
- Bergamo, Lombardy (Italy)
- Lucca Sicula, Sicily (Italy)
- Chihuahua, Mexico
- Puebla, Mexico
- Maribor, Slovenia
- Outline of Colorado
- State of Colorado
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- Pueblo County, Colorado
- List of Combined Statistical Areas
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- Dodds (1994). They All Came To Pueblo. p. 168.
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- "Russian steel giant to buy Oregon Steel - Pueblo Chieftain: Metro". Chieftain.com. 2006-11-21. Retrieved 2012-05-26.
- "About Us". Cdhs.state.co.us. Retrieved 2011-03-11.
- "Pueblo, Colorado - The Home of Heroes". Replay.waybackmachine.org. 2006-06-26. Retrieved 2012-04-26.
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- "Irate Farmers Pressing Demands." Associated Press at the Herald-Journal. Friday September 23, 1977. A2. Retrieved from Google Books (2/16) on December 12, 2011.
- "NowData – NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2014-03-04.
- "Climatological Normals of Pueblo". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved 2010-05-29.
- "Pueblo Chile & Frijoles Festival". Retrieved 2014-07-09.
- Norton, John (2009-06-11). "Another solar provider eyes empty depot land — The Pueblo Chieftain: Local". Chieftain.com. Retrieved 2011-03-11.
- "Small Smiles History." (Archive) Small Smiles Dental Centers. Retrieved on October 2, 2012.
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- "Montana Governor John Ezra Rickards". National Governors Association. Retrieved October 10, 2012.
- [dead link]
- Strescino, Peter (January 7, 2011). "Governor pardons Joe Arridy". Pueblo Chieftain. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
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- Aschermann, Arla (1994). Winds in the Cornfields: Pueblo County, Colorado 1787 – 1872, 3rd edition. Pueblo, Colorado: Pueblo County Historical Society. ISBN 0-915617-15-3.
- Broadhead, Edward (1995). Fort Pueblo, 4th edition. Pueblo, Colorado: Pueblo County Historical Society. ISBN 0-915617-01-3.
- Buckles, William G. (2006). The Search for El Pueblo: Through Pueblo to El Pueblo – An Archaeological Summary, Second Edition. Pueblo, Colorado: Colorado Historical Society. ISBN 978-0-942576-48-1.
- Dodds, Joanne West (1982). Pueblo: A Pictorial History. Virginia Beach, Virginia: Donning Company. ISBN 0-89865-281-2.
- Dodds, Joanne West (1994). They All Came To Pueblo: A Social History. Virginia Beach, Virginia: Donning Company. ISBN 0-89865-908-6.
- Lecompte, Janet (1978). Pueblo, Hardscrabble, Greenhorn: Society on the High Plains, 1832—1856. Norman, US: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-1723-0.
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