Pueblo IV Era

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Map of Ancient Pueblo People in the American Southwest and Mexico.

During the Pueblo IV period, Four Corners pueblo settlements were abandoned (northern and central portion of the Anasazi region.)
Drawings of kachina dolls, from an 1894 anthropology book.

The Pueblo IV Era, (AD 1350 to 1600) was the fourth period of ancient pueblo life in the American Southwest. At the end of prior Pueblo III Era, Anasazi living in the Colorado and Utah regions abandoned their settlements and migrated south to the Little Colorado River and Rio Grande valleys. As a result, pueblos in those areas saw a significant increase in total population.

The Pueblo IV Era (Pecos Classification) is similar to the "Regressive Pueblo Period" or, referring to the Ancient Pueblo People of Colorado and Utah, the "Post Pueblo Period."

Architecture[edit]

Puebloan villages in Arizona and New Mexico had multi-storied pueblos of up to a thousand clustered rooms. The New Mexico villages were generally larger than those of western region, which had large plazas with long, rectangular kivas.[1]

Communities[edit]

The great migration out of Colorado and Utah at the end of the Pueblo III Era resulted in an influx of people into the Rio Grande and Little Colorado River valleys. Within Arizona and New Mexico there was an aggregation of people from outlying sites to larger pueblos. The puebloan territory of the Pueblo IV Era also included the White Mountains, Verde Valley, Anderson Mesa, and Pecos areas.[1][2]

  • Bandelier area pueblos experienced considerable construction, increased population and improved standard of living after 1300 AD.[3] Black-on-white pottery excavated at Bandelier was indistinguishable from that of the Mesa Verde National Park, indicating that at least some of the new residents came from Mesa Verde.[4]
  • Abandoned communities. Many of the sites of the early Pueblo IV period were abandoned by the 1400s, such as those in the White Mountains, Verde Valley, Middle Little Colorado River and Anderson Mesa.[5] Petrified Forest villages were generally abandoned by the late 1500s. The land continued to be used for its resources and for travel.[5]

Spanish colonization[edit]

An upsurge in the lifestyle of the Rio Grande valley residents in the beginning of the Pueblo IV Era was tempered by the 16th century Spanish colonization of the Americas which extended north into New Mexico. Don Juan de Onate, the colonial governor of the New Spain province of New Mexico, led 400 soldiers and farmers in 1598 to establish settlements into the Rio Grande valley area.[3]

Culture and religion[edit]

  • The people of the Frijoles Canyon in Bandelier area in the 1300s had black hair and red-brown skin and were short in stature, an average of about 5 feet and 4 inches tall for men. Women were about 5 feet tall. Generally, couples had a few children. Domesticated dogs were often part of a family's household.[6]
  • Religion. The Ancient Pueblo People integrated Kachina religious rituals into their lives by AD 1300. This helped to integrate diverse groups of people who migrated into the area and inhabited the large pueblos. The culture inspired a life of mutual cooperation, food sharing and religious rituals, such as rain-making. Kachina images appeared in murals in kivas, pictographs and petroglyphs. The Kachina religion was foundational for modern Zuni and Hopi people.[1][5]

Agriculture[edit]

Sites were located next to reliable water sources which were often used to irrigate farm land. Gardens were established in terraces and stone-outlined "waffle gardens" near the pueblo.[1] Once harvested, maize was ground using manos and metates. The presence of griddle stones hints at the creation of baked paper-like cornbread.[7]

Small game and birds were hunted or trapped and seasonal wild plants were gathered to supplement the diet:

Pottery[edit]

Plain surfaced pottery replaced the corrugated pottery of the Pueblo II and III Eras. Red, yellow and orange ware and polychrome (multiple-colored) pottery replaced black-on-white pottery of the previous pueblo eras. The pottery was often mass-produced, high quality pottery, and in the case of the western Anasazi, included Kachina figure and symbol designs. Glazed pots, created when mineral paints on the pottery surface were fired at high temperatures, emerged in the Anasazi pueblos.[1][2] Artisans in the Petrified Forest created sophisticated Glaze-on-Red polychrome pottery.[5]

Other material goods[edit]

Emerging material goods during this period were small triangular projectile points and piki stones for making bread.[5]

Cultural groups and periods[edit]

The cultural groups of this period include:[8]

Notable Pueblo IV sites[edit]

Arizona Rio Grande Valley, New Mexico Other New Mexico
Awatovi Ruins
Bailey Ruin
Casa Grande
Mesa Grande
Oraibi
Pueblo Grande
Acoma Pueblo[9]
Cochiti Pueblo[10][11]
Isleta Pueblo
Jemez Pueblo[12][13]
Kewa Pueblo (Santa Domingo Pueblo)
Laguna Pueblo[14]
Nambé Pueblo[15]
Ohkay Owingeh Pueblo (San Juan Pueblo)
Picuris Pueblo[16]
Pojoaque Pueblo[17]
San Felipe Pueblo
San Ildefonso Pueblo
Sandia Pueblo [18]
Santa Ana Pueblo [19]
Santa Clara Pueblo[20]
Tesuque Pueblo [21]
Taos Pueblo
Zia Pueblo[22]
Zuni Pueblo[23]
Puye Cliff Dwellings
Bandelier area
Pecos area
Colorado River tributaries
Pueblos in the Rio Grande valley

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Ancestral Pueblo - Pueblo IV. Anthropology Laboratories of the Northern Arizona University. Retrieved 10-12-2011.
  2. ^ a b Pueblo Indian History. Crow Canyon Archaeological Center. Retrieved 10-12-2011.
  3. ^ a b Late Pueblo Period. Bandalier National Monument, National Park Service. Retrieved 10-14-2011.
  4. ^ Droughts and Migrations. Bandelier National Monument, National Park Service. Retrieved 10-14-2011.
  5. ^ a b c d e Ancient Farmers. Petrified Forest National Park, National Park Service. Retrieved 10-16-2011.
  6. ^ Life of the Early People at Bandelier. Bandelier National Monument, National Park Service. Retrieved 10-14-2011.
  7. ^ a b Life of the Early People at Bandelier: Food. Bandelier National Monument, National Park Service. Retrieved 10-15-2011.
  8. ^ Gibbon, Guy E.; Ames, Kenneth M. (1998) Archaeology of Prehistoric Native America: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. pp. 14, 408. ISBN 0-8153-0725-X.
  9. ^ Acoma Pueblo. Indian Pueblo Cultural Center. 2007. Retrieved 10-12-2011.
  10. ^ Cochiti Pueblo. Indian Pueblo Cultural Center. 2007. Retrieved 10-12-2011.
  11. ^ Kasha-Katuwe Tent Rocks National Monument. Bureau of Land Management. Retrieved 10-12-2011.
  12. ^ Jemez Pueblo. Indian Pueblo Cultural Center. 2007. Retrieved 10-12-2011.
  13. ^ History of The Pueblo of Jemez. Walatowa Visitor Center. Retrieved 10-12-2011.
  14. ^ Laguna Pueblo. Indian Pueblo Cultural Center. 2007. Retrieved 10-12-2011.
  15. ^ Nambe Pueblo. Indian Pueblo Cultural Center. 2007. Retrieved 10-12-2011.
  16. ^ Picuris Pueblo. Indian Pueblo Cultural Center. 2007. Retrieved 10-12-2011.
  17. ^ Pojoaque Pueblo. Indian Pueblo Cultural Center. 2007. Retrieved 10-12-2011.
  18. ^ Sandia Pueblo. Indian Pueblo Cultural Center. 2007. Retrieved 10-12-2011.
  19. ^ A Brief History of the Santa Ana Pueblo. Pueblo of Santa Ana. 2001. Retrieved 10-12-2011.
  20. ^ Santa Clara Pueblo. Indian Pueblo Cultural Center. 2007. Retrieved 10-12-2011.
  21. ^ Tesuque Pueblo. Indian Pueblo Cultural Center. 2007. Retrieved 10-12-2011.
  22. ^ Zia Pueblo. Indian Pueblo Cultural Center. 2007. Retrieved 10-12-2011.
  23. ^ Zuni Pueblo. Indian Pueblo Cultural Center. 2007. Retrieved 10-12-2011.

Further reading[edit]

  • Reed, Paul F. (2000) Foundations of Anasazi Culture: The Basketmaker Pueblo Transition. University of Utah Press. ISBN 0-87480-656-9.
  • Stuart, David E.; Moczygemba-McKinsey, Susan B. (2000) Anasazi America: Seventeen Centuries on the Road from Center Place. University of New Mexico Press. ISBN 0-8263-2179-8.
  • Wenger, Gilbert R. The Story of Mesa Verde National Park. Mesa Verde Museum Association, Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado, 1991 [1st edition 1980]. ISBN 0-937062-15-4.