USS Pueblo (AGER-2)

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For other ships of the same name, see USS Pueblo.
USS Pueblo (AGER-2)
Pueblo in October 1967
Career
Name: Pueblo
Namesake: Pueblo, Colorado
Builder: Kewaunee Shipbuilding and Engineering
Launched: 16 April 1944
Commissioned: 13 May 1967
Captured: 23 January 1968
Status: Active, in commission, currently held by North Korea
Badge: USS Pueblo AGER-2 Crest.png
General characteristics
Displacement: 550 tons light, 895 tons full, 345 tons dead
Length: 177 ft (54 m)
Beam: 32 ft (9.8 m)
Draft: 9 ft (2.7 m)
Propulsion: twin diesel
Speed: 12.7 knots (23.5 km/h)
Complement: 6 officers, 70 men
Armament: 2 × M2 Browning .50-caliber machine guns

USS Pueblo (AGER-2) is an American ELINT and SIGINT[1] Banner-class technical research ship (Navy intelligence) which was boarded and captured by North Korean forces on 23 January 1968, in what is known as the Pueblo incident or alternatively as the Pueblo crisis or the Pueblo affair. The declassified SIGAD for the National Security Agency (NSA) Direct Support Unit (DSU) from the Naval Security Group (NSG) on Pueblo during the patrol involved in the incident was USN-467Y.[2] The capture came less than a week after President Lyndon B. Johnson's State of the Union address, only a week before the start of the Tet Offensive in South Vietnam and 3 days after 31 men of North Korea's KPA Unit 12 had infiltrated across the Korea DMZ attempting to attack the South Korean Blue House in Seoul. The subsequent 11-month prisoner drama was a major incident in the Cold War.

North Korea stated that Pueblo strayed into their territorial waters, but the United States maintains that the vessel was in international waters at the time of the incident.[3]

Pueblo, still held by North Korea today, officially remains a commissioned vessel of the United States Navy.[4] Since early 2013 the ship has been moored along the Botong River in Pyongyang, and used there as a museum ship.[5] Pueblo is the only ship of the U.S. Navy currently being held captive.[6]

Initial operations[edit]

U.S. Army Cargo Vessel FP-344 (1944). Transferred to the Navy in 1966, she became USS Pueblo (AGER-2).

The ship was launched at the Kewaunee Shipbuilding and Engineering Company in Kewaunee, Wisconsin, on 16 April 1944, as the United States Army Freight and Passenger (FP) FP-344. The Army later redesignated the FP vessels as Freight and Supply changing the designation to FS-344.[7] The ship, commissioned at New Orleans on 7 April 1945, served as a Coast Guard manned Army vessel used for training civilians for the Army. Her first commanding officer was Lt. J. R. Choate, USCGR, succeeded by Lt. J.G. Marvin B. Barker, USCGR, on 12 September 1945.[8] FS-344 was placed out of service in 1954.

FS-344 was transferred to the United States Navy on 12 April 1966 and was renamed USS Pueblo (AKL-44) after Pueblo County, Colorado on 18 June of the same year. Pueblo is the third U.S. Navy ship to be named after the city of Pueblo or Pueblo County.

Initially, she served as a light cargo ship, AKL-44, but shortly after resuming service was converted to an intelligence gathering ship, or what is colloquially known as a spy ship, and redesignated AGER-2 on 13 May 1967. AGER (Auxiliary General Environmental Research) denoted a joint Naval and National Security Agency (NSA) program.[9]

USS Pueblo incident[edit]

Commander Lloyd M. Bucher, Commanding Officer of Pueblo

On 5 January 1968, Pueblo left Yokosuka, Japan, in transit to Sasebo, Japan, from where she left on 11 January 1968, headed northward through the Tsushima Strait into the Sea of Japan. She left with specific orders to intercept and conduct surveillance of Soviet Union naval activity in the Tsushima Strait and to gather signal and electronic intelligence from North Korea.[10]

On 20 January at 5:30 p.m. (17:30), a North Korean modified SO-1 class Soviet style sub chaser passed within 4,000 yards (3.7 km) of Pueblo, which was about 15.4 miles (24.8 km) southeast of Mayang-do at a position 39°47'N and 128°28.5'E.[1]

In the afternoon of 22 January, the two North Korean fishing trawlers Rice Paddy 1 and Rice Paddy 2 passed within 30 yards (30 m) of Pueblo. That day, a North Korean unit made an assassination attempt against the South Korean President Park Chung-hee, but the crew of Pueblo were not informed.[1]

According to the American account, the following day, 23 January, Pueblo was approached by a sub chaser and her nationality was challenged; Pueblo responded by raising the U.S. flag. The North Korean vessel then ordered it to stand down or be fired upon. Pueblo attempted to maneuver away, but was considerably slower than the sub chaser. Several warning shots were fired. Additionally, three torpedo boats appeared on the horizon and then joined in the chase and subsequent attack.[citation needed]

The attackers were soon joined by two MiG-21 fighters. A fourth torpedo boat and a second sub chaser appeared on the horizon a short time later. The ammunition on Pueblo was stored below decks, and her machine guns were wrapped in cold weather tarpaulins. The machine guns were unmanned, and no attempt was made to man them. An NSA report quotes the sailing order:

(...) Defensive armament (machine guns) should be stowed or covered in such manner so that it does not cause unusual interest by surveyed units. It should be used only in the event of a threat to survival (...)

and notes

In practice, it was discovered that, because of the temperamental adjustments of the firing mechanisms, the .50-caliber machine guns took at least ten minutes to activate. Only one crew member, with former army experience, had ever had any experience with such weapons, although members of the crew had received rudimentary instructions on the weapons immediately prior to the ship's deployment.[1]
Reported positions of USS Pueblo.
North Korean chart showing where they claim to have captured USS Pueblo.

U.S. Navy authorities and the crew of Pueblo insist that before the capture, Pueblo was miles outside North Korean territorial waters. North Korea claims the vessel was well within North Korean territory. The mission statement allowed her to approach within a nautical mile (1,852 m) of that limit. North Korea, however, claims a 50-nautical-mile (93 km) sea boundary even though international standards were 12 nautical miles (22 km) at the time.[11]

The North Korean vessels attempted to board Pueblo, but she was maneuvered to prevent this for over two hours. A sub chaser then opened fire with a 57 mm cannon, killing one member of the crew. The smaller vessels fired machine guns into Pueblo, which then signaled compliance and began destroying sensitive material. The volume of material on board was so great that it was impossible to destroy it all. An NSA report quotes Lieutenant Steve Harris, the officer in charge of Pueblo's Naval Security Group Command detachment:

(...) we had retained on board the obsolete publications and had all good intentions of getting rid of these things but had not done so at the time we had started the mission. I wanted to get the place organized eventually and we had excessive numbers of copies on board (...)

and concludes

Only a small percentage of the total classified material aboard the ship was destroyed.

Radio contact between Pueblo and the Naval Security Group in Kamiseya, Japan, had been ongoing during the incident. As a result, Seventh Fleet command was fully aware of Pueblo's situation. Air cover was promised but never arrived. The Fifth Air Force had no aircraft on strip alert, and estimated a two to three-hour delay in launching aircraft. The USS Enterprise was located 510 nautical miles (940 km) south of Pueblo, yet its four F-4B aircraft on alert were not equipped for an air-to-surface engagement. Enterprise's captain estimated that 1.5 hours (90 minutes) were required to get the converted aircraft into the air.[1] By the time President Lyndon B. Johnson was awakened, Pueblo had been captured and any rescue attempt would have been futile.[citation needed]

Pueblo followed the North Korean vessels as ordered, but then stopped immediately outside North Korean waters. She was again fired upon, and a sailor, fireman Duane Hodges, was killed. The ship was finally boarded at 0555 UTC (2:55 pm local)[12] by men from a torpedo boat and a sub chaser. Crew members had their hands tied, were blindfolded, beaten, and prodded with bayonets. Once Pueblo was in North Korean territorial waters, she was boarded again, this time by high-ranking North Korean officials.[citation needed]

The first official confirmation that the ship was in North Korean hands came on 28 January 1968. Two days earlier a flight by a CIA A-12 Oxcart aircraft from the Project Black Shield squadron at Kadena, Okinawa flown by pilot Jack W. Weeks made three high altitude high speed flights over North Korea. When the aircraft's films were processed in the United States they showed Pueblo to be in the Wonsan harbor area surrounded by two North Korean vessels.[13]

There was dissent among government officials in the U.S. regarding how to handle the situation. Rep. Mendel Rivers suggested the President issue an ultimatum for the return of Pueblo on penalty of nuclear attack, while Senator Gale McGee said the U.S. should wait for more information and not make "spasmodic response[s] to aggravating incidents".[14] According to Horace Busby, Special Assistant to President Johnson, the President's "reaction to the hostage taking was to work very hard here to keep down any demands for retaliation or any other attacks upon North Koreans", worried that rhetoric might result in the hostages being killed.[15]

Although American officials at the time assumed the seizure of Pueblo had been directed by the Soviet Union, it has emerged in recent years that North Korea acted alone and the incident actually harmed North Korea's relations with most of the Eastern Bloc.[16]

Aftermath[edit]

Pueblo was taken into port at Wonsan and the crew was moved twice to POW camps. The crew reported upon release that they were starved and regularly tortured while in North Korean custody. This treatment allegedly turned worse[17] when the North Koreans realized that crewmen were secretly giving them "the finger" in staged propaganda photos.[18]

Commander Lloyd M. Bucher was psychologically tortured, such as being put through a mock firing squad in an effort to make him confess. Eventually the Koreans threatened to execute his men in front of him, and Bucher relented and agreed to "confess to his and the crew's transgression." Bucher wrote the confession since a "confession" by definition needed to be written by the confessor himself. They verified the meaning of what he wrote, but failed to catch the pun when he said "We paean the DPRK [North Korea]. We paean their great leader Kim Il Sung".[19][20] (The word "paean" sounds identical to the term "pee on" in American English.)

Negotiations for the release of the crew took place at Panmunjom. At the same time, U.S. officials were concerned with conciliating the South Koreans, who expressed discontent about being left out of the negotiations. Richard A. Ericson, a political counselor for the American embassy in Seoul and operating officer for the Pueblo negotiations, notes in his oral history:

The South Koreans were absolutely furious and suspicious of what we might do. They anticipated that the North Koreans would try to exploit the situation to the ROK's disadvantage in every way possible, and they were rapidly growing distrustful of us and losing faith in their great ally. Of course, we had this other problem of how to ensure that the ROK would not retaliate for the Blue House Raid and to ease their growing feelings of insecurity. They began to realize that the DMZ was porous and they wanted more equipment and aid. So, we were juggling a number of problems.[21]

He also noted how the meetings at Panmunjom were usually unproductive, due to the particular negotiating style of the North Koreans:

As one example, we would go up with a proposal of some sort on the release of the crew and they would be sitting there with a card catalog... If the answer to the particular proposal we presented wasn’t in the cards, they would say something that was totally unresponsive and then go off and come back to the next meeting with an answer that was directed to the question. But there was rarely an immediate answer. That happened all through the negotiations. Their negotiators obviously were never empowered to act or speak on the basis of personal judgment or general instructions. They always had to defer a reply and presumably they went over it up in Pyongyang and passed it around and then decided on it. Sometimes we would get totally nonsensical responses if they didn’t have something in the card file that corresponded to the proposal at hand.[21]

Ericson and George Newman, the Deputy Chief of Mission in Seoul, wrote a telegram for the State Department in February 1968, predicting how the negotiations would play out:

What we said in effect was this: If you are going to do this thing at Panmunjom, and if your sole objective is to get the crew back, you will be playing into North Korea's hands and the negotiations will follow a clear and inevitable path. You are going to be asked to sign a document that the North Koreans will have drafted. They will brook no changes. It will set forth their point of view and require you to confess to everything they accuse you of... If you allow them to, they will take as much time as they feel they need to squeeze every damn thing they can get out of this situation in terms of their propaganda goals, and they will try to exploit this situation to drive a wedge between the U.S. and the ROK. Then when they feel they have accomplished all they can, and when we have agreed to sign their document of confession and apology, they will return the crew. They will not return the ship. This is the way it is going to be because this is the way it has always been.[21]

Following an apology, a written admission by the U.S. that Pueblo had been spying, and an assurance that the U.S. would not spy in the future, the North Korean government decided to release the 82 remaining crew members, although the written apology was preceded by an oral statement that it was done only to secure the release.[22] On 23 December 1968, the crew was taken by buses to the DMZ border with South Korea and ordered to walk south one by one across the "Bridge of No Return". Exactly eleven months after being taken prisoner, the Captain led the long line of crewmen, followed at the end by the Executive Officer, Lieutenant Ed Murphy, the last man across the bridge. The U.S. then verbally retracted the ransom admission, apology, and assurance. Meanwhile the North Koreans blanked out the paragraph above the signature which read: "and this hereby receipts for eighty two crewmen and one dead body".[clarification needed]

Bucher and all the officers and crew subsequently appeared before a Navy Court of Inquiry. A court-martial was recommended for the CO and the Officer in Charge of the Research Department, Lt. Steve Harris. But the Secretary of the Navy, John Chafee, rejected the recommendation, stating, "They have suffered enough." Commander Bucher was never found guilty of any indiscretions and continued his Navy career until retirement.[23]

In 1970, Bucher published an autobiographical account of the USS Pueblo incident entitled Bucher: My Story.[24] Bucher died in San Diego on 28 January 2004, at the age of 76. James Kell, a former sailor under his command, suggested that the injuries suffered by Bucher during his time in North Korea contributed to his death.[23]

Pueblo is still held by North Korea. In October 1999, it was towed from Wonsan on the east coast, around the Korean Peninsula, to the port of Nampo on the west coast. This required moving the vessel through international waters, and was undertaken just before the visit of U.S. presidential envoy James Kelly to the capital Pyongyang. After the stop at the Nampo shipyard Pueblo was relocated to Pyongyang and moored on the Taedong River near the spot that the General Sherman incident is believed to have taken place. In late 2012 Pueblo was moved again to the Botong River in Pyongyang next to a new addition to the Fatherland Liberation War Museum.[25]

Today Pueblo remains the second-oldest commissioned ship in the U.S. Navy, behind the USS Constitution ("Old Ironsides"). Pueblo is one of only a few American ships to have been captured since the wars in Tripoli. On 8 December 1941, the river gunboat USS Wake was captured by Japanese forces while moored in Shanghai. Also, several US ships were captured by the British during the War of 1812. The frigates USS Chesapeake was captured 1 June 1813 by the British frigate HMS Shannon. In 1814 the USS Tigress and USS Scorpion were captured in a night attack by British forces on Lake Huron.[26] Finally, the USS President was captured by a British squadron on 15 January 1815.

Aftermath: capture and repatriation
The Pueblo crew being released by the North Koreans across the Bridge of No Return in the Joint Security Area of the DMZ in Panmunjom on 23 December 1968. 
Crew of USS Pueblo
upon release on 23 December 1968. 
Official Navy photograph of the USS Pueblo crew taken on the grounds of the Balboa Naval Hospital in San Diego shortly after their arrival. 

Timeline of negotiations[edit]

With Major General Pak Chung Kuk representing the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea and Navy Rear Admiral John Victor Smith representing the United States until April 1968 at which point he is replaced by US Army Major General Gilbert H. Woodward. Timeline and quotations are taken from Matter of Accountability by Trevor Armbrister.[27]

Date Chief Negotiator Event / Position of respective government
23 January 1968
(around noon local time)
Pueblo is intercepted by DPRK forces close to the Korean port of Wonsan.
24 January 1968
(11am local time)
Admiral Smith Protests the "heinous" Blue House raid and subsequently plays a tape of a captured North Korean soldier's "confession" ...
I want to tell you, Pak, that the evidence against you North Korean Communists is overwhelming ... I now have one more subject to raise which is also of an extremely serious nature. It concerns the criminal boarding and seizure of ... Pueblo in international waters. It is necessary that your regime do the following: one, return the vessel and crew immediately; two, apologize to the Government of the United States for this illegal action. You are advised that the United States reserves the right to ask for compensation under international law.
General Pak Our saying goes, 'A mad dog barks at the moon', ... At the two hundred and sixtieth meeting of this commission held four days ago, I again registered a strong protest with your side against having infiltrated into our coastal waters a number of armed spy boats ... and demanded you immediately stop such criminal acts ... this most overt act of the US imperialist aggressor forces was designed to aggravate tension in Korea and precipitate another war of aggression...
'The United States must admit that Pueblo entered North Korean waters, must apologize for this intrusion, and must assure the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea that such intrusions will never happen again.'
Admit, Apologize and Assure (the Three A's).
4 March 1968 Names of dead and wounded prisoners are provided by the DPRK.
late April 1968 Admiral Smith is replaced by US Army Major General Gilbert H. Woodward as chief negotiator.
8 May 1968 General Pak presents General Woodward with the document by which the United States would admit that the Pueblo had entered the DPRK's waters, would apologize for the intrusion and assure the DPRK that such an intrusion would never happen again. It cited the "Three A's" as the only basis for a settlement and went on to denounce the United States for a whole host of other "crimes".
29 August 1968 General Woodward A proposal drafted by US Under Secretary of State Nicholas Katzenbach [the "overwrite" strategy] is presented.
If I acknowledge receipt of the crew on a document satisfactory to you as well as to us, would you then be prepared to release all of the crew?
General Pak Well, we have already told you what you must sign ...
17 September 1968 General Pak If you will sign our document, something might be worked out...
30 September 1968 General Pak If you will sign the document, we will at the same time turn over the men.
General Woodward We do not feel it is just to sign a paper saying we have done something we haven't done. However, in the interest of reuniting the crew with their families, we might consider an 'acknowledge receipt'
10 October 1968 General Woodward (demonstrating to General Pak the nature of the 'signing')
I will write here that I hereby acknowledge receipt of eighty-two men and one corpse...
General Pak You are employing sophistries and petty stratagems to escape responsibility for the crimes which your side committed...
23 October 1968 The "overwrite" proposal is again set out by General Woodward and General Pak again denounces it as a "petty strategem".
31 October 1968 General Woodward If I acknowledge receipt of the crew on a document satisfactory to you as well as to us, would you then be prepared to release all of the crew?
General Pak 'The United States must admit that Pueblo had entered North Korean waters, must apologize for this intrusion, and must assure the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea that this will never happen again.'
17 December 1968 General Woodward Explains a proposal by State Department Korea chief James Leonard: the "prior refutation" scheme. The United States would agree to sign the document but General Woodward would then verbally denounce it once the prisoners had been released.
General Pak [following a 50min recess]
I note that you will sign my document ... we have reached agreement.
23 December 1968 General Woodward on behalf of the United States signs the Three A's document and the DPRK at the same time allows the Pueblo prisoners to return to US custody.

Tourist attraction[edit]

Pueblo is a mandatory tourist attraction in Pyongyang, North Korea since being moved to the Taedong River.[28] Pueblo used to be anchored at the spot where it is believed the General Sherman incident took place in 1866. In late November 2012 Pueblo was moved from the Taedong river dock to a casement on the Botong river next to the new Fatherland War of Liberation Museum. The ship was renovated and made open to tourists with an accompanying video of the North Korean perspective in late July 2013. To commemorate the anniversary of the Korean War, the ship had a new layer of paint added and was put on display at a museum.[29]

USS Pueblo in Pyongyang, North Korea
 
 
 
 

Offer to repatriate[edit]

During an August 2005 diplomatic session in North Korea, former U.S. Ambassador to South Korea Donald Gregg received verbal indications from high-ranking North Korean officials that the state would be willing to repatriate Pueblo to United States authorities, on the condition that a prominent U.S. government official, such as the Secretary of State, come to Pyongyang for high level talks. While the U.S. government has publicly stated on several occasions that the return of the still commissioned Navy vessel is a priority, the current overall situation of U.S. and North Korean relations makes such an official state visit unlikely.[30]

Lawsuit[edit]

Former Pueblo crew members William Thomas Massie, Dunnie Richard Tuck, Donald Raymond McClarren, and Lloyd Bucher sued the North Korean government for the abuse they suffered at its hands during their captivity. North Korea did not respond to the suit. In December 2008, U.S. District Judge Henry H. Kennedy, Jr. in Washington, D.C. awarded the plaintiffs $65 million in damages, describing their ill treatment by North Korea as "extensive and shocking."[31] The plaintiffs, as of October 2009, were attempting to collect the judgment from North Korean assets frozen by the U.S. government.[32]

Awards[edit]

Pueblo has earned the following awards –

As FS-344:

As USS Pueblo (AKL-44 / AGER-2):

Representation in popular culture[edit]

  • The episode "The Honeymooners" from the fourth season of Archer features the main character hitting a North Korean secret agent and yelling, "And this is for the Pueblo!"
  • The Pueblo incident was dramatically depicted in the critically acclaimed 1973 ABC Theater televised production Pueblo. Hal Holbrook starred as Captain Lloyd Bucher. The 2-hour drama was nominated for three Emmy Awards, and won two awards.[33][34]
  • An earlier British dramatization for the 1970 season of ITV Playhouse starred Ray McAnally as Bucher.[35]
  • In Mad Men: "The Collaborators" (season 6, episode 3), Arnold Rosen discusses the Vietnam War and the seizure of Pueblo while at dinner with his wife Sylvia and neighbor Don Draper.
  • The Star Trek episode "The Enterprise Incident" is loosely based on the Pueblo incident.[36]
  • The incident is also referenced in the "Gone Quiet" episode of The West Wing
  • The incident is also mentioned in the "The Dog Robber: Part 2" (season 7, episode 10) of JAG.
  • The incident is referenced in The Target, a spy novel by US author David Baldacci.
  • Military news site duffelblog.com ran a story suggesting President Obama would trade Seoul for the return of the Pueblo, similar to the trade with the Taliban for Bowe Bergdahl.

See also[edit]

Other conflicts:

General:

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Robert E. Newton (1992). "The Capture of the USS Pueblo and Its Effect on SIGINT Operations". U.S. Cryptologic History, Special Series, Crisis Collection, Vol. 7, National Security Agency (NSA). Retrieved 19 February 2010. 
  2. ^ "USS Pueblo AGER 2: Background Information". p. 10. Retrieved 13 June 2013. 
  3. ^ John R. Schindler. "A DANGEROUS BUSINESS: The U.S. Navy and National Reconnaissance During the Cold War". p. 9. Retrieved 24 June 2013. 
  4. ^ "Naval Vessel Register Web page on USS Pueblo – AGER-2". Nvr.navy.mil. Retrieved 11 June 2009. 
  5. ^ http://www.usspueblo.org/North_Korea/USS_PUEBLO_Today.html
  6. ^ "List of active ships". Naval Vessel Register. NAVSEA Shipbuilding Support Office. Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  7. ^ http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/sh-us-cs/army-sh/usash-ag/fp344.htm | Naval History and Heritage Command Online Library of Selected Images: U.S. Army cargo ship FP-344 (1944–1966) Later renamed FS-344.
  8. ^ http://www.uscg.mil/history/webcutters/FS_Vessels.asp | World War II Coast Guard Manned U.S. Army Freight and Supply Ship Histories: FS-344.
  9. ^ Pueblo History. Navy.
  10. ^ "Attacked by North Koreans". Usspueblo.org. Archived from the original on 28 August 2008. Retrieved 11 June 2009. 
  11. ^ American Society of International Law. Proceedings of the American Society of International Law: at its sixty third annual meeting held at Washington, D.C. 24–26 April 1969. "Questions of international law raised by the seizure of the U.S.S. Pueblo".
  12. ^ "North Korean Transmissions from January 1968: Chronology". National Security Agency (NSA). 1968. Retrieved 26 June 2013. 
  13. ^ Mobley, Richard A., Flash Point North Korea, Naval Institute Press, 2003. ISBN 9781557504036
  14. ^ "N. Korea Seize U.S. Ship, 1968 Year in Review". UPI.com". 1968. Retrieved 11 June 2009. 
  15. ^ Interviewer unknown (24 April 1981) "Interview with Horace W. Busby, 1981. 04/24/1981." WGBH Media Library & Archives, 24 April 1981. Retrieved on 9 November 2010 from http://openvault.wgbh.org/catalog/vietnam-fa3035-interview-with-horace-w-busby-1981.
  16. ^ Lerner, Mitchell; Shin, Jong-Dae (2012–03). "New Romanian Evidence on the Blue House Raid and the USS Pueblo Incident. NKIDP e-Dossier No. 5." Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, March 2012. Retrieved on 23 April 2012 from http://www.wilsoncenter.org/publication/nkidp-e-dossier-no-5-new-romanian-evidence-the-blue-house-raid-and-the-uss-pueblo.
  17. ^ Iredale, Harry; McClintock, Ralph. "Compound 2 'The Farm'". USS PUEBLO Veteran's Association. Archived from the original on 30 September 2010. Retrieved 30 September 2010. "The treatment would become better or worse depending upon the day, the week, the guard, the duty officer or the situation." 
  18. ^ Stu, Russell. "The Digit Affair". USS Pueblo Veteran's Association. Archived from the original on 30 September 2010. Retrieved 30 September 2010. "The finger became an integral part of our anti-propaganda campaign. Any time a camera appeared, so did the fingers." 
  19. ^ Bush lauded for handling of EP-3 incident at the Wayback Machine (archived 25 May 2011) WorldNetDaily.
  20. ^ End of North Korea? The Palm Beach Times.
  21. ^ a b c Kennedy, Charles S. (27 March 1995). "The USS Pueblo Incident – Assassins in Seoul, A Spy Ship Captured". The Association for Diplomatic Studies and Training: Foreign Affairs Oral History Project. Retrieved 20 February 2013. 
  22. ^ Probst, Reed R. (16 May 1977). Negotiating With the North Koreans: The U.S. Experience at Panmunjom. Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania: U.S. Army War College. Retrieved 17 December 2009. [dead link]
  23. ^ a b "Lloyd Bucher, captain of the Pueblo, buried in San Diego: North County Times – Californian 02-04-2004". Nctimes.com. 3 February 2004. Retrieved 11 June 2009. 
  24. ^ Bucher, Lloyd M.; Mark Rascovich (1970). Bucher: My Story. Doubleday & Company. ISBN 0385072449. 
  25. ^ http://www.usspueblo.org/North_Korea/USS_PUEBLO_Today.html
  26. ^ Wake History Navy
  27. ^ Armbrister, Trevor (1971). Matter of Accountability. Barrie & Jenkins. ISBN 978-0214652141. 
  28. ^ Caroline Gluck, "North Korea drags its feet", BBC, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/1626579.stm . Retrieved 23 January 2007.
  29. ^ "North Korea to put US spy ship captured in 1968 on display". Guardian. 25 July 2013. Retrieved 25 July 2013. 
  30. ^ "www.shippingtimes.co.uk "Saturday feature: Old flag for an old spy ship"". Shippingtimes.co.uk. Retrieved 11 June 2009. [dead link]
  31. ^ Washington Post, "Damages Awarded in USS Pueblo Case", 31 December 2008, p. 5.
  32. ^ Wilber, Del Quentin, "Hell Hath a Jury: North Korea Tortured the Crew of USS Pueblo in 1968. 4 Victims Fought for Solace in the Courts", Washington Post, 8 October 2009, p. C1.
  33. ^ Pueblo (TV 1973) – IMDb
  34. ^ "Pueblo – Trailer – Cast – Showtimes – NYTimes.com". The New York Times. 
  35. ^ ITV Playhouse: The Pueblo Affair (TV 1970) – IMDb
  36. ^ http://www.fastcopyinc.com/orionpress/articles/enterpriseincident.htm
Sources

Further Reading[edit]

  • Armbrister, Trevor. A Matter of Accountability: The True Story of the Pueblo Affair. Guilford, Conn: Lyon's Press, 2004. ISBN 1592285791
  • Brandt, Ed. The Last Voyage of USS Pueblo. New York: Norton, 1969. ISBN 0393053903
  • Bucher, Lloyd M., and Mark Rascovich. Pueblo and Bucher. London: M. Joseph, 1971. ISBN 0718109066 OCLC 3777130
  • Cheevers, Jack. Act of War: Lyndon Johnson, North Korea, and the Capture of the Spy Ship Pueblo. New York : NAL Caliber, 2013. ISBN 9780451466198
  • Crawford, Don. Pueblo Intrigue; A Journey of Faith. Wheaton, Ill: Tyndale House Publishers, 1969. OCLC 111712
  • Gallery, Daniel V. The Pueblo Incident. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1970. OCLC 49823
  • Harris, Stephen R., and James C. Hefley. My Anchor Held. Old Tappan, N.J.: F.H. Revell Co, 1970. ISBN 0800704029 OCLC 101776
  • Hyland, John L., and John T. Mason. Reminiscences of Admiral John L. Hyland, USN (Ret.). Annapolis, MD: U.S. Naval Institute, 1989. OCLC 46940419
  • Lerner, Mitchell B. The Pueblo Incident: A Spy Ship and the Failure of American Foreign Policy. Lawrence, Kan: University Press of Kansas, 2002. ISBN 0700611711 OCLC 48516171
  • Liston, Robert A. The Pueblo Surrender: A Covert Action by the National Security Agency. New York: M. Evans, 1988. ISBN 0871315548 OCLC 18683738
  • Mobley, Richard A. Flash Point North Korea: The Pueblo and EC-121 Crises. Annapolis, Md: Naval Institute Press, 2003. ISBN 1557504032
  • Murphy, Edward R., and Curt Gentry. Second in Command; The Uncensored Account of the Capture of the Spy Ship Pueblo. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1971. ISBN 0030850754
  • Newton, Robert E. The Capture of the USS Pueblo and Its Effect on SIGINT Operations. [Fort George G. Meade, Md.]: Center for Cryptologic History, National Security Agency, 1992. OCLC 822026554

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Coordinates: 38°59′28″N 125°43′31″E / 38.99111°N 125.72528°E / 38.99111; 125.72528