Puerto Hormiga archaeological site
According to other findings like ceramic remains and the abundant stone material, the activities of nomadic peoples were already beginning to be complemented with small-scale horticulture and agriculture.
A shell ring of the Late Archaic period has been described at Puerto Hormiga. The Puerto Hormiga ring is composed primarily of clam shells, and is located in a marsh. It has an outside diameter of 280 feet (85 m), a height of about 4 feet (1.2 m), and the base of the ring mound is 52 feet (16 m) to 75 feet (23 m) wide. It has a clear interior plaza.
Sherds of fiber-tempered and sand-tempered pottery, as well as stone tools, were found associated with the shell ring. The earliest have been dated to 3794 BC. The fiber-tempered pottery is "crude", formed from a single lump of clay. Sand-tempered coiled ceramics have also been found at Puerto Hormiga.
- Clark and Gosser:210-11
- Peregrine and Ember:149, 151
- Clark, John E. and Dennis Gosser (1995). "Reinventing Mesoamerica's First Pottery". In William K. Barnett and John W. Hoopes. The Emergence of Pottery: technology and innovation in ancient societies. Smithsonian Institution Press. pp. 209–219. ISBN 978-1-56098-516-7. Retrieved 22 November 2011.
- Hemmings, E. Thomas (1970). "Emergence of Formative Life on the Atlantic Coast of the Southeast". Research Manuscript Series, Book 6. University of South Carolina. Retrieved 19 November 2011.
- Ember, Melvin; Peregrine, Peter Neal, eds. (2001). Encyclopedia of Prehistory. 5 : Middle America. Springer. p. 290. ISBN 0-306-46259-1.
- Walthall, John A. (1980). Prehistoric Indians of the Southeast: Archaeology of Alabama and the Middle South. Tuscaloosa, Alabama: The University of Alabama Press. pp. 81–83. ISBN 0-8173-0552-1.