Hat

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For other uses, see Hat (disambiguation).
A collection of 18th and 19th century men's beaver felt hats

A hat is a head covering. It can be worn for protection against the elements, for ceremonial reason, religious reasons, for safety, or as a fashion accessory.[1] In the past, hats were an indicator of social status.[2] In the military, they may denote nationality, branch of service, rank and/or regiment.[3]

History[edit]

One of the first pictorial depictions of a hat appears in a Thebes tomb painting which shows a man wearing a conical straw hat. Other early hats were the Pileus, a simple skull cap; the Phrygian cap, worn by freed slaves in Greece and Rome; and the Greek petasos, the first known hat with a brim. Women wore veils, kerchiefs, hoods, caps and wimples. St. Clement, the patron saint of felt hatmakers, is said to have discovered wool felt when he filled his sandals with flax fibers to protect his feet.[4]

In the Middle Ages, hats were a marker of social status and used to single out certain groups. The 1215 Fourth Council of the Lateran required that all Jews identify themselves by wearing the Judenhat (“Jewish hat”), marking them as targets for anti-Semitism.[5] The hats were usually yellow, and were either pointed or square.[6]

In the Middle Ages, hats for women ranged from simple scarves to elaborate hennin,[7] and denoted social status. Structured hats for women similar to those of male courtiers began to be worn in the late 16th century.[8] The term ‘milliner’ comes from the Italian city of Milan, where the best quality hats were made in the 18th century. Millinery was traditionally a woman’s occupation, with the milliner not only creating hats and bonnets but also choosing lace, trimmings and accessories to complete an outfit.[9]

A variety of men's hats for sale in Amsterdam.

In the first half of the 19th century, women wore bonnets that gradually became larger, decorated with ribbons, flowers, feathers, and gauze trims. By the end of the century, many other styles were introduced, among them hats with wide brims and flat crowns, the flower pot and the toque. By the middle of the 1920s, when women began to cut their hair short, they chose hats that hugged the head like a helmet.[8]

The tradition of wearing hats to horse racing events began at the Royal Ascot in Britain, which maintains a strict dress code. All guests in the Royal Enclosure must wear hats.[10] This tradition was adopted at other horse racing events, such as the Kentucky Derby in the United States.[11]

Extravagant hats were popular in the 1980s, and in the early 21st century, flamboyant hats made a comeback, with a new wave of competitive young milliners designing creations that include turban caps, trompe-l'oeil-effect felt hats and tall headpieces made of human hair. Some new hat collections have been described as "wearable sculpture." Many pop stars, among them Lady Gaga, have commissioned hats as publicity stunts.[12]

Famous hatmakers[edit]

One of the most famous London hatters is James Lock & Co of St James's Street.[13] Another was Sharp & Davis of 6 Fish Street Hill.[14] In the late 20th-century museums credited London-based David Shilling with reinventing hats worldwide. Notable Belgian hat designers are Elvis Pompilio and Fabienne Delvigne (Royal warrant of appointment holder), whose hats are worn by European royals.[15] Philip Treacy OBE is an award-winning Irish milliner whose hats have been commissioned by top designers[16] and worn at royal weddings.[17] In North America, the well-known cowboy-hat manufacturer Stetson made the headgear for the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and the Texas Rangers.[18]

Hat collections[edit]

The Philippi Collection is a collection of religious headgear assembled by a German entrepreneur, Dieter Philippi, located in Kirkel.[19] The collection features over 500 hats,[20] and is currently the world’s largest collection of clerical, ecclesiastical and religious head coverings.[21]

Hat styles[edit]

Women's decorative hat fashion from 1911.
Ancient Greek statue of a lady with blue and gilt garment, a fan and a sun hat, from Tanagra, circa 325–300 BC.
Hermes wearing a petasos hat. (Ancient Greek Attic red-figure krater, circa 380–370 BC.)
Hats as an indicator of social status: a foreman (with horse) wears a hat of greater height than the accompanying inquilino (19th-century Chile).
New York City, 1918: A large crowd of people, almost all wearing hats.
Paris millinery shop, 1822.
Further information: List of headgear
Image Name Description
Ascot cap Ascot cap A hard men's cap, similar to the flat cap, but distinguished by its hardness and rounded shape.
Akruba Akubra An Australian felt hat with wide brim.
Ayam Ayam A traditional Korean winter cap mostly worn by women in the Joseon and Daehan Jeguk periods (1392–1910).
Balaclava Balaclava Headgear, usually made from fabric such as cotton and/or polyester, that covers the whole head, exposing only the face or part of it. Sometimes only the eyes or eyes and mouth are visible. Also known as a ski mask.
Balmoral bonnet Balmoral bonnet Traditional Scottish bonnet or cap worn with Scottish Highland dress.
Barretina Barretina A floppy fabric pull-on hat, usually worn with its top flopped down. In red, it is now used as a symbol of Catalan identity.
Baseball cap Baseball cap A type of soft, light cotton cap with a rounded crown and a stiff, frontward-projecting bill.
Beanie Beanie A brimless cap, with or without a small visor, once popular among school boys. Sometimes includes a propeller.
Note: In New Zealand, Australia, the United States and the United Kingdom, "beanie" also or otherwise refers to the tuque.
Bearskin Bearskin The tall, furry hat of the Brigade of Guards' full-dress uniform, originally designed to protect them against sword-cuts, etc. Commonly seen at Buckingham Palace in London, England. Sometimes mistakenly identified as a Busby.
Beret Beret A soft round cap, usually of woollen felt, with a bulging flat crown and tight-fitting brimless headband. Worn by both men and women and traditionally associated with Basque people, France, and the military. Often part of [European?] schoolgirls' uniform during the 1920s, '30s and '40s.
Bicorne Bicorne A broad-brimmed felt hat with brim folded up and pinned front and back to create a long-horned shape. Also known as a cocked hat. Worn by European military officers in the 1790s and, as illustrated, commonly associated with Napoleon.
Biretta Biretta A square cap with three or four ridges or peaks worn by Roman Catholic (and some Anglican and Lutheran) clergy.
Boater Boater A flat-brimmed and flat-topped straw hat formerly worn by seamen. Schools, especially public schools in the UK, might include a boater as part of their (summer) uniform. Now mostly worn at summer regattas or formal garden parties, often with a ribbon in club, college or school colors.
Bonnie hat Boonie hat A soft, wide-brimmed cotton hat commonly used by military forces. Also known as a bush hat and similar to a bucket hat.
"Boss of the plains" Boss of the plains A lightweight all-weather hat, with a high rounded crown and wide flat brim, designed by John B. Stetson for the demands of the American frontier.
"Boudoir cap" Boudoir cap A type of decorative cap mainly worn in the 19th and early 20th century with sleepwear or lingerie.
Bowler / Derby Bowler / Derby A hard felt hat with a rounded crown created in 1850 by Lock's of St James's, the hatters to Thomas Coke, 2nd Earl of Leicester, for his servants. More commonly known as a Derby in the United States.
Bucket hat Bucket hat A soft cotton hat with a wide, downwards-sloping brim.
Busby Busby A small fur military hat.
Campaign (or "Smokey Bear") hat Campaign hat Also known as a "Smokey Bear" hat. A broad-brimmed felt or straw hat with high crown, pinched symmetrically at its four corners (the "Montana crease").
Capirotes Capirote A conical pointed hat with eye holes. Most associated with the Ku Klux Klan, but used elsewhere in other contexts (such as the example illustrated, featuring people from Nazareno processing during Holy Week in Seville, Spain).
Capotain hat Capotain A hat worn between the 1590s and 1640s in England and northwestern Europe. Also known as a "Pilgrim hat" in the United States.
Capello romano Cappello romano A round wide-brimmed hat formerly worn by Roman Catholic clergy.
Casquette Casquette A small-peaked cap often worn by cyclists.
Caubeen Caubeen An Irish beret.[22]
Chilcote cap Chilote cap A woven cap, typical of Chiloé Archipelago, that is made of coarse raw wool and usually topped by a pom-pom.
Chullo Chullo Peruvian or Bolivian hat with ear-flaps made from vicuña, alpaca, llama or sheep's wool.[23]
Chupalla Chupalla A straw hat made in Chile.
Cloche hat Cloche hat A bell-shaped ladies hat that was popular during the Roaring Twenties.
Cricket cap Cricket cap A type of soft cap traditionally worn by cricket players.
Sombrero cordobés Sombrero Cordobés A traditional flat-brimmed and flat-topped hat originating from Córdoba, Spain, associated with flamenco dancing and music and popularized by characters such as Zorro.
Conical hat Conical Asian hat A conical straw hat associated with East and Southeast Asia. Sometimes known as a "coolie hat", although the term "coolie" may be interpreted as derogatory.[24][25]
Coonskin cap Coonskin cap A hat, fashioned from the skin and fur of a raccoon, that became associated with Canadian and American frontiersmen of the 18th and 19th centuries.
Custodian helmet Custodian helmet A helmet traditionally worn by British police constables while on foot patrol.
Deerstalker Deerstalker A warm, close-fitting tweed cap, with brims front and behind and ear-flaps that can be tied together either over the crown or under the chin. Originally designed for use while hunting in the climate of Scotland. Worn by –and so closely associated with – the character Sherlock Holmes.
Dunce cap Dunce cap A conical hat, usually tall and narrow, worn by late-19th and early-20th century school pupils as a punishment and/or humiliation. It often featured a large capital "D" inscribed on its side, to be shown frontwards when the hat was worn.
Fascinators.jpg Fascinator A small hat commonly made with feathers, flowers and/or beads.[12] It attaches to the hair by a comb, headband or clip.
Hatt.jpg Fedora A soft felt hat with a medium brim and lengthwise crease in the crown.
Fes.jpg Fez Red felt hat in the shape of a truncated cone, common to Arab-speaking countries.
Flat-cap.jpg Flat cap A soft, round wool or tweed men's cap with a small bill in front.
Korea-gat-01.jpg Gat A traditional Korean hat worn by men.
Gatsbycapsmall.jpg Gatsby A soft brimmed hat popular in New York after the turn of the century made from eight quarter panels. Also known as a newsboy cap.
Omar-n-bradley-contrast-adjusted.jpg Garrison or Forage cap A foldable cloth cap with straight sides and a creased or hollow crown.
YoungMon.jpg Gaung Paung Headwrap worn by the Bamar, Mon people, Rakhine and Shan peoples.
Prince Sultan.jpg Ghutrah Three piece ensemble consisting of a Thagiyah skull cap, Gutrah scarf, and Ogal black band. Gutrahs are plain white or checkered, denoting ethnic or national identities.[citation needed].
Glengarry A traditional Scottish boat-shaped hat without a peak made of thick-milled woollen material with a toorie on top, a rosette cockade on the left, and (usually) ribbons hanging down behind. It is normally worn as part of Scottish military or civilian Highland dress.
Visorlayout.jpg Green eyeshade Once-common wear for office clerks.
Schutzhelm.jpg Hard hat A rounded rigid helmet with a small brim predominantly used in workplace environments, such as construction sites, to protect the head from injury by falling objects, debris and bad weather.
Infantry Hardee.jpg Hardee hat Also known as the 1858 Dress Hat. Regulation hat for Union soldiers during the American Civil War.
Hans Holbein Temple Detail.jpg Hennin A woman's hat of the middle ages.[7] This style includes the conical "princess" hats often seen in illustrations of folk-tale princesses.
Robert Ewing 1914.jpg Homburg A semi-formal hat with a medium brim and crown with a crease and no dents.
Skotthufa.jpg Icelandic tail-cap Part of the national costume of Iceland.
Jaapi.jpg Jaapi A traditional hat of Assam, India. There both plain and decorative japies are Available.
Jinnahsideposecap .jpg Karakul (Qaraqul) A hat made from the fur of the Qaraqul breed of sheep, typically worn by men in Central and South Asia and popular among Soviet leaders.
Képi gendarmerie pontificale.jpg Kepi A French military hat with a flat, circular top and visor.
Kippa.jpg Kippah or Yarmulke A close-fitting skullcap worn by religious Jews.
Rabbi Moshe Leib Rabinovich.JPG Kolpik Brown fur hat worn by Hassidic Jews.
Kofia.JPG Kofia Brimless cylindrical cap with a flat crown, worn by men in East Africa.
PikiWiki Israel 3243 Ein Hahoresh.jpg Kova tembel Cloth hat worn by Israeli pioneers and kibbutzniks.
Umaru Yar'Adua VOA.jpg Kufi A brimless, short, rounded cap worn by Africans and people throughout the African diaspora.
Visita di Papa Benedetto XVI a Genova - 2008-05-18 - Primo piano di Benedetto XVI.jpg Mitre Distinctive hat worn by bishops in the Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, and the Anglican Communion.
Enrique ponce.jpg Montera A crocheted hat worn by bullfighters.
LinusPaulingGraduation1922.jpg Mortarboard Flat, square hat. Usually has a button centered on top. A tassel is attached to the button and draped over one side. Worn as part of academic dress. Traditionally, when worn during graduation ceremonies, the new graduates switch the tassel from one side to the other at the conclusion of the ceremony.
Pakol - textiles and clothing - Fatima Zehra Girls School - Kandahar - Afghanistan - 10-24-2008.jpg Pakul Round, rolled wool hat with a flat top, common in Pakistan and Afghanistan.
PanamaHatHarryTruman.jpg Panama Straw hat made in Ecuador.
Sunni Muslim man wearing traditional dress and headgear alt1.jpg Papakhi Also known as astrakhan hat in English, a male wool hat worn throughout the Caucasus.
Partyhat.JPG Party Hat A conical hat, similar to the Dunce cap, often worn at birthday parties and New Year's Eve celebrations. It is frequently emblazoned with bright patterns or messages.
M1951 Ridgeway Field Cap.gif Patrol cap Also known as a field cap, a scout cap, or in the United States a mosh cap.; a soft cap with a stiff, rounded visor, and flat top, worn by military personnel in the field when a combat helmet is not required.
Nathan Twining 02.jpg Peaked cap A military style cap with a flat sloping crown, band and peak (also called a visor). It is used by many militaries of the world as well as law enforcement, as well as some people in service professions who wear uniforms.
Bust Attis CdM.jpg Phrygian Cap A soft conical cap pulled forward. In sculpture, paintings and caricatures it represents freedom and the pursuit of liberty. The popular cartoon characters The Smurfs wear white Phrygian caps.
Saint Jacques.JPG Pilgrim's hat A pilgrim's hat, cockel hat or traveller's hat is a wide brim hat used to keep off the sun. It is highly associated with pilgrims on the Way of St. James. The upturned brim of the hat is adorned with a scallop shell to denote the traveller's pilgrim status.
PithHelmetTruman.jpg Pith Helmet A lightweight rigid cloth-covered helmet made of cork or pith, with brims front and back. Worn by Europeans in tropical colonies in the 1800s.
Planter'sHat.jpg Planter's Hat A lightweight straw hat, with a wide brim, a round crown and narrow round dent on the outside of the top of the crown. Worn by Clark Gable in Gone with the Wind, and Paul Bettany in Master and Commander.
Porkpie.jpg Porkpie Felt hat with low flat crown and narrow brim.
Rasta Man Barbados.jpg Rastacap A tall, round, usually crocheted and brightly colored, cap worn by Rastafarians and others with dreadlocks to tuck their locks away.
Sami hat.jpg Sami hat Also known as a "Four Winds" hat, traditional men's hat of the Sami people.
Шајкача.jpg Šajkača Serbian national hat.
Silver enlaid salakot.jpg Salakot A traditional hat in the Philippines.
Santa Hat.jpg Santa Hat A floppy pointed red hat trimmed in white fur traditionally associated with Christmas.
MuseeMarine-ShakoMarine.jpg Shako A tall cylindrical military cap, usually with a visor, badge, and plume.
Judeu ortodoxo reza com um shtreimel, Kotel, Jerusalém.jpg Shtreimel A fur hat worn by married Hassidic men on Shabbat and holidays.
Australian Army ceremonial slouch hat.png Slouch Generic term covering wide-brimmed felt-crowned hats often worn by military leaders. Less fancy versions can be called bush hats.
Harry S Truman sombrero.jpg Sombrero A Mexican hat with a conical crown and a very wide, saucer-shaped brim, highly embroidered made of plush felt.
Soekarno.jpg Songkok A cap widely worn in Indonesia, Brunei, Malaysia, Singapore, the southern Philippines and southern Thailand, mostly among Muslim males. May be related to the taqiyah.
Felthat.jpg Stetson Also known as a "Cowboy Hat". A high-crowned, wide-brimmed hat, with a sweatband on the inside, and a decorative hat band on the outside. Customized by creasing the crown and rolling the brim.[26]
Ylioppilaslakki.jpg Student cap A cap worn by university students in various European countries.
Young Woman in Sun Hat.jpg Sun hat A hat which shades the face and shoulders from the sun.
Tam-o-shanters.jpg Tam o' Shanter A Scottish wool hat originally worn by men.
Taqiyah.jpg Taqiyah A round fabric cap worn by Muslim men.
Tophat.jpg Top hat Also known as a beaver hat, a magician's hat, or, in the case of the tallest examples, a stovepipe hat. A tall, flat-crowned, cylindrical hat worn by men in the 19th and early 20th centuries, now worn only with morning dress or evening dress. Cartoon characters Uncle Sam and Mr. Monopoly are often depicted wearing such hats. Once made from felted beaver fur.
Chef Hat.JPG Toque (informally, "chef's hat") A tall, pleated, brimless, cylindrical hat traditionally worn by chefs.
Rosenberg - Selfportrait.jpg Trilby A soft felt men's hat with a deeply indented crown and a narrow brim often upturned at the back.
Peter the Great Reenactor.jpg Tricorne A soft hat with a low crown and broad brim, pinned up on either side of the head and at the back, producing a triangular shape. Worn by Europeans in the 18th century.
Truckerhat.jpg Trucker hat Similar to a baseball cap, usually with a foam brim and front section and a breathable mesh back section.
Tubeteika.JPG Tubeteika A round, slightly pointed cap with embroidered or applique patterns worn throughout Central Asia.
Tudor Bonnet.JPG Tudor bonnet A soft round black academic cap, with a tassel hanging from a cord attached to the centre of the top of the hat.
Yellowhat.jpg Tuque In Canada, a knitted hat, worn in winter, usually made from wool or acrylic. Also known as a ski cap, knit hat, knit cap, sock cap, stocking cap, toboggan, watch cap, or goobalini. In New Zealand, Australia, the United States and the United Kingdom, the term "beanie" is applied to this cap.
Sikh wearing turban.jpg Turban A headdress consisting of a scarf-like single piece of cloth wound around either the head itself or an inner hat.
Tyrolean hat 3.jpg Tyrolean hat A felt hat with a corded band and feather ornament, originating from the Alps.
Grayushanka.jpg Ushanka A Russian fur hat with fold-down ear-flaps.
Sombrero vueltiao.jpg Vueltiao A Colombian hat of woven and sewn black and khaki dried palm braids with indigenous figures.
Robert W. Patten (The Umbrella Man).png Umbrella Hat A hat made from an umbrella that straps to the head. Has been made with mosquito netting.
Cardinal zucchetto 2003 modified 2008-15-08.jpg Zucchetto Skullcap worn by clerics.

Parts of a hat[edit]

Woman in a Flowered Hat, Renoir: Straw hat with brim decorated with cloth flowers and ribbons

A hat consists of four main parts:[27]

  • Crown - The portion of a hat covering the top of the head
  • Peak (British English), visor (American English), or bill, a stiff projection at the front, to shade or shield the eyes from sun and rain
  • Brim, an optional projection of stiff material from the bottom of the hat's crown horizontally all around the circumference of the hat
  • Puggaree (British) or sweatband or hatband (American), a ribbon or band that runs around the bottom of the torso of the hat. The sweatband may be adjustable with a cord or rope at the top and is on the inside of the hat touching the skin while the hatband and puggaree are around the outside.[28][29]

Hat size[edit]

Hat sizes are determined by measuring the circumference of a person's head about 1/2 inch (1.3 cm) above the ears. Inches or centimeters may be used depending on the manufacturer. Felt hats can be stretched for a custom fit. Some hats, like hard hats and baseball caps, are adjustable. Cheaper hats come in "standard sizes", such as small, medium, large, extra large: the mapping of measured size to the various "standard sizes" varies from maker to maker and style to style, as can be seen by studying various catalogues, such as Hammacher-Schlemmer.[30]

Traditional hat size is worked out by adding the fore and aft and side to side measurements (in inches) then dividing by two. In the UK, an equivalent hat size is an eighth of an inch smaller than in the US.

Hat sizes
size Youth S/M Youth L/XL XXS XS S M L XL XXL XXXL
Age (years) 0 ½ 1 2
Circumference in cm 34 43 47 48 49 50 51 - 52 53 - 54 55 - 56 57 - 58 59 - 60 61 - 62 63 - 64 65 - 66
Circumference in inches 13⅜ 17 18½ 18¾ 19¼ 19¾ 20 - 20½ 20 - 21¼ 21 - 22 22 - 22½⅞ 23 - 23½⅝ 24 - 24⅜ 24¾ - 25¼ 25 - 26
UK hat size 5 6 6 6 - 6¼⅜ 6 - 6½⅝ 6 - 6¾⅞ 7 - 7⅛ 7 - 7¼⅜ 7 - 7½ 7 - 7¾⅞ 8 - 8⅛
US hat size 5⅞ 6 6⅛ 6 - 6½ 6⅝- 6¾ 6 - 7 7 - 7¼ 7 - 7½ 7 - 7¾ 7 - 8 8 - 8¼
French hat size 0 ½ 1 2 - 2½ 3 - 3½ 4 - 4½ 5 - 5½ 6 - 6½ 7 - 7½ 8 - 8½ 9 - 9½

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pauline Thomas (2007-09-08). "The Wearing of Hats Fashion History". Fashion-era.com. Retrieved 2011-07-02. 
  2. ^ "The social meanings of hats". Press.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 2011-07-02. 
  3. ^ "Insignia:The Way You Tell Who's Who in the Military". Defense.gov. Retrieved 2011-07-02. 
  4. ^ "History of Hats". Hatsandcaps.co.uk. Retrieved 2011-07-02. 
  5. ^ Waldman, Katy (2013-10-17). "The history of the witch's hat". Slate.com. Retrieved 2014-03-26. 
  6. ^ All Things Medieval: An Encyclopedia of the Medieval World - Ruth A Johnston - Google Books. Books.google.co.il. 2011-08-31. Retrieved 2014-03-26. 
  7. ^ a b Vibbert, Marie, Headdresses of the 14th and 15th Centuries, No. 133, SCA monograph series (August 2006)
  8. ^ a b "Hat history". Hatsuk.com. Retrieved 2012-01-07. 
  9. ^ "History of Women's Hats". Vintagefashionguild.org. Retrieved 2012-01-07. 
  10. ^ Lauren Turner (2012-06-21). "New dress code a hit at Ascots' Ladies Day". Independent.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-08-29. 
  11. ^ Name * (2012-04-28). "Hats in History: The Kentucky Derby". Hats-plus.com. Retrieved 2013-08-29. 
  12. ^ a b Millinery Madness: Hat Makers With Attitude
  13. ^ See Whitbourn, F.: 'Mr Lock of St James's St Heinemann, 1971.
  14. ^ For an account of the Sharp family's hat-making business, see Knapman, D. - 'Conversation Sharp - The Biography of a London Gentleman, Richard Sharp (1759–1835), in Letters, Prose and Verse'. [Private Publication, 2004]. British Library.
  15. ^ "Brussels life". Brusselslife.be. Retrieved 2013-04-15. 
  16. ^ "Philip Treacy 'Hatforms' at IMMA Thursday". Raidió Teilifís Éireann. 5 April 2001. Retrieved 11 December 2010. 
  17. ^ Philip Treacy: King of Royal wedding hats Irish Independent, 2011-04-29
  18. ^ Snyder, Jeffrey B., Stetson Hats and the John B. Stetson Company 1865–1970, 1997 p.57 ISBN 0-7643-0211-6
  19. ^ "Neue Züricher Zeitung FOLIO". Nzzfolio.ch. 2011-02-08. Retrieved 2012-01-07. 
  20. ^ "Der Spiegel". Spiegel.de. Retrieved 2012-01-07. 
  21. ^ "Philippi Collection". Philippi-collection.blogspot.com. 2011-11-23. Retrieved 2012-01-07. 
  22. ^ "caubeen". Oxford University Press. 
  23. ^ Klinkenborg, Verlyn (2009-02-03). "Season of the chullo". International Herald Tribune. Retrieved 2011-07-02. 
  24. ^ Location Settings (2011-10-20). "Malema under fire over slur on Indians". News24. Retrieved 2013-06-16. 
  25. ^ Most current dictionaries do not record any offensive meaning ("an unskilled laborer or porter usually in or from India hired for low or subsistence wages" Merriam-Webster) or make a distinction between an offensive meaning in referring to "a person from the Indian subcontinent or of Indian descent" and an at least originally inoffensive, old-fashioned meaning, for example "dated an unskilled native labourer in India, China, and some other Asian countries" (Compact Oxford English Dictionary). However, some dictionaries indicate that the word may be considered offensive in all contexts today. For example, Longman's 1995 edition had "old-fashioned an unskilled worker who is paid very low wages, especially in parts of Asia", but the current version adds "taboo old-fashioned a very offensive word ... Do not use this word".
  26. ^ Snyder, Jeffrey B. (1997) Stetson Hats and the John B. Stetson Company 1865–1970.p5 ISBN 0-7643-0211-6
  27. ^ "Hat Care". David Morgan. Retrieved 2012-01-07. 
  28. ^ "Puggaree, the hat band, its origins (sic) diggerhistory.com". Diggerhistory.info. Retrieved 2013-08-29. 
  29. ^ "Puggaree: Definition at". Lexic.us. Retrieved 2012-01-07. 
  30. ^ "Helmet sizes". Enduroworld.com.au. 

External links[edit]