Pukaskwa National Park

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Pukaskwa National Park
IUCN category II (national park)
Map showing the location of Pukaskwa National Park
Pukaskwa National Park
Location of Pukaskwa National Park in Canada
Location Ontario, Canada
Nearest city Marathon, Ontario
Coordinates 48°14′44″N 85°53′18″W / 48.24568°N 85.88821°W / 48.24568; -85.88821Coordinates: 48°14′44″N 85°53′18″W / 48.24568°N 85.88821°W / 48.24568; -85.88821
Area 1,878 km2 (725 sq mi)
Established 1978
Governing body Parks Canada

Pukaskwa National Park is a national park located south of the town of Marathon, Ontario in the Thunder Bay District of northern Ontario, Canada. Established in 1978, Pukaskwa is known for its vistas of Lake Superior and boreal forests. The park covers an area of 1,878 square kilometres (725 sq mi), and protects part of the longest undeveloped shoreline anywhere on the Great Lakes.

The Hattie Cove Campground is located at the north end of the park and can be accessed via Highway 627, the only road access into the park. There are also a number of backcountry campsites located along the 60km Coastal Hiking Trail which follows the north shore of Lake Superior. The Coastal Hiking Trail has two suspension bridges; one across the White River at Chigaamiwinigum and one across the Willow River. The Coastal Hiking Trail is part of the long-distance Voyageur Hiking Trail. Backcountry campsites are also located along the Coastal Paddling Route, the White River, and the Pukaskwa River.

Black bears, moose, Canadian Lynx and grey wolves are found in the park. There is also a small population of Woodland caribou but their numbers declined from 30 caribou in the 1970s to about four in 2012 mainly due to wolf predation.[1][2]

Climate[edit]

The park has a humid continental climate (Dfb) under the Köppen climate classification that is strongly influenced by Lake Superior.

Climate data for Pukaskwa National Park (1981−2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 6.0
(42.8)
10.0
(50)
17.0
(62.6)
27.0
(80.6)
29.0
(84.2)
30.7
(87.3)
30.5
(86.9)
32.0
(89.6)
25.3
(77.5)
21.0
(69.8)
16.5
(61.7)
9.2
(48.6)
32.0
(89.6)
Average high °C (°F) −7.7
(18.1)
−4.1
(24.6)
0.6
(33.1)
7.2
(45)
13.5
(56.3)
17.2
(63)
19.5
(67.1)
20.4
(68.7)
15.8
(60.4)
8.8
(47.8)
1.9
(35.4)
−4.2
(24.4)
7.4
(45.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) −13.5
(7.7)
−10.1
(13.8)
−5.3
(22.5)
1.9
(35.4)
7.8
(46)
11.8
(53.2)
14.4
(57.9)
15.6
(60.1)
11.6
(52.9)
5.0
(41)
−1.8
(28.8)
−9.1
(15.6)
2.4
(36.3)
Average low °C (°F) −19.2
(−2.6)
−16.1
(3)
−11.1
(12)
−3.4
(25.9)
2.4
(36.3)
6.3
(43.3)
9.3
(48.7)
10.7
(51.3)
7.3
(45.1)
1.2
(34.2)
−5.5
(22.1)
−13.9
(7)
−2.7
(27.1)
Record low °C (°F) −40
(−40)
−39
(−38)
−35
(−31)
−21
(−6)
−7.5
(18.5)
−4.5
(23.9)
−4.5
(23.9)
−2.0
(28.4)
−7
(19)
−11.5
(11.3)
−28.5
(−19.3)
−39.5
(−39.1)
−40
(−40)
Precipitation mm (inches) 60.4
(2.378)
32.7
(1.287)
36.7
(1.445)
41.7
(1.642)
72.4
(2.85)
84.5
(3.327)
95.2
(3.748)
75.9
(2.988)
106.0
(4.173)
90.8
(3.575)
80.0
(3.15)
59.8
(2.354)
836.2
(32.921)
Rainfall mm (inches) 0.64
(0.0252)
1.8
(0.071)
10.5
(0.413)
34.3
(1.35)
71.6
(2.819)
84.5
(3.327)
95.2
(3.748)
75.8
(2.984)
105.9
(4.169)
83.5
(3.287)
47.7
(1.878)
5.1
(0.201)
616.5
(24.272)
Snowfall cm (inches) 59.8
(23.54)
30.9
(12.17)
26.3
(10.35)
7.3
(2.87)
0.88
(0.346)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.09
(0.035)
0.13
(0.051)
7.3
(2.87)
32.3
(12.72)
54.7
(21.54)
219.7
(86.5)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 14.6 10.9 9.0 8.4 13.3 13.6 15.6 14.3 17.2 17.6 15.6 13.9 164
Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm) 0.42 0.58 1.8 7.3 12.9 13.6 15.6 14.2 17.2 16.2 7.6 1.0 108.4
Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm) 14.0 9.6 6.8 2.7 0.33 0.0 0.0 0.08 0.07 2.2 9.3 13.4 58.4
Source: Environment Canada[3]


Rivers in the park include the:

The Pic River enters Lake Superior just north of the park.

The highest point in the park is the peak of Tip Top Mountain which rises to 641 meters / 2106 feet.[4]

Thousand year old rock structures known as Pukaskwa Pits which were created by the original inhabitants of this area can be found on many of the park's cobblestone beaches.

The most recent State of the Park Report for Pukaskwa National Park was published in 2008.

Cascade River Falls
Horseshoe Bay on Lake Superior

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Foster & Harris 2012, p. ii.
  2. ^ Bergerud 2007, p. 46.
  3. ^ "Pukaskwa National park". Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010. Environment Canada. Retrieved September 29, 2013. 
  4. ^ Tip Top Mountain - Peakbagger.com

References[edit]

  • Bergerud, Arthur T. (2007), [1.pdf "The need for the management of wolves — an open letter"] (PDF), Rangifer, Special Issue (17): 39–49, retrieved 23 September 2014 
  • Foster, Robert F.; Harris, Allan G. (19 July 2012), Environmental Assessment for the Marathon PGM-Cu Project at Marathon, Ontario (PDF), Supporting Information Document No. 26: Assessment of impacts on Woodland Caribou, Thunder Bay, Ontario: Stillwater Canada Inc., retrieved 23 September 2014  Pukaskwa National Parks’ population has "declined from approximately 30 caribou in the 1970s to an estimated four currently, largely due to predation by wolves and possibly black bears."