Pulcheria

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Pulcheria
Empress of the Byzantine Empire
Pulcheria Coin.JPG
Coin of Aelia Pulcheria
Reign Augusta 414 – 450,
28 July 450 – July 453
Coronation 28 July 450
Full name Aelia Pulcheria
Born 19 January 398 or 399
Birthplace Constantinople
Died 453
Predecessor Aelia Eudocia
Successor Verina
Consort Marcian
Royal house House of Theodosius
Dynasty Theodosian
Father Arcadius
Mother Aelia Eudoxia

Aelia Pulcheria (January 19, 398 or 399 – 453) was the second child of Eastern Roman Emperor Arcadius and Empress Aelia Eudoxia. Her older sister was Flaccilla, born in 397 but assumed to have died young. Her younger siblings were Arcadia, born in 400, Theodosius II, the future emperor, and Marina, both born in 401.[1] When her father died in 408, Theodosius II was made Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire, at seven years of age. On July 4, 414 a fifteen-year-old Pulcheria proclaimed herself regent over him, then thirteen years of age, and made herself Augusta and Empress of the Eastern Roman Empire. According to the historian Sozomen, in his Ecclesiastical History, Pulcheria took a vow of virginity when she became Augusta, and her sisters followed suit. Theodosius II died on July 26, 450, and Pulcheria soon married Marcian on November 25, 450. Marcian and Pulcheria were proclaimed Emperor and Empress of the Eastern Roman Empire. Three years later, in July 453, Pulcheria died and was later made a saint by the Church.[2] Pulcheria is known to have held a significant amount of power in her brother's reign as emperor. Pulcheria was also of great influence over the church and theological practices of this time, including over anti-pagan policies, church-building projects, and the debate over the Marian title Theotokos ("Birth-giver to God").

Early life[edit]

Pulcheria was born into the royal House of Theodosius, a dynasty of the later Roman empire, ruling in Constantinople. Her mother, Eudoxia, was also powerful and of great influence over the church, although not in the same way that Pulcheria would gain influence. Arcadius' reign was marked by the conflict between his wife and the Archbishop of Constantinople John Chrysostom[3] Sozomen claims that much of the rivalry was based on an ornate statue made in the honor of Eudoxia which Chrysostom condemned: "The silver statue of the empress...was placed upon a column of porphyry; and the event was celebrated by loud acclamations, dancing, games, and other manifestations of public rejoicing...John declared that these proceedings reflected dishonor on the church."[4] Also according to Sozomen, John had condemned the empress for her grandiose style of ruling over the empire in his sermons in the church, which enraged the empress and resulted in John immediately being deposed. Later in life, Pulcheria would bring back the remains of John Chrysostom and make them into relics for the church, in gratitude for his pious life.[5] Eudoxia died in 404 and the emperor Arcadius, in 408. The emperor left behind four young children, including a seven-year-old Theodosius II, who was made emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire immediately after the death of his father. Two praetorian prefects were selected as regents over him, Anthemius and Antiochus. Eventually Pulcheria would take over as regent for her brother.

The Emperor's Guardian[edit]

Once Pulcheria came of age, at fifteen, she felt, like her brother, that her family had no need for Antiochus any longer; her brother dismissed him of his duties. She then became her brother’s regent:[6] Immediately after Pulcheria took authority, the palace took on a much more monastic tone compared her mother’s palace. Sozomen describes the pious ways of Pulcheria and her sisters in his Ecclesiastical History:

"They all pursue the same mode of life; they are sedulous in their attendance in the house of prayer, and evince great charity towards strangers and the poor...and pass their days and their nights together in singing the praises of God."[7]

Rituals within the imperial palace also included chanting and reciting passages in the scripture, and fasting twice a week.[8] The sisters were known to have given up luxurious jewelry and apparel worn by most women of the imperial court of the past. Pulcheria also took on the role of providing all the training necessary for Theodosius to become a successful emperor, when he would come of age.

"Although the empire was technically to be ruled by Theodosius II when he would come of age, his older sister Pulcheria exercised such profound influence over him all his life that she must be considered the co-regent of the empire until her death in 453. In fact it can be said without exaggeration that Pulcheria gave the identity to her brother's reign."[9]

Pulcheria's training of Theodosius included, "...how an Emperor must walk, and ride his horse, alone or in procession; how he should sit upon his throne: how to wear his Imperial armor and robes; and how to speak with dignity. By no means must he yield to loud laughter..."[10] Not only did Pulcheria train her brother on the duties and customs of becoming an emperor, but she also made sure Theodosius was trained to be a pious Christian leader. Once Theodosius came of age to rule as sole emperor, according to many historians, the teachings of his sister had been ignored.

"He was by nature kind, affable, easily led...Not only was he foolishly kind; he was careless, and often he was to neglect his duty in the administration of his Empire."[11]

This lack of power that Theodosius exemplified led to Pulcheria taking on a much larger role of authority and influence in the Empire.

Vow of Virginity[edit]

At the same time Pulcheria proclaimed herself as guardian over her brother she also took a vow of virginity and her sisters did as well. Pulcheria’s reason may have been her deeply religious virtue as recorded by Sozomen:

"She devoted her virginity to God, and instructed her sisters to do likewise. To avoid cause of scandal and opportunities for intrigue, she permitted no man to enter her palace. In confirmation of her resolution she took God, the priests, and all the subjects of the Roman empire as witnesses..."[12]

In a letter from Pope Leo I, another contemporary of Pulcheria, he compliments her on her deeply religious ways and her despisement for the errors of heretics[13] But it is possible that Pulcheria may have had another motive to remain unmarried. According to Sozomen, Socrates Scholasticus, and Theodoret, Pulcheria had a deep dislike for Anthemius, the former guardian of Theodosius;[14] and the reasons may have been his distaste for her immense power within the empire and her unwillingness to allow Anthemius to gain power amongst the imperial court. A more recent historian, Kenneth Holum, states that Anthemius had tried to marry into the imperial family[15] Pulcheria had found herself in a position where she would have to give her power up to a potential husband and, to keep her power within the imperial court, she took a vow of virginity.

Augusta[edit]

In 414 the Roman senate made Pulcheria Augusta. Pulcheria exerted power in politics and, although she was a woman, the empress was treated as an equal among men of power. In the senate of Constantinople a bust was placed in her honor along with the ones to other Augusti.[16]

The Church and Judaism[edit]

Many important events occurred during her time as Augusta and her brother's reign as emperor; however, Pulcheria’s influence was mostly in the church. Pulcheria and her brother were known to have harbored anti-Jewish sentiments, and both had started to enact laws against Jewish worship in the capital. Before the reign of Theodosius II, synagogues were seen as private property and were protected by the imperial government. Theodosius enacted a law that forbade the construction of synagogues and required the destruction of those in existence as well. Pulcheria and Theodosius also ordered that a group of Jews be killed after strife amongst Christians emerged in Palestine.[17] Kenneth Holum writes "Pulcheria had long nursed a special hatred for Jews, and the Nestorian heresy, which appeared to contemporaries to be of Jewish origin, no doubt served to confirm that hatred."[18]

Pulcheria was, however, also known for her philanthropic spirit. She built many churches and buildings for the poor in and around Constantinople.[19] Pulcheria's building projects were so vast in Constantinople that a whole district was named in her honor called the Pulcherianai[20] As well as contributing to the city with new churches and districts, Pulcheria contributed significantly to the church by bringing back bishops dismissed unjustly or the remains of others, such as Flavian, as relics to the church.[21]

War with Persia[edit]

Pulcheria's time as Augusta also was marked by war and ongoing conflict with Sassanid Persia. Pulcheria called for war against Persia when Persian King Yazdegerd I executed a Christian bishop who had destroyed an Zoroastrian altar.[22] Under the influence of Pulcheria, Theodosius sent troops into battle with fanatical fervor, described by Sozomen as "ready to do anything for the sake of Christianity."[22] Pulcheria and Theodosius were victorious and, according to historians, Theodosius credited his sister's vow of virginity as the reason for victory.[23] Theodosius thus made his sister's virginity a tool of war propaganda, and because of her vow to be faithful only to God, the hand of God would help Roman troops in battle against Persia. Pulcheria's power would become even greater after the death of her brother Theodosius II.

Relationship with Aelia Eudocia[edit]

The relationship between Pulcheria and Aelia Eudocia, Theodosius II's wife, was a strained one. The two women over the years had developed a rivalry based on their different backgrounds and religious beliefs, despite the fact that Pulcheria had arranged the marriage of Eudocia to Theodosius. When he was twenty years old, Pulcheria sought out to find her brother a wife, but he was very specific about what kind of wife he wanted:

"I want you to find me a young girl, very, very comely, the most beautiful ever seen in Constantinople, of royal or patrician family. And if she isn't marvelously good-looking, I have no use for her, however worthy or royal or rich she may be. But whoever was her father, if she is a virgin and very so good to look at, I take her."[24]

Eudocia was originally named Athenais, was born in Athens, and her father was a Greek philosopher and a professor of Rhetoric. When her father died he left her with little means, only "one hundred gold coins"[24] She went to her aunt in Constantinople out of desperation and it was decided that she would come before Pulcheria to petition for her lost fortune. The Empress saw in Eudocia the wife she wanted for her brother[25] On June 7, 421, Theodosius married Athenais and her name was changed to Eudocia.[26] The rivalry between the two women was influenced by Eudocia's jealousy over Pulcheria's power in court.[27]

Together Eudocia and the chief-minister, the eunuch Chrysaphius, convinced Theodosius to rely less on the influence of his sister and more on that of his new wife. This made Pulcheria leave the palace and live in "...Hebdomon, a seaport seven miles from Constantinople."[28] The rivalry of Eudocia and Pulcheria came to a head when Eudocia left for the Holy Land and openly supported Nestorianism[29] The fact that Eudocia had openly opposed the doctrine of the Theotokos meant that she had openly opposed Pulcheria, and her religious ideals as well.

Empress[edit]

While hunting on horseback in the year 450, Theodosius II fell from his horse and injured his spine, dying two days later from the injuries.[1] Pulcheria returned to court and openly fought Crysaphius. Pulcheria reigned over the empire alone for about a month after the death of Theodosius, and it is assumed that most of her duties consisted of arranging for a public funeral for Theodosius.[30] Although Pulcheria was respected as an authoritative figure in Rome, the Roman senate would not have a woman as sole ruler of the empire. Therefore, Pulcheria was forced to marry and co-rule the empire with her new husband, despite her vow of virginity. Since she was Augusta, she went through the rituals necessary to be able to do so.[31] Pulcheria married a man of Illyrian origin, named Marcian, who was a tribune and a close associate of the Germanic general Aspar. Marcian's origins were quite civilian when compared to previous emperors, "Marcian was a man of little substance, with no ancient aristocratic or imperial blood. He was Roman, however, and thus the bond of kedeia at once communicated eligibility for basileia."[30] One condition of the marriage was that Marcian must obey and respect Pulcheria's vow of virginity and he complied with this.[2] In order for the marriage to not seem scandalous to the Roman republic, the Church proclaimed that "Christ himself sponsored the union and it therefore should not provoke shock or unjustified suspicions"[32] After the marriage, Pulcheria convinced Marcian to have Chrysaphius executed.

Most of time Marcian and Pulcheria spent as rulers was marked by religious conflict such as with Nestorianism and the Council of Chalcedon. Although the Council of Ephesus occurred during Theodosius II's reign, it was of greater influence during Pulcheria and Marcian's reign.

Church conflict[edit]

The First Council of Ephesus occurred late in Theodosius's reign, in 431, and involved two rival bishops: Nestorius, who was Archbishop of Constantinople, and Cyril, Patriarch of Alexandria.[33] The conflict between the two bishops is described by historian Averil Cameron,

"The issue was whether, and, if so, how, Christ had two natures; the Monophysites held that he had only a divine nature, while Nestorius, and 'Nestorians' after him, emphasized the human"[34]

Nestorius was an advocate of diminishing the influence of Theotokos, "the one who gives birth to the one who is God" or "Mother of God", in the Church. This came into conflict with the religious values Pulcheria represented as a virgin empress, and a rivalry between the two ensued. Underestimating Pulcheria's power, Nestorius propelled a smear campaign against her,

"Nestorius took specific action against Pulcheria. He implied that she enjoyed illicit sexual relations with at least seven lovers. He also would not accede to her demand that she be remembered in prayers as the 'bride of Christ' since she had been 'corrupted by men'. Most egregious of all, he effaced her image which he had removed from above the altar; and he refused to use her robe as an altar cover."[35]

Nestorius had greatly underestimated Pulcheria's power since she had him deposed and her ally, Eusibius, a court official, produced an anonymous document claiming that Nestorius was a heretic. Meanwhile, Cyril had already publicly condemned Nestorius and wrote to the imperial court stating that his doctrine of the Theotokos was correct. Nestorius then called for a council.

From the start, the council was heavily influenced by Cyril and Pulcheria and its decisions often went in their favor[36] With the council at a standstill, Theodosius stepped in to make the decision for them. Influenced by Pulcheria, the emperor ruled in favor of Cyril, decreeing that the title of Theotokos was orthodox. He also deposed Nestorius and banished him to a monastery in Antioch.[37]

This council would later influence Marcian and Pulcheria to call for another one in 449, also in Ephesus, to resolve the dispute over the importance of the Theotokos, the Second Council of Ephesus. This time Pope Leo I was the main advocate for Pulcheria's claims about the Theotokos, he

"...forcefully intervened, sending a long letter to Archbishop Flavian of Constantinople, in which he argued for the two natures, but questioned the legality of the recent condemnation of a certain Eutyches for denying them. At this the party of Dioscorus, Cyril's successor in Alexandria, having believed that Eutyches had renounced his heresy earlier,[38] was able to overturn the situation, whereupon Leo asked for a second council, calling that [council in] Ephesus the 'Robber Council."[39]

During this Council, Flavian was beaten and died from his injuries. He was later made a saint and proclaimed a martyr.

Two years later, the final word of the Council of Chalcedon was signed by 452 bishops. It condemned the doctrines of both Nestorius and Eutyches, developed the doctrines of Cyril and Pope Leo I into one, and it made the Theotokos orthodox law. Historian Avril Cameron explains what the Council of Chalcedon meant in greater detail, "It developed and clarified the creed of Nicaea, according to which God was Father, Son and Holy Spirit, by further proclaiming that Christ was at all times after the Incarnation fully God and fully human..."[39]

Pulcheria devoted the last years of her life to the Theotokos, and had three churches in Constantinople dedicated to the Virgin Mary. They were the Monastery of the Panagia Hodegetria, the Church of St. Mary of Blachernae, and the Chalkoprateia.[40]

Death[edit]

On what day Pulcheria died is unknown, but it was during the year 453.[41] Pulcheria's death came as a shock to the people of Constantinople:

"Mention of her death in the chronicles confirms that her passing, like that of Flacilla [her sister], struck like an earthquake in the dynastic city. Unlike Eudocia [wife of the late Theodosius], she lived out her life in Constantinople and its suburbs, forming a bond with its people which even death could not sever." [42]

Even at death Pulcheria thought of way in which to help the poor of Constantinople, for "in her will she reinforced that bond by instructing that all of her remaining wealth be distributed among the poor..."[42]

After her death Pulcheria was made a Saint by the Roman Catholic Church.[43]

Art[edit]

Pulcheria was known to have brought many holy relics to churches in Constantinople. The Trier Ivory (housed in the treasury of Trier Cathedral, Germany), has been interpreted as showing the installation of one of these relics. Historian Kenneth Holum describes the Ivory,

"On the Ivory Theodosius wears distinctive costume and inclines slightly forward, but essentially he remains only part of the cortege and thus of the ceremonial context. The direction of the wagon's movement inexorably toward the scene at the right, toward the diminutive woman clothed in the rich costume of an Augusta ... in it she deposited the holy relics."[44]

However, this interpretation is disputed,[45] and one recent view is that it shows the later eighth century Empress Irene who sponsored renovation of the church shown in the ivory.[46]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Jones, A.H.M, J.R. Martindale, and J. Morris. The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1971.
  2. ^ a b Women in World History: A biographical encyclopedia. Edited by Anne Commire and Deborah Klezmer. Waterford, Connecticut: Yorkin Publications. 1999-2002.
  3. ^ “Although his reign (Arcadius) was short, it is remembered in part for the controversial conflicts Eudoxia encountered with John Chrysostom, bishop of Constantinople from 398 to 404." - Limberis, Vasiliki. Divine Heiress: The Virgin Mary and the Creation of Christian Constantinople. London and New York: Routledge, 1994. p.37
  4. ^ Sozomen. The Ecclesiastical History of Sozomen: Comprising a History of the Church from A.D. 324 to A.D. 440. Translated by Edward Walford. London: Henry G. Bohn. 1855. p.391
  5. ^ Holum, Kenneth G. Theodosian Empresses: Women and Imperial Dominion in Late Antiquity. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press, 1982. p.184
  6. ^ “In 412 Pulcheria quarreled with Antiochus, who like Anthemius had served the dynasty faithfully for a number of years, and induced her brother to dismiss him from the duties of praepositus. She then took personal charge of the imperial family, directing its affairs with such authority that she became known in society at large as the emperor’s guardian.” - Holum, Kenneth G. Theodosian Empresses: Women and Imperial Dominion in Late Antiquity. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press, 1982. p.91
  7. ^ Sozomen. The Ecclesiastical History of Sozomen: Comprising a History of the Church from A.D. 324 to A.D. 440. Translated by Edward Walford. London: Henry G. Bohn. 1855. p.410
  8. ^ Holum, Kenneth G. Theodosian Empresses: Women and Imperial Dominion in Late Antiquity. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press, 1982. p.91
  9. ^ Limberis, Vasiliki. Divine Heiress: The Virgin Mary and the Creation of Christian Constantinople. London and New York: Routledge, 1994. p.42
  10. ^ Duckett, Eleanor. Medieval Portraits from East and West. Ann Arbor, Michigan: The University of Michigan Press, 1972. p.123
  11. ^ Duckett, Eleanor. Medieval Portraits from East and West. Ann Arbor, Michigan: The University of Michigan Press, 1972. p.125
  12. ^ Sozomen. The Ecclesiastical History of Sozomen: Comprising a History of the Church from A.D. 324 to A.D. 440. Translated by Edward Walford. London: Henry G. Bohn. 1855.
  13. ^ "In it you clearly show how much you love the Catholic faith and how much you despise the errors of heretics." - Pope St. Leo the Great. St. Leo the Great: Letters. Translated by Brother Edmund Hunt, C.S.C. New York: Fathers of the Church, Inc. 1957. p.132
  14. ^ Chestnut, Glenn F. The First Christian Histories: Eusibius, Socrates, Sozomen, Theodoret and Evagrius. Macon, Georgia: Mercer University Press, 1986 2nd Ed.
  15. ^ “Married long since and many years Pulcheria’s senior, Anthemis naturally proposed a descendent or close relative, a grandson perhaps...born a few years earlier than Pulcheria and an excellent prospect for her hand” Holum, Kenneth G. Theodosian Empresses: Women and Imperial Dominion in Late Antiquity. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press, 1982.
  16. ^ Limberis, Vasiliki. Divine Heiress: The Virgin Mary and the Creation of Christian Constantinople. London and New York: Routledge, 1994.
  17. ^ Holum, Kenneth G. Theodosian Empresses: Women and Imperial Dominion in Late Antiquity. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press, 1982. p.98
  18. ^ Holum, Kenneth G. Theodosian Empresses: Women and Imperial Dominion in Late Antiquity. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press, 1982. p. 188
  19. ^ "Sozomen writes that it would take too much time to describe all the churches Pulcheria built, as well as hospitals and inns for the poor." - Limberis, Vasiliki. Divine Heiress: The Virgin Mary and the Creation of Christian Constantinople. London and New York: Routledge, 1994. p.49
  20. ^ "Some of these establishments were extensive enough to give the names of their proprietors to entire quarters of the city such as the 'Marina quarter' in the second region and the Pulcherianai in the eleventh." - Holum, Kenneth G. Theodosian Empresses: Women and Imperial Dominion in Late Antiquity. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press, 1982. p.132
  21. ^ "...the entire Roman Church is most grateful to you for all the works of your faith, whether having assisted envoys in every way with devoted affection and for having brought back the Catholic bishops who were ejected from their churches by an unjust sentence, or for having brought back with fitting honor to the church he governed so well the remains of Flavian of holy memory, an innocent and Catholic bishop." - Pope St. Leo the Great. St. Leo the Great: Letters. Translated by Brother Edmund Hunt, C.S.C. New York: Fathers of the Church, Inc. 1957. p.145.
  22. ^ a b Holum, Kenneth G. Theodosian Empresses: Women and Imperial Dominion in Late Antiquity. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press, 1982. p.102
  23. ^ Holum, Kenneth G. Theodosian Empresses: Women and Imperial Dominion in Late Antiquity. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press, 1982. pp.110-111
  24. ^ a b Duckett, Eleanor. Medieval Portraits from East and West. Ann Arbor, Michigan: The University of Michigan Press, 1972. p.125.
  25. ^ "...Pulcheria felt that here was the bride she had long sought. Athenais was not only a girl of striking beauty and charm; she was one could see, of unusual intelligence and knowledge. Her father, she told the Empress, had given all care to her education in Athens, especially in matters literary and artistic." - Duckett, Eleanor. Medieval Portraits from East and West. Ann Arbor, Michigan: The University of Michigan Press, 1972. p.125.
  26. ^ Duckett, Eleanor. Medieval Portraits from East and West. Ann Arbor, Michigan: The University of Michigan Press, 1972. p.126
  27. ^ "She had always felt jealous of her sister-in-law, Pulcheria, who for many years had held greater influence at Court then she herself had enjoyed, as Empress, as wife." - Duckett, Eleanor. Medieval Portraits from East and West. Ann Arbor, Michigan: The University of Michigan Press, 1972. p.146
  28. ^ Duckett, Eleanor. Medieval Portraits from East and West. Ann Arbor, Michigan: The University of Michigan Press, 1972. p.146
  29. ^ "But she had been brought up in Athens in pagan ways; she had ever been devoted to the literature of her native Greece." - Duckett, Eleanor. Medieval Portraits from East and West. Ann Arbor, Michigan: The University of Michigan Press, 1972. p.164
  30. ^ a b Holum, Kenneth G. Theodosian Empresses: Women and Imperial Dominion in Late Antiquity. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press, 1982. p.208
  31. ^ Garland (1999). Byzantine empresses: women and power in Byzantium, AD 527-1204. Routledge (London). p. 3. 
  32. ^ Holum, Kenneth G. Theodosian Empresses: Women and Imperial Dominion in Late Antiquity. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press, 1982. p.209
  33. ^ Cameron, Averil. The Mediterranean World In Late Antiquity AD 395-600 London, Routledge, 1993. p.22-23
  34. ^ Cameron, Averil. The Mediterranean World In Late Antiquity AD 395-600 London, Routledge, 1993. p.23
  35. ^ Limberis, Vasiliki. Divine Heiress: The Virgin Mary and the Creation of Christian Constantinople. London and New York: Routledge, 1994. p.54
  36. ^ "The council was weighted heavily in favor of the Cyrillians, since they had 'planted' uncouth Alexandrians to heckle the Nestorians. They drove the emperor's ambassador and the Nestorian bishops out of the session, and then declared Nestorius a heretic." - Limberis, Vasiliki. Divine Heiress: The Virgin Mary and the Creation of Christian Constantinople. London and New York: Routledge, 1994. p.56
  37. ^ "Under such public pressure Theodosius succumbed to Pulcheria's demands and had Cyril's decree deposing Nestorius read in the Great Church. Nestorius was sent back to his monastery in Antioch..." - Limberis, Vasiliki. Divine Heiress: The Virgin Mary and the Creation of Christian Constantinople. London and New York: Routledge, 1994. pp.56-57.
  38. ^ The story of the Copts by Iris Habib el Masri - XVIII. The Rupture between the churches of the east and west
  39. ^ a b Cameron, Averil. The Mediterranean World In Late Antiquity AD 395-600 London, Routledge, p.23.
  40. ^ Limberis, Vasiliki. Divine Heiress: The Virgin Mary and the Creation of Christian Constantinople. London and New York: Routledge, 1994. p.57
  41. ^ Jones, A.H.M, J.R. Martindale, and J. Morris. The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1971.
  42. ^ a b Holum, Kenneth G. Theodosian Empresses: Women and Imperial Dominion in Late Antiquity. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press, 1982. p.226.
  43. ^ "...she became a saint of the church, both in West and in the East, where centuries later the faithful of Constantinople celebrated her memorial each year on September 10, bearing in mind her piety and virginity, her works of philanthropy and construction and especially her greatest triumph: 'she caused the holy synod to take place at Chalcedon'." Holum, Kenneth G. Theodosian Empresses: Women and Imperial Dominion in Late Antiquity. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press, 1982. p.227
  44. ^ Holum, Kenneth G. Theodosian Empresses: Women and Imperial Dominion in Late Antiquity. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press, 1982. p.107
  45. ^ Wortley, John (Winter 1980). "The Trier Ivory Reconsidered". Roman and Byzantine Studies 21 (4): 381–394. 
  46. ^ NIEWÖHNER, PHILIPP. "CBOMGS seminar: The Trier Ivory, the Icon of Christ on the Chalke Gate, empress Irene's triumph over Iconoclasm and the church of St Euphemia at the Hippodrome". University of Birmingham, UK. Retrieved 4 July 2014. 

References[edit]

  • Cameron, Averil. The Mediterranean World In Late Antiquity AD 395-600 London, Routledge,
  • Chestnut, Glenn F. The First Christian Histories: Eusibius, Socrates, Sozomen, Theodoret and Evagrius. Macon, Georgia: Mercer University Press, 1986 2nd Ed.
  • Duckett, Eleanor. Medieval Portraits from East and West. Ann Arbor, Michigan: The University of Michigan Press, 1972.
  • Garland, Lynda. Byzantine empresses: women and power in Byzantium, AD 527-1204. London, Routledge, 1999.
  • Holum, Kenneth G. Theodosian Empresses: Women and Imperial Dominion in Late Antiquity. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press, 1982.
  • Jones, A.H.M, J.R. Martindale, and J. Morris. The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1971.
  • Pope St. Leo the Great. St. Leo the Great: Letters. Translated by Brother Edmund Hunt, C.S.C. New York: Fathers of the Church, Inc. 1957.
  • Sozomen. The Ecclesiastical History of Sozomen: Comprising a History of the Church from A.D. 324 to A.D. 440. Translated by Edward Walford. London: Henry G. Bohn. 1855.
  • Teetgen, Ada B. The Life and Times of Empress Pulcheria: A.D. 399-A.D. 452. London: Swan Sonnenshein &Co., Lim. 1907.
  • Turpin, Joanne. Women in Church History: 20 Stories for 20 Centuries. Cincinnati, Ohio: St. Anthony Messenger Press. 1986.
  • Limberis, Vasiliki. Divine Heiress: The Virgin Mary and the Creation of Christian Constantinople. London and New York: Routledge, 1994.
  • Women in World History: a Biographical Encyclopedia. Edited by Anne Commire and Deborah Klezmer. Waterford, Connecticut: Yorkin Publications. 1999-2002.
Pulcheria
Born: April 401 Died: 28 July 450
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Theodosius II
Byzantine Empress
450–453
Succeeded by
Marcian
Royal titles
Preceded by
Aelia Eudocia
Byzantine Empress consort
450–453
Succeeded by
Verina