|Pulkovo International Airport
|Owner||Saint Petersburg City Administration|
|Operator||Northern Capital Gateway|
|Serves||Saint Petersburg, Russia|
|Elevation AMSL||79 ft / 24 m|
Pulkovo Airport (Russian: Аэропорт Пулково, Aeroport Pulkovo) (IATA: LED, ICAO: ULLI) is an international airport serving Saint Petersburg, Russia. It consists of one terminal, Terminal 1 which is located 23 km (14 mi) south of the city centre. The airport serves as a hub for Rossiya Airlines (formerly Pulkovo Aviation Enterprise), and as focus city for Nordavia. Pulkovo International Airport is responsible for serving the citizens of Saint Petersburg, as well as the Leningrad Oblast: a total of 6,120,000 people.
- 1 Description
- 2 History
- 3 Passenger Statistics
- 4 Infrastructure
- 5 Airlines and destinations
- 6 Statistics
- 7 Ground transportation
- 8 Accidents and incidents
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Pulkovo Airport was officially opened on June 24, 1932, as a state-owned domestic airport. In 2013, 12,854,366 passengers (a +15.6% increase from that of 2012) traveled through Pulkovo airport, making it the 3rd busiest airport in Russia and Post-Soviet states. Pulkovo had a passenger traffic rate of 9,874,941 (+12.6%) as of September 1, 2014. The airport holds the title of being one of the largest airports in Russia and Eastern Europe.
In January 1931, construction of an aerodrome near Saint Petersburg commenced and was completed on June 24, 1932, with the first aircraft arriving at 17:31 that day, after a two-and-a-half hour flight from Moscow carrying passengers and mail. This aerodrome was at first named Shosseynaya Airport: the name coming from the nearby Shosseynaya train station. Soon after the airport opened regular flights to Petrozavodsk, Pudozh, Arkhangelsk, and Murmansk.
In 1936, a foundation for a new terminal was laid out. Leningrad's (Saint Petersburg's official name between 1924-1991 and where the field's IATA code of "LED" was derived from) airport was also provided with new G-2s and PS-84s. In 1941, a new completely commercial passenger route between Moscow and Leningrad was opened; before it was a mixed passenger-mail route. Construction of the new terminal thrived between 1937-1941. The architects of the new 3-story terminal were Aleksandr Ivanovich Gegello and N.E. Lansere. Construction was abruptly put on hold in July 1941, 1 month after Nazi Germany's invasion of the USSR on June 22, 1941. The airport was the frontline in the Nazi Siege of Leningrad. There were no flights between 1941-1944. The nearby Pulkovo hills were occupied by the Nazis and were used by the long-range artillery for daily bombardments of Leningrad. The airport was cleared of the Nazis in January 1944, and resumed cargo and mail flights after the runways were repaired in 1945. In February 1948, after the damage was completely repaired, the airport resumed scheduled passenger flights. In 1949, there were scheduled flights to 15 major cities of the USSR, and 15 more short-range flights within the north-western Russia. In 1949 Shosseynaya Airport recorded a passenger traffic rate of 6,305, 333 tons of mail, and 708 tons of cargo.
In 1951, the construction of the new terminal was complete. In the mid-1950s the new extended runway was completed, allowing to handle larger aircraft such as Ilyushin-18 and Tupolev-104. in that same time period the exploitation of jet engine planes began in Shosseynaya Airport. On March 15, 1959, the USSR-42419 Tu-104 was the first commercial jet airplane to take of from the Shosseynaya Airport.
In the early 1960s long-distance airplanes such as the An-24 and Yak-40 began to appear in the airport. Flights to Vladivostok began to emerge in the flight lists. ICAO category 1 standards were implemented in 1965, making way for international operations. By the late 1960s, over 60 airlines had flights to and from Saint Petersburg's airport. On February 8, 1971, Shosseynaya was awarded the Order of the October Revolution. The airport was renamed to Pulkovo Airport on April 24, 1973. In May 1973, the new Pulkovo 1 terminal was opened. The famous 5-cup Pulkovo 1 was designed by Alexandr Zyk. The 5 cups on top were put intentionally to give the terminal a more spacious feeling, as well as to allow more natural sunlight to pass through. This terminal is regarded as a masterpiece of Soviet postmodern architecture. Pulkovo 1 was a domestic-only terminal. Domestic air traffic increased approximately 45% every decade between the 1970-1990s. The old pre-war building of the airport was renamed to Pulkovo 2 and the terminal was exploited for international flights only.
On April 11, 1986, the new departure and arrival zones for the international terminal were completed, doubling the passenger traffic rate capacity of Pulkovo 1.
In 1990 Pulkovo Airport reach its passenger traffic rate peak of over 10,000,000 passengers. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union the number of passengers declined. In 2005 Pulkovo Airport gained independence as it separated from the Pulkovo Aviation Enterprise. Also in 2005 Rosavia declares that Pulkovo Airport (still state-owned) is to have an open tender on an investment project of the new terminal construction.This allowed it to sell shares and begin working on investment bidding projects. In 2006 Pulkovo Airport served just over 5,000,000 passengers: only 50% of the number from 1990.
In 2007, the winner was announced. Grimshaw Architects wins the tender. In 2009 The Saint Petersburg Transportation Ministry requests that an operating company for Pulkovo Airport be created.
NCG (Northern Capital Gateway),a consortium, is set up by Russian VTB Capital Bank, international Fraport AG Company and Greek Copelouzos Group. On April 29, 2010. NCG wins the tender for a 30-year operating lease over Pulkovo Airport. On November 24, 2010, Vladimir Putin (being the PM of Russia at that time) attends the construction ceremony and on that same day construction of the new 150,000 m² Terminal 1.
Pulkovo 2 is approximately 25,000 m2 (270,000 sq ft). The terminal used to serve as the international departures and arrivals zone. It was last renovated in 2009. Today, Pulkovo 2 is used as a second-hand terminal for government officials and VIP members.
This terminal is 43,000 m2 (460,000 sq ft). It served as the main terminal for over 30 years. Pulkovo 1 was built for 6,500,000 passengers annually, but by 2008 it surpassed its maximum capacity. Today Pulkovo 1 is under a major reconstruction. This terminal is planned to be used as the domestic transit/departure zone. The zone is planned to have several duty-free shops, restaurants, and 6 jet bridges. When Pulkovo 1 is completed, Pulkovo Airport's capacity will increase to 17,000,000 passengers annually. Reconstruction of Pulkovo 1 is scheduled for completion at the end of 2015.
Construction of Terminal 1 was delayed several times and began in 2010. In November 2013, the airport was tested for errors by over 5,200 residents of Saint Petersburg who partook in the process. Several days after the testings the The new Terminal 1 opened on December 3, 2013. On February 14, 2014, all operations were consolidated into the new terminal as the old Pulkovo 1 and Pulkovo 2 terminals have been shut down. The new terminal contains several business lounges, restaurants (including chains such as Starbucks, Burger King, and McDonalds), pharmacies, and an Irish pub. Terminal 1 is 147,000 m SQ and has 400,000 m² airport dock in front of it. The airport has 88 check-in counters, 110 passport booths, 7 baggage carousels, 110 parking stands, 17 gates, and 17 escalators. The interior of the new airport was designed by Grimshaw Architects and directly correlates with the designs and style of Saint Petersburg city. The new Terminal also sought many artistic sculptures and paintings to give a sense of thriving culture to passengers. Four sculptures from Dmitry Shorin's project named I Believe in Angels decorate the departure hall.
Airlines and destinations
|Rank||City||Country||Airports||Airlines||Number of passengers|
|1||Antalya||Turkey||Antalya International Airport||Rossiya, Ural Airlines||451,046|
|2||Frankfurt||Germany||Frankfurt Airport||Lufthansa, Rossiya||307,103|
|3||Hurghada||Egypt||Hurghada International Airport||Ural Airlines||287,363|
|4||Munich||Germany||Munich Airport||Lufthansa, Rossiya||235,710|
|5||Larnaca||Cyprus||Larnaca International Airport||Rossiya, Transaero||230,291|
|6||Paris||France||Charles de Gaulle Airport||Air France, Rossiya||228,564|
|7||Sharm el-Sheikh||Egypt||Sharm el-Sheikh International Airport||Metrojet, Rossiya||222,671|
|8||Berlin||Germany||Tegel Airport, Schönefeld Airport||Air Berlin (TXL), Rossiya (SXF)||186,644|
|9||Dubai||United Arab Emirates||Dubai International Airport||Emirates, Rossiya||177,120|
|10||Prague||Czech Republic||Prague Václav Havel Airport||Czech Airlines, Rossiya||143,956|
|Asiana Cargo||Gothenburg-Landvetter, Seoul-Incheon, Vienna|
- "Marshrutka" minibuses run on several lines, some of them following the city bus routes (and using matching line numbers).
- Pulkovo Airport is served by a regular bus line (no. 39).
For private car travel, Pulkovo Airport is accessible via the nearby Pulkovo Highway (Pulkovskoe shosse) from St. Petersburg city center. There are drop offs and pick up areas at both terminals, as well as short and long stay outdoor car parking.
Accidents and incidents
- April 27, 1974, an Ilyushin Il-18V passenger aircraft of Aeroflot flying to Krasnodar crashed right after take off from Pulkovo after engine fire. All 108 passengers and 10 members of crew died.
- June 26, 1991, an Antonov An-24 cargo aircraft of the AKF Polet company heading to Voronezh crashed in the Gulf of Finland five minutes after take off from Pulkovo. All ten people on board died.
- August 22, 2006, a Tupolev Tu-154M passenger flight of Pulkovo Aviation Enterprise from Anapa to Pulkovo crashed in Ukraine. All 160 passengers and 10 members of crew died. See Pulkovo Airlines Flight 612.
For a more comprehensive list, see Aviation Safety Network Entry for LED.
- List of the busiest airports in Russia
- List of the busiest airports in the former USSR
- List of the busiest airports in Europe
- pulkovoairport.ru - Airport Indicators
- pulkovoairport.ru - About the airport
- About Us - STC Russia, Rossiya Airlines, retrieved January 2, 2009
- pulkovoairport.ru - History of Pulkovo Airport (1930s)
- "Pulkovo Airport - About - History". 2013. Retrieved October 3, 2014.
- "Pulkovo - About - History - 1930s". 2010. Retrieved October 3, 2014.
- pulkovoairport.ru - History of Pulkovo Airport (1940s)
- "Pulkovo - About - History - 40s". 2013. Retrieved October 3, 2014.
- pulkovoairport.ru - History of Pulkovo Airport (1950s)
- "Pulkovo - About - History - 1970s". 2010. Retrieved October 3, 2014.
- "Pulkovo - About - History - 1970s". 2013. Retrieved October 3, 2014.
- pulkovoairport.ru - History of Pulkovo Airport (1970s)
- pulkovoairport.ru - Information report on final moving of international flights from Pulkovo-2 to the new Terminal-1 of Pulkovo Airport
- "Pulkovo - Airport Indicators". 2013. Retrieved October 4, 2014.
- "Pulkovo - Cafe and Restaurants". 2013. Retrieved October 4, 2014.
- "Аэропорт «Пулково» нов.терминал | строится". December 13, 2006. Retrieved October 4, 2014.
- "Dmitry Shorin. I Believe in Angels". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
- "Pulkovo Airoprt art and architecture projects page". Retrieved 25 November 2014.
- L, J (5 November 2012). "Aegean Airlines Rolls Out Additional New Routes in S13". Routesonline / Routes. Retrieved 6 November 2012.
- Tyrolean Airways to merge with Austrian Airlines
- "FINNAIR ВНОСИТ ИЗМЕНЕНИЯ В МАРШРУТ МЕЖДУ ХЕЛЬСИНКИ И САНКТ-ПЕТЕРБУРГОМ". ООО «АвиаПорт». 30 November 2012. Retrieved 30 November 2012.
- "Where We Fly - Saint Petersburg". georgian-airways.com. Georgian Airways. Retrieved 6 April 2015.
- "Региональный авиаперевозчик «Комиавиатранс» запускает рейсы по маршрутам Сыктывкар - Санкт-Петербург - Сыктывкар и Санкт-Петербург – Саратов - Санкт-Петербург". Министерство развития промышленности, транспорта и связи Республики Коми. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
- "Псковавиа в феврале планирует открыть рейс Владимир - Санкт-Петербург". Interfax. ИНТЕРФАКС-ЦЕНТР. 16 December 2014. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
- "Расписание из города Чебоксары". RusLine. Retrieved 12 July 2013.
- "Из кировского аэропорта Победилово вылетел первый рейс в Петербург". ИТАР-ТАСС. 20 January 2014. Retrieved 20 January 2014.
- "Transaero Adds St. Petersburg - Shanghai Route from Jun - Oct 2015". airlineroute.net. 20 March 2015. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
- L, J (19 November 2014). "Ukraine International Airlines Adds New Routes in S15". Airline Route. Retrieved 19 November 2014.
- ""Уральские авиалинии" открывают авиасообщение между Читой и Санкт-Петербургом". avia.pro. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
- ""Уральские авиалинии" открывают новый рейс Ростов-Санкт-Петербург". Ural Airlines. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
- L, J (7 May 2015). "UTair Adds New St. Petersburg Domestic Routes from June 2015". Airline Route. Retrieved 7 May 2015.
- L, J (28 May 2014). "Uzbekistan Airways Plans New Service to Russia in S14". Airline Route. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
- "Новый маршрут авиакомпании "Ямал"". Yamal Airlines. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
- "Airport Indicators". MOST POPULAR DESTINATIONS. Northern Capital Gateway LLC. Retrieved 7 March 2014.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pulkovo Airport.|
- Official site (English) (Russian)
- Rossiya Airlines (English) (Russian)
- Current weather for ULLI at NOAA/NWS
- Accident history for LED at Aviation Safety Network