|— Metropolis —|
|National War Memorial Southern Command, the HSBC Global Technology India Headquarters, Mahatma Gandhi Road, Fergusson College and Shaniwarwada|
|Nickname(s): Queen of the Deccan, Oxford of the East, Pensioners’ paradise.|
|• Mayor||Vaishali Bankar (NCP)|
|• Municipal Commissioner||Mahesh Pathak|
|Elevation||560 m (1,840 ft)|
|• Metro rank||8th|
|Demonym||Punekar (Marathi) / Puneite (English)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Postal Index Number||411 0xx|
|Vehicle registration||MH 12(Pune), MH 14(PCMC)|
Pune (pronounced [puɳeː] ( listen)) is the ninth largest metropolis in India and the second largest in the state of Maharashtra. It was originally situated 560 metres (1,837 feet) above sea level on the Deccan plateau at the right bank of the Mutha river. Pune city is the administrative headquarter of Pune district and was once the centre of power of the Maratha Empire.
Pune is known to have existed as a town since 847 AD. It was the first capital of Shivaji. In the 18th century, Pune became the political centre of Indian subcontinent, as the seat of Peshwas, the Maratha Empire's prime ministers.
Pune is the cultural capital of Maharashtra. Since the 1950-60s, Pune has had traditional old-economy industries which continue to grow. The city is now also known for information technology and educational institutes that attract migrants and students from other places.
The name Pune is derived from Modi Puṇyanagari (पुण्यनगरी) (City of Virtue). The oldest reference to this name was found on a Rashtrakuta Dynasty copper plate dated 937 B.C.E., which refers to the town as Punya-Vishaya or Poonak-Vishaya (पुण्य - विष्य).
Early and medieval
Copper plates dated 858 AD and 868 AD show that by the 8th century an agricultural settlement known as Punnaka existed where Pune is today. The plates indicate that this region was ruled by the Rashtrakuta dynasty. The Pataleshwar rock-cut temple complex was built during this era.
Pune was part of the Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri from the 9th century to 1327. In 1595, Maloji Raje Bhosale was appointed the jagirdar of Pune by the Mughal Empire. It was ruled by the Ahmadnagar Sultanate until being annexed by the Mughals in the 17th century.
In 1626, Shahaji Raje Bhosale appointed Rango Bapuji Dhadphale as the administrator of Pune. He was one of the first major developers of the town, overseeing construction of some markets and residential areas like the Kasba Peth, Somwar Peth, Raviwar Peth and Shaniwar Peth. After the destruction of the town in raids by the Adil Shahi dynasty in 1630 and again from 1636 to 1647, Dadoji Kondadev, a military and administrative officer of Shahaji, oversaw redevelopment and construction of the area. He stabilised the revenue system of Pune and the neighbourhoods of Maval to the west of town. In addition, he developed effective methods to control disputes and enforce law and order. Construction began on the Lal Mahal palace, as Shahaji's son Shivaji was to move there with his mother Jijabai. The Lal Mahal was completed in 1640. Jijabai is said to have commissioned the building of the Kasba Ganapati temple. The Ganesh idol consecrated at this temple is regarded as the presiding deity (gramadevata) of the city.
Shivaji was crowned Chhatrapati in 1674, thus founding the Maratha Empire. He oversaw further development in Pune, including the construction of the Guruwar Peth, Somwar Peth, Ganesh Peth and Ghorpade Peth. Shivaji encouraged development of dams in Parvati and Kondhwa regions of Pune for agriculture purposes. Pune and surrounding villages later provided manpower for Shivaji's efforts to build an army during the period from 1645 to 1680. Between 1660 and 1670 the town was captured by Mughal General Shahista Khan, but was recaptured by the Marathas in 1670 after the battle of Sinhagad. During the 27-year long conflict between the Marathas and the Mughals, the town was occupied by Aurangzeb from 1703 to 1705; during this time the name of the town was changed to "Muhiyabad". Two years later, the Marathas recaptured Sinhagad fort and later Pune city from the Mughals as had been done in 1670.
In 1720, Baji Rao I was appointed Peshwa (Prime Minister) of the Maratha Empire, ruled by Chattrapati Shahu. He selected Pune as his base and started construction of Shaniwar Wada on the right bank of the Mutha river. The construction was completed in 1730, ushering in the era of Peshwa control of the city. The patronage of the Peshwas resulted in the construction of many temples and bridges in the city, including the Lakdi Pul and the temples on Parvati Hill. Bajirao Peshwa also constructed an underground aqueduct to bring water from Katraj Lake to Shaniwar Wada. The aqueduct is still operational. Pune prospered as a city during the reign of Nanasaheb Peshwa. He developed Saras Baug, Heera Baug, Parvati Hill and new commercial, trading and residential localilties. Sadashiv Peth, Narayan Peth, Rasta Peth and Nana Peth were developed in this era. The Peshwas fell into decline after their defeat in the 1761 Battle of Panipat. In 1802, Pune was captured by Yashwantrao Holkar in the Battle of Poona, directly precipitating the Second Anglo-Maratha War of 1803–1805. During this period Sardar Apajiram Sahasrebudhe was the Kotwal of city (further adopted Kotwal as surname)
The Third Anglo-Maratha War broke out between the Marathas and the British in 1817. The Peshwas were defeated at the Battle of Khadki (then spelt Kirkee) on 5 November near Poona and the city was seized by the British. It was placed under the administration of the Bombay Presidency and the British built a large military cantonment to the east of the city (now used by the Indian Army). The Pune Municipality was established in 1858. Navi Peth, Ganj Peth and Mahatma Phule Peth were developed during the British Raj.
Pune was an important centre in the social and religious reform movements of the late 19th century. Prominent social reformers and freedom fighters lived here, including Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Vitthal Ramji Shinde, Dhondo Keshav Karve and Mahatma Jyotirao Phule. Vinayak Damodar Savarkar resided in Pune when he enrolled in Fergusson College in 1902.
In late 1896, Poona was hit by bubonic plague. By the end of February 1897, the epidemic was raging with a mortality rate twice the norm and half the city's population fled. A Special Plague Committee was formed under the chairmanship of W.C. Rand, an Indian Civil Services officer. He brought troops to deal with the emergency. Although these measures were unpopular, the epidemic was under control by May. On 22 June 1897, during the Diamond Jubilee celebration of the coronation of Queen Victoria, Rand and his military escort were killed by the Chapekar brothers. A memorial to the Chapekar brothers exists at the spot on Ganeshkhind Road (University Road) between the Reserve Bank and the Agricultural College.
Poona was prominently associated with the struggle for Indian independence . In the period 1875 and 1910, the city was a major centre of agitation and social reforms led by Mahatma Jyotirao Phule, Gopal Krishna Gokhale and Bal Gangadhar Tilak, as well as feminist Tarabai Shinde. They demanded the abolition of caste prejudice, equal rights for women, harmony between the Hindu and Muslim communities, better schools for the poor and complete independence from Britain. Mohandas Gandhi was imprisoned at Yerwada Central Jail several times and placed under house arrest at the Aga Khan Palace in 1942–44, where both his wife and aide Mahadev Desai died.
After Indian independence in 1947 from Britain Poona (Pune) saw a lot of development, such as the establishment of the National Defence Academy at Khadakwasla and the National Chemical Laboratory at Pashan. Pune serves as the headquarters of the Southern Command of the Indian Army. Industrial development started in the 1950s and '60s in Hadapsar, Bhosari, Pimpri, and Parvati. Telco (now Tata Motors) started operations in 1961, which gave a huge boost to the automobile sector.
In July 1961, the Panshet and Khadakwasla dams broke and their waters flooded the city, destroying most of the older sections of town, facilitating the introduction of modern town planning concepts and the development of parts of Pune. The economy of the city witnessed a boom in the construction and manufacturing sectors. By 1966, the city had expanded in all directions.
In 1990 Pune began to attract foreign capital, particularly in the information technology and engineering industries; new businesses like floriculture and food processing started to take root in and around the city. In 1998, work on the six-lane Mumbai-Pune expressway began, the expressway being completed in 2001. IT Parks were established in Aundh, Hinjawadi and on Nagar Road. In 2008 the Commonwealth Youth Games took place in Pune, which encouraged additional development in the northwest region of the city.
On 13 February 2010, a bomb exploded at the German Bakery in the upmarket Koregaon Park neighbourhood on the east side of Pune, killing 17 and injuring 60. The explosion is now suspected to be an improvised explosive device using an ammonium nitrate fuel oil mix. The blast was a first in what was until then the relatively safe environment of Pune.
Pune is located 560 m (1,840 ft) above sea level on the western margin of the Deccan plateau. It is situated on the leeward side of the Sahyadri mountain range, which forms a barrier from the Arabian sea. It is a hilly city, with its tallest hill, Vetal Hill, rising to 800 m (2,600 ft) above sea level. Just outside the city, the Sinhagad fort is located at an altitude of 1300 m.It lies between 18° 32"North latitude and 73° 51"East longitude.
Pune lies very close to the seismically active zone around Koyna Dam, about 100 km (62 mi) south of the city, and has been rated in Zone 3 (on a scale of 2 to 5, with 5 being the most prone to earthquakes) by the India Meteorological Department. Pune has experienced some moderate-intensity and many low-intensity earthquakes in its history.
Earthquakes felt in Pune with a magnitude of more than 3.0 are listed below.
|17 May 2004||3.2||Katraj Region, Pune, Maharashtra|
|30 July 2008||4.2||Koyna Dam, Koynanagar, Maharashtra|
|14 April 2012||4.9||Satara district, Maharashtra|
The city of Pune can be divided into the following zones:
|Old City||The seventeen Peths (markets) of Pune||These were established and developed during the Maratha and Peshwa rule, and are referred to as the old city.|
|New City – Inner District||Deccan Gymkhana, Erandwane and Shivajinagar in the west; Camp, Bund Garden and Koregaon Park in the east; Swargate, Parvati Hill, Sahakarnagar, Mukund Nagar, Maharshi Nagar, Gultekdi and Salisbury Park to the south.||Bounded on the north by the Mula-Mutha river.|
|New City – Outer District||Khadki, Aundh and Ganeshkhind in the northwest; Kothrud and Paud Road in the west; Dattawadi, Sahakarnagar and Dhankawadi in the southwest; Bibwewadi and Lullanagar in the southeast; Yerwada, Wadgaon Sheri (including Kalyani Nagar, Viman Nagar and Shastri Nagar) in the northeast; Vishrantwadi in the north; Ghorpadi, Fatimanagar, Wanowrie and Hadapsar South to the east.||Several educational institutes are located in the Bibvewadi and Dhankawadi neighbourhoods.|
|Suburbs||Baner, Balewadi and Pashan in the northwest; Bavdhan and Warje in the west; Wadgaon Budrukh in the southwest; Katraj, Wanawadi, NIBM, Lullanagar, Kondhwa, Undri and Mohammedwadi in the southeast; Hadapsar, Mundhwa and Manjri in the east; Kharadi in the northeast; Dhanori and Kalas to the north.||Kharadi and Hadapsar are home to large IT parks|
|Proposed Expansion||Mahalunge, Sus, Bavdhan Budrukh, Kirkatwadi, Pisoli, Lohegaon, Kondhwe Dhavde, Kopare, Nande, Uttam Nagar, Khadakwasla, Hadapsar (Sadesatra Nali), Mundhwa, Manjri, Narhe, Shivane, Ambegaon Khurd, Undri, Dhayari, Ambegaon Budruk, Urali Devachi, Mantarwadi, Holkarwadi, Authade (Handewadi), Wadachiwadi, Shiwalewadi, Phursungi and Yeolewadi||28 new villages are to be merged in PMC limits|
|Pimpri and its surroundings||Pimpri industrial area, Pimprigaon, Chikhli, Kalewadi, Kasarwadi, Phugewadi and Pimple Saudagar||Pimpri industrial area and other residential areas are included in this zone.|
|Chinchwad and its surroundings||Chinchwadgaon, Thergaon, Tathawade||Industrial cum residential area|
|Sangvi and its surroundings||Dapodi, Wakad, Hinjawadi, Pimple Nilakh, Pimple Gurav and Sangvi||Industrial area in Hinjawadi and other area are residential area. Information Technology (IT) parks at Hinjawadi area|
|Bhosari and its surroundings||Bhosari, Moshi, Dighi, Dudulgaon and Charholi Budruk||Industrial areas are at Moshi and Dighi others are residential areas|
|Nigdi, Akurdi and its surroundings||Akurdi, Nigdi, Ravet, Talawade||Residential area|
With the influx of people from all over the country, suburbs and other residential areas are growing at very fast rates. As a result, it is clear that the city will be facing severe water, electricity and land shortages in the near future. However, this is not much of a deterrent right now as people, both blue and white collar, are flocking to Pune. The city is becoming known for its good quality of life, and emerging job opportunities.
Pune has a tropical wet and dry climate with average temperatures ranging between 20 to 28 °C (68 to 82 °F).
Pune experiences three seasons: summer, monsoon and a winter.
Typical summer months are from March to May, with maximum temperatures ranging from 30 to 38 °C (86 to 100 °F). The warmest month in Pune is April; although summer doesn't end until May, the city often receives heavy thundershowers in May (and humidity remains high). Even during the hottest months, the nights are usually cool due to Pune's high altitude. The highest temperature ever recorded was 43.3 °C (109.9 °F) on 30 April 1897.
The monsoon lasts from June to October, with moderate rainfall and temperatures ranging from 22 to 28 °C (72 to 82 °F). Most of the 722 mm (28.4 inches) of annual rainfall in the city fall between June and September, and July is the wettest month of the year. Hailstorms are also common in this region.
Winter begins in November; November in particular is referred to as the Rosy Cold (literal translation) (Marathi: गुलाबी थंडी). The daytime temperature hovers around 28 °C (82 °F) while night temperature is below 10 °C (50 °F) for most of December and January, often dropping to 5 to 6 °C (41 to 43 °F). The lowest temperature ever recorded was 1.7 °C (35 °F) on 17 January 1935.
|Climate data for Pune|
|Record high °C (°F)||33.8
|Average high °C (°F)||29.9
|Daily mean °C (°F)||20.5
|Average low °C (°F)||11.0
|Record low °C (°F)||4.8
|Precipitation mm (inches)||0
|Avg. precipitation days||0.1||0.3||0.3||1.1||3.3||10.9||17.0||16.2||10.9||5.0||2.4||0.3||67.8|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||291.4||282.8||300.7||303.0||316.2||186.0||120.9||111.6||177.0||248.0||270.0||288.3||2,895.9|
|Source: NOAA (1971–1990)|
|Source: Census of India, Imperial Gazetteer of India|
As per the 2011 Census of India estimate, the population of the Pune urban agglomeration is to peg around 5,049,968. This includes the towns of Khadki, Pimpri-Chinchwad and Dehu. Growth in the software and education sectors has led to an influx of skilled labour from across India. The population of the urban agglomeration was estimated to be around 4,485,000 in 2005. The migrating population rose from 43,900 in 2001 to 88,200 in 2005. According to the Pune Municipal Corporation, 40% of the population lived in slums in 2001. The sharp increase in censorial decade of 1991–2001 can be attributed to the absorption of 38 fringe villages into the city. The literacy rate is about 81%.
Marathi is the official and most widely spoken language, while Hindi, Gujarati and English are understood and spoken widely. Pune has a great Marathi influence as it was the bastion of the Maratha Empire. Like most of the cities, Pune is also one of the cities in India having majority of Hindu population with 70% Hindus. Central Pune has Brahmin majority. Pune also has a good Muslim and Christian population.
Hinduism, Sikhism, Islam, Buddhism and Jainism are major religions in Pune with 72.0%, 12.0%, 10.0% and 2.5% of the population following them. Christian are 2.0% And others are 1.5% 52.5% of Pune's population is in the 15–59 years age category. Around 11% of the population is under 6 years of age.
Hinduism is the dominant religion in Pune. Many Churches, Masjids, Gurudwaras, Buddhist Viharas, Jain temples and other religious buildings are found throughout the city. The most prominent communities include Marathas, Mahars, Mali, Brahmin, Marwaris, Marwari Jains, Punjabi and Sindhi people, along with the local communities. The most prominent Hindu temple in Pune is the Parvati Temple, located on Parvati hill and visible from most of the inner suburbs. The most visited temple is likely the Chaturshringi Temple, located on the slopes of a hill in the northwest of the city. During Navratri, there is a large procession to this temple and worshippers gather from around the country to pray here. The presiding god of Pune city is the Kasba Ganpati, whose temple is found in Kasba Peth in central Pune. Sarasbaug Ganpati is also a prominent landmark in Pune.
Since 1894, Pune has celebrated Ganesh Chaturthi as a ten-day long festival, in which most neighbourhoods put up a pandal (tent) with an idol of Ganesha, often amidst a religious setting, complete with decorative lights and festive music. This festival culminates with a parade of Ganesh idols from across the city carried to the local rivers to be immersed (Ganesh visarjan). The Kasba Ganapati, as the presiding deity of the city, is the first in this parade. The idea of a public celebration was initiated by Bal Gangadhar Tilak in Pune, and has since spread to many other cities, particularly Mumbai, which now has a parade every year.
Religious persons, like Dnyaneshwar and the revolutionary spiritual poet Sant Tukaram Maharaj, were born near Pune. Their link to the city is commemorated with an annual pilgrimage to Pandharpur, 300 kilometres away, consisting of a litter of both figures being carried to the main temple of the Hindu god Vithoba. The pilgrimage is timed to end on the auspicious day of Aashadhi Ekadashi
Islam is the second largest religion in Pune. Pune has a large number of Mosques, the most prominent of which are Chand Tara Masjid, Jaama Masjid and Azam Campus Masjid. Chand Tara Masjid, located in Nana Peth, is one of the biggest and most important mosques in Pune as it is the city headquarters (markaz) for the Tabligi Jamaat. The Eid-gah Maidan located near Golibar Maidan on Shankar Sheth Road witnesses a large gathering of people for Eid namaz on Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha.
There are a significant number of Christians residing in Pune. The Roman Catholic Diocese of Pune (Latin: Poonen (sis)) is located here. It is a part of the Ecclesiastical province of Mumbai established in 1854 as the Apostolic Vicariate of Poona from the Apostolic Vicariate of Bombay. On 1 September 1886 it was promoted to the Diocese of Poona.
Protestantism arrived in the 18th century when the British took over from the Maratha Empire. American missionaries were the first to start evangelising local people, building many churches and schools in Pune. Pune's Christians are also called Marathi Christians because of their use of the Marathi language. The Vineyard is a popular place of Christian worship in Dapodi, a village near Pune.
Pune is known for its Marathi-speaking Jews. The Ohel David Synagogue (popularly known as Lal Deval in Marathi or Red Temple) built by David Sassoon is renowned. David Sassoon died in the city in 1864.
The Shrutisagar Ashram, located at Phulgaon off the Nagar road, houses the Vedanta Research Centre and a unique temple of Dakshinamurthy, located near the confluence of the Bhima, Bhama and Indrayani rivers. It was established in 1989 by Swami Swaroopanand Saraswati. Here one can find detailed explanations of śruti and smriti (including the Vedas, Bhagavad Gita, Upanishads and Puranas) in Marathi and English.
Pune has been associated with several significant spiritual teachers. Osho lived and taught in Pune for much of the 1970s and 1980s. The Osho International Meditation Resort, one of the world's largest spiritual centres, is located in the Koregaon Park area. It has visitors from over a hundred countries. Pune is also the birthplace of avatar Meher Baba, although his followers usually travel to Meherabad to visit his tomb. Hazrat Babajan, identified by Meher Baba as one of the five Perfect Masters, lived the final 25 years of her life in Pune. She was an Afghan Muslim noted for her great age and outdoor existence. She established her final residence first under an 'Azadirachta indica tree near Bukhari Shah's mosque in Rasta Peth and later another A. indica tree in the then-dilapidated section of Pune called Char Bawdi where she remained the rest of her life. There is a shrine erected in her honour in Pune, around the tree under which she made her final home.
The ISKCON movement has a presence in the city at the Sri Radha Kunjbihari Mandir.
Pune is said to be the cultural capital of the state of Maharashtra. It epitomises Marathi culture, which lays emphasis on education, arts and crafts, music, and theatre. Pune has emerged as a center of modern architecture in India, with prize-winning buildings. Pune culture reflects a blend of traditions with modernity, along with hosting classical shows.
Sorghum and Pearl millet are the main ingredients of traditional Pune food. Specialties include Misal Pav, Puran Poli (a dessert bread), Pithla bhakri, Bhelpuri and Pav Bhaji. Mastani, a thick milkshake containing dried fruit, is a speciality of the city. Vada Pav, Misal Pav, Poha, Daabeli and Bhel Puri are common and famous street foods. Being a Metropolitan city, Pune also boasts a wide variety of restaurants, serving cuisines from all over the world.
As one of the largest cities in India, and as a result of its many colleges and universities, Pune is emerging as a prominent location for IT and manufacturing companies to expand. Pune has the seventh largest metropolitan economy and the sixth highest per capita income in the country.
The automotive sector is prominent in Pune. It is home to the Automotive Research Association of India, which is responsible for the homologation of all vehicles available in India. All sectors of the automotive industry are represented, from two-wheelers and autorickshaws to cars, tractors, tempos, excavators and trucks. Automotive companies like Tata Motors, Mahindra & Mahindra, Mercedes Benz, Force Motors (Firodia-Group), Kinetic Motors have set ups in Pune. Automotive companies including General Motors, Volkswagen, and Fiat have set up greenfield facilities near Pune, leading The Independent to cite Pune as India's "Motor City". Several automotive component manufacturers like Saint-Gobain Sekurit, TATA Autocomp Systems Limited, Robert Bosch GmbH, ZF Friedrichshafen AG, Visteon, and Continental Corporation are located here.
India's largest engineering conglomerate, the Kirloskar Group, was the first to bring industry to Pune by setting up Kirloskar Oil Engines Ltd. in 1945 at Kirkee in Pune. The Group was originally set up in Kirloskarwadi. Kirloskar Brothers Limited (India’s largest manufacturer and exporter of pumps and the largest infrastructure pumping project contractor in Asia), Kirloskar Oil Engines (India's largest diesel engine company), Kirloskar Pneumatics Co. Ltd. and other Kirloskar companies are based in Pune.
The Hinjawadi IT Park (officially called the Rajeev Gandhi IT Park) is a project being started by MIDC to house the IT sector in Pune. When completed, the Hinjawadi IT Park is expected to have an area of about 2,800 acres (11 km2). The estimated investment in the project is 60,000 crore (US$10 billion). To facilitate economic growth, the government made liberal incentives in its IT and ITES Policy, 2003 and leased properties on MIDC land. The IT sector employs more than 70,000 people. Software giant Microsoft intends to set up a 700 crore (US$120 million) project in Hinjewadi.
Pune Food Cluster development project is an initiative funded by the World Bank. It is being implemented with the help of SIDBI, Cluster Craft to facilitate the development of the fruit and vegetable processing industries in and around Pune.
The Meetings, Incentives, Conferencing, Exhibitions trade is expected to get a boost once the Pune International Exhibition and Convention Centre (PIECC) completes in 2017. The 97-hectare PIECC will boast a seating capacity of 20,000, with a floor area of 13,000m2. It will have seven exhibition centres, a convention centre, a golf course, a five-star hotel, a business complex, shopping malls and residences. The US$115 million project is developed by the Pimpri-Chinchwad New Town Development Authority.
The emergence of industrial Pune began in the early 1960s, with mechanical engineering industries arriving. Pune's proximity to Mumbai, good climate and availability of talent made it a destination for large firms like Tata Motors (TELCO then), Buckau Wolf (Thyssen Krupp now), KSB Pumps, Hindustan Antibiotics and several others.
Today, Pune has a diverse industrial population. It is one of India's most important automotive hubs, with some domestic and international auto giants manufacturing here, including Daimler Benz and Volkswagen. Pune also has hundreds of large and small IT companies.
Pune is the largest hub in India for German companies. According to the Indo-German Chamber of Commerce, Pune has been the single largest hub for German companies for the last 60 years. Over 225 German companies have set up their businesses here.
New and established Industry majors in Pune region
Pune is one of the premier industrial centers of India. It is home to one of the world's three largest two-wheeler manufacturers, Bajaj Auto. Other global automobile names like Telco, Mercedes Benz and Bajaj Tempo also have huge manufacturing facilities here. Apart from the auto giants, a large number of engineering, electronic and electrical industries have set up base in the large, medium and small scale sectors. The industrial township of Pimpri Chinchwad, adjacent to the main city, is dotted with over 4,000 manufacturing units. This vast and well established industrial base has imbibed the city with a 'professional' ethos and work culture Corporate Headquarters Among the large corporate headquartered in the city are : Atlas Copco, Bajaj Auto, Bajaj Allianz, Bajaj Tempo, Cummins India, Deepak Fertilizers and Petrochemicals, Kirloskar Oil Engines, Kinetic Engineering, Mercedes Benz India, SKF Bearings, Sandvik Asia, Tetrapak India, Thermax, Zensar . . . Multinationals Fiat, Whirlpool and Sharp are some of the big brick'n mortar names that have made huge investments near Pune in the recent past
Bajaj Electricals Ltd, Cummins Generator Technologies India Ltd., Cummins India Ltd, Haier Appliances India Pvt. Ltd., LG Electronics India P Ltd, Valeo Engine & Electrical System India Pvt. Ltd., Whirlpool of India Ltd, Dow Corning India Pvt. Ltd., Foseco India Ltd., Fresenius Kabi India Pvt. Ltd., are also located in Pune region
The city of Pune is managed by the Pune Municipal Corporation (PMC). The Corporation consists of 149 directly elected councillors, who are led by the Mayor of Pune, a titular position mainly acting as an ambassador and representative of the city. Actual executive power is vested in the Municipal Commissioner, an officer of the Indian Administrative Service who is appointed by the Government of Maharashtra.
Apart from the PMC, four other administrative bodies are active within the Pune Metropolitan Area:
- Pimpri-Chinchwad Municipal Corporation (PCMC), responsible for Pimpri-Chinchwad and its surroundings
- Khadki Cantonment Board (KCB), responsible for Khadki
- Pune Cantonment Board (PCB), responsible for Pune Cantonment
- Dehu Road Cantonment Board, responsible for the Dehu Road area
A plan to establish a single Pune Metropolitan Regional Development Authority (PMRDA), consisting of the combined municipal councils, corporations, and other local governments of Pune, Pimpri-Chinchwad, Lonavala, Talegaon, Bhor, Shirur, Saswad, the three cantonments and hundred villages near the city, has been considered since 1997, but has still not been put into place. This body would be the executing authority which would acquire and develop reserve land to improve the infrastruction of the Pune metropolitan area.
Poona (Pune) was the largest military camp for the British forces during the Raj and the architecture in the cantonment area is very evocative of the era. The majority of the old Cantonment land in the city is now occupied by the Indian Army for the housing of its garrisons and officers. The Southern Command, a World War II Indian Army formation, has its headquarters in Pune cantonment. The city is home to Lohegaon Aerodrome (previously RAF Station Poona), the city's airport and Indian Air Force airfield for the Sukhoi-30MKI multi-role strike fighters.
The National Defence Academy (NDA) is an integrated military training center that provides education up to the graduation level and joint training for cadets of the Army, the Navy and the Air Force. The NDA estate is spread over 8,028 acres (3,249 ha) of land in Khadakwasla near Pune and contains apart from NDA facilities, a mini sanctuary and Peacock Bay, one of the lakes that provide water to Pune city. Pune also host College of Military Engineering which is also commonly referred to as CME, trains Students in Engineering subjects in relation to military. AFMC Pune for Medical Study along with Nursing Couses for Indian army.
The city is known for its British Raj and the Garden city movement layout of the Cantonment in the early twentieth century. Notable architects who have worked in Pune include B.V.Doshi, Charles Correa, Achyut Kanvinde and Christopher Charles Benninger. Modern master pieces in Pune include the IUCAA by Correa and a number of campuses by Benninger, including his studio complex called India House. His award winning campuses include the Mahindra United World College of India, the YMCA Campsite at Mulshi, the Samundra Institute of Maritime Studies, and Suzlon One Earth.
Museums, Parks and Zoos
Prominent museums in Pune include the Raja Dinkar Kelkar Museum, Mahatma Phule Museum, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Museum and the Pune Tribal Museum. The College of Military Engineering has an archive and an equipment museum which has a rail exhibit with a metre-gauge train. A large railway museum is also coming up in Lonavala about 60 km (37 mi) away from the city on the Mumbai railway line.
Pune has public gardens, such as the Kamala Nehru Park, Sambhaji Park Shahu Udyan, Peshwe Park, Saras Baug, Empress Garden, Taljai Hills and Bund Garden. The Pune-Okayama Friendship Garden, is a replica of the Korakuen Garden in Okayama, Japan.
The Rajiv Gandhi Zoological Park is located at Katraj, close to the city. The zoo, earlier located at Peshwe Park, was merged with the reptile park at Katraj in 1999. Besides this, certain spots in Pune such as Hanuman Tekdi, Vetaal Tekdi and Taljai forest are popular haunts for nature lovers.
As the agro-pharmaceutical business has dwindled in recent decades, immigration from erstwhile tribal peoples now accounts for seventy percent of population growth and education syllabi have not adjusted in accordance with other industrialised regions. This has created what has become an exclusive environment in the government's expansion of education infrastructure, and Marathi literati have received a number of grants in areas that were previously ignored. Both experimental (प्रायोगिक रंगभूमी) and professional theatre receive extensive patronage from the Marathi community. The Tilak Smarak Mandir, Bala Gandharva Rangmandir, Bharat Natya Mandir, Yashwantrao Chavan Natyagriha and Sudarshan Rangmanch are prominent theatres in the city. Ganesh Kala Krida Rangamanch is the largest closed theatre in the city, with a seating capacity of 45,000.
The Sawai Gandharva Sangeet Mahotsav, one of the most prominent and sought-after Indian classical music festivals in India is held in Pune every year in December. It commemorates the life and achievements of Pt. Sawai Gandharva. The concept of Diwāḷī Pahāṭ originated in Pune as a music festival on the morning of the festival of Diwali.
Education and research
Pune has more than a hundred educational institutes and nine universities, students from all over the world studying at the colleges of the University of Pune. Pune has a large student population, and a large number of quality academic and research institutes.
Basic and special education
Public schools (known locally as "municipality schools") are run by the Pune Municipal Corporation, and are affiliated with the Maharashtra State Board of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education. Private schools are run by educational trusts or individuals. The four schools are older than any other schools of Pune; those are Bhave school, Nutan Marathi Vidyalay, Camp Education Society School and New English School. They are usually affiliated to either the state board or to national education boards, such as the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education, CBSE or NIOS boards.
Pune is the largest centre for Japanese learning in India. Other languages including German (taught at the Max Muller Bhavan) and French (at the Alliance Française de Poona) are popular in the city.
The College of Engineering Pune, now autonomous institute of government of Maharashtra, founded in 1854, is the third oldest engineering college in Asia. The Deccan Education Society was founded by several local citizens in 1884, including social and political activist Bal Gangadhar Tilak, and was responsible for founding Fergusson College in 1885. This society maintains and operates 32 institutes in Pune.
Symbiosis International University, which operates 33 colleges and institutions in the city, includes colleges like Symbiosis Institute of Business Management Symbiosis Centre for Management and Human Resource Development (SCMHRD) and Symbiosis Institute of International Buisiness (SIIB) which are ranked amongst the top management institutes in the country and Symbiosis Institute of Computer Studies and Research (SICSR) which is one of the few colleges in India that promotes Open source technology. Pune is also home to Symbiosis Institute of Technology of the Symbiosis family.
ILS Law College, established by the Indian Law Society, is one of the top ten law schools in India. Established medical schools such as the Armed Forces Medical College (AFMC) and Byramjee Jeejeebhoy Medical College train students from all over Maharashtra and India and are amongst the top medical colleges in India. The AFMC consistently ranks among the top five medical colleges in India.
The Lalit Kala Kendra is an undergraduate department of Music, Dance and Drama on the University of Pune campus that has been operational since 1987. This department features a combination of Gurukul and formal education systems.
Pune is home to some of India's important research institutes. Some of the major research centres are:
- National Chemical Laboratory (NCL): one of the leading chemical research establishments in India
- Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Pune (IISER, Pune)
- Inter-university Centre for Astronomy & Astrophysics (IUCCA)
- National Centre for Radio Astrophysics (NCRA)
- Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC)
- Electronics Test and Development Centre (ETDC): under the STQC directorate, it is a leading testing and certification centre.
- National Institute of Virology (NIV)
- National Research Centre for Grapes (NRCG)
- Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics
- Central Water & Power Research Station (CWPRS)
- National Centre for Cell Sciences (NCCS)
- Automotive Research Association of India (ARAI)
- Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM): scientists at IITM has made significant achievements in tropical weather
- National Informatics Centre (NIC)
- Armament Research Development Establishment (ARDE)
- High Energy Materials Research Laboratory (HEMRL)
- Centre for Materials for Electronics Technology (CMET)
- Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute (BORI)
- National AIDS Research Centre (NARI)
- Agharkar Research Institute (ARI)
Several military and armament research organisations are located in Pune (see the Military establishments section in this article).
Pune Airport is an international airport at Lohegaon, operated by the Airports Authority of India. It shares its runways with the neighbouring Indian Air Force base. In addition to domestic flights to all major Indian cities, this airport serves international direct flights to Dubai (operated by Air India Express) and to Frankfurt (operated by Lufthansa).
The Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation is responsible for the design and construction of a New Pune International Airport. The area between Chakan and Rajgurunagar, around the villages of Chandus and Shiroli, is being considered as a construction site. If constructed here, it will be at a distance of 40 km (25 mi) from central Pune.
Local trains (EMUs) connect Pune to the industrial town of Pimpri-Chinchwad and the hill station of Lonavala, while daily express trains connect Pune to Mumbai, Hyderabad, Delhi, Nagpur, Kanpur, Howrah, Jammu Tawi, Chennai, Bangalore, Goa, Varanasi, Patna, and Jamshedpur. At Pune, there is diesel locomotive shed and electric trip shed. A rapid transit system has been proposed in Pune and is scheduled to begin operations in 2013. Pune Metro Rail is being planned in consultation with Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Limited, the corporation which built and operates the Delhi Metro. It will be a combination of elevated and underground sections, with initial routes being planned between Pimpri-Swargate and Vanaz-Ramwadi.
Both public and private transport are popular in Pune. Public buses within the city and its suburbs are operated by the Pune Mahanagar Parivahan Mahamandal Limited (PMPML). The PMPML operates the Pune Bus Rapid Transit system, the first of its kind in India, in which dedicated bus lanes were supposed to allow buses to travel quickly through the city. In reality the project has turned out to be a failure receiving little to no patronage from the local citizenry. Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation runs buses from its main stations in Shivajinagar, Pune station and Swargate to all major cities and towns in Maharashtra and neighbouring states. Private companies too run buses to major cities throughout India.
Pune is well-connected to other cities by Indian highways and state highways. National Highway 4 (NH 4) connects it to Mumbai, Bangalore and Kolhapur. NH 9 to Hyderabad, and NH 50 to Nashik. State highways connect it to Ahmednagar, Aurangabad, and Alandi.
The Mumbai-Pune Expressway, India's first six-lane high-speed expressway, was built in 2002, and has reduced travel time between Pune and Mumbai to almost two hours. A ring road is being planned for the convenience of heavy traffic.
Pune is served by two intra-city highways: Old Pune-Mumbai Highway and Katraj-Dehu Road Bypass, a part of National Highway 4. The Nashik City-Pune Highway NH 50 will be part of the golden triangle (Nashik-Pune-Mumbai). One can easily move around Pune by Road by hiring cars on rent from Ezeecabs, Ali Cabs, and Hudson Cabs.
Cell phone coverage is extensive, and the main service providers are Vodafone, Airtel, BSNL Mobile, Reliance GSM, Reliance CDMA, Idea Cellular, Tata DoCoMo GSM, Tata DoCoMo CDMA, Aircel and Uninor.
Cinema, Shopping and Entertainment
Multiplexes in Pune include:
|INOX||Bund Garden Road
Amanora Town Center
|BIG Cinemas||Kalyani Nagar
|CineMAX||Inorbit, Nagar Road|
|PVR||Phoenix Market City, VimanNagar|
|Fame Cinemas||Jai Ganesh, Akurdi
Fun n Shopping Mall, Fatimanagar, Hadapsar
|City Pride Multiplex||Satara Road
R-Deccan, Deccan Gymkhana
|Mangala Multiplex||Near PMC|
|Rahul Theatre||University Road|
|Fun Time||Sinhagad Road|
|prabhat tokies |Narayan Peth |} The city also has number of single screen cinemas. Stage theatres (Act Play) where Marathi plays can be seen such as Balgandarva (Deccan Gymkhana), Tilak Smarak Mandir (Tilak Road), Yashwantrao Chavan Natyagruh (Kothrud), Ganesh Kala Krida (Swargate) are a popular intellectual pastime for Punekars.
There are also a large number of malls in the city. Malls in Pune include:
|Phoenix Market City||Viman Nagar|
|Amanora Town Centre||Hadapsar|
|Inorbit Mall||Viman Nagar|
|Kumar Pacific Mall||Swargate|
|SGS Magnum Mall||Cantonment|
|Mariplex Mall||Kalyani Nagar|
|Pulse Mall||Kalyani Nagar|
|Shoppers Stop||Shivaji Nagar|
|Pune Central||University Road, Shivaji Nagar, Bund Garden|
|Koregaon Park Plaza||Koregaon Park|
Five star hotels in Pune include:
|Hyatt Regency Pune||Nagar Pune, Pune|
|Marriott Courtyard||Bund Garden Road, Pune|
|Marriott Courtyard||Hinjewadi, Pune|
|Le Meridien Hotel||Raja Bahadur Mill Road, Pune|
|Taj Vivanta Hotel||Koregaon Park Road, Pune|
|Holiday Inn||Hinjewadi, Pune|
|Sun and Sand||Bund Garden Road, Pune|
|The Westin||Koregaon Park, Pune|
|The Pride Hotel||Shivajinagar, Pune|
|Royal Orchid Golden Suites||Kalyani Nagar, Pune|
|Radisson Hotel||Kharadi, Pune|
|J.W.Marriott Hotel and Convention Centre||Senapati Bapat Road, Pune|
Sports and recreation
Popular games and sports in Pune include athletics, cricket, basketball, badminton, field hockey, football, tennis, kabaddi, Paragliding, kho-kho, rowing and chess. The Pune International Marathon is an annual marathon conducted in Pune. The 2008 Commonwealth Youth Games were held in Pune.
Cricket is played between clubs affiliated with the Maharashtra Cricket Association, which maintains a domestic cricket team (the Maharashtra cricket team). This team, one of three based in the state of Maharashtra, competes in interstate matches and leagues, such as the Ranji Trophy. Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, is where National and One Day International matches take place. It has been named after the First Prime Minister of Independent India, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru.
An Indian Premier League cricket team based in Pune began play in 2011. The team is named as Pune Warriors India and was brought for Rs.1702 Crores or $370 million. It is the most expensive team in the Indian Premier League, and it is owned by Sahara Group. A new stadium Subrata Roy Sahara Stadium built in Gahunje on Mumbai – Pune express way, inaugurated on 1 April 2012, is the Home Ground of Pune Warriors. The Subrata Roy Sahara Stadium has a seating capacity of 55,000 and is built on the Mumbai Pune Expressway.
Blades of Glory, India’s first cricket museum, is based out of Pune. Run by Rohan Pate, a former Maharashtra Under-19 cricketer, inaugurated during IPL V by Sachin Tendulkar and located in the quaint Sahakar Nagar.
The Elite Football League of India (ELFI) – an American gridiron football competition slated for a Fall 2012 kickoff – has announced that the Pune Marathas will be a member-franchise.
The National Education Foundation organises Enduro3, a cross country adventure race in Pune. It is normally a two or three-day event with activities like cycling, trekking, river-crossing and rifle shooting. The city has been host to the 2009 FIVB Men's Junior World Championship.
The Pune Race course, located in Pune Cantonment, was built in 1830 over 118.5 acres (0.480 km2) of land. The land is controlled by the Indian Army. The racing season is from July to October every year. The Royal Western India Turf Club manages the race course. The course has two training tracks and two racing surfaces. Major racing events include The Pune Derby, RWITC Invitational, Independence Cup and the Southern Command Cup.
The beginnings of badminton can be traced to mid-19th century Pune (then known as Poona). During a party, a few guests fastened feathers onto champagne corks and used the bottles as bats. They called this game Poonai. The first rules of the game were written in Pune in 1873, by the British.
Garware Balbhavan- It is a well known playground and a recreational center located in the heart of the Pune city. It is known for its interesting and meaningful work in the field of child development since 1985. Balbhavan is a living institute that seeks to make Pune India's first child-centric city.
The Centre, is an undertaking of the Directorate General of Civil Aviation, Civil Aviation Department, Government of India. This uses two seater Sailplanes, LET L-23 Super Blanik and other LET Gliding Planes. The flying season starts from October and continues up to May or early June. Then club is closed during the monsoons. This club is open Sunday to Thursday except public holidays, Sundays is open day for joyrides, Monday to Thursday are for training.  References
Prominent sporting institutions in Pune include the Nehru Stadium, the Deccan Gymkhana, the PYC Hindu Gymkhana and the Shree Shiv Chhatrapati Sports Complex at Balewadi. The Nehru Stadium is the home ground of the Maharashtra cricket team, and has hosted many prominent cricket events, including one of the matches in the 1996 Cricket World Cup. The Deccan Gymkhana has hosted Davis Cup matches on several occasions. The facility at Balewadi hosted the National Games in 1994 as well as the 2008 Commonwealth Youth Games. The Royal Connaught Boat Club is one of several boating clubs on the Mula-Mutha river. A new cricket stadium, Pune International Cricket Centre renamed as Subroto Roy Cricket Stadium, is under construction in Gahunje on the Mumbai-Pune Expressway near Pune. This stadium will be the headquarters for the Maharashtra Cricket Association and home for the Maharashtra cricket team. It will be a state-of-the-art stadium, and will host the home matches of Sahara Pune Warriors, IPL team of Pune.
Prominent sportspersons hailing from Pune include cricketer D. B. Deodhar, Chandu Borde, father-son cricketing duo Hemant and Hrishikesh Kanitkar, tennis players Radhika Tulpule, Gaurav Natekar and Nitin Kirtane, and table-tennis player Sujay Ghorpade. Abhijit Kunte and Pravin Thipse are chess grandmasters and national champions. Dhanraj Pillay is ex-captain of the Indian national field hockey team.
Pune has a rugby team, men's and women's, registered with the IRFU as Rugby Football Sports Pune (RFS Pune). As of November 2010, RFS Pune has qualified for First Division Rugby, while placing second in the Callaghan Cup Held in Chennai in the same month. Pune offers much promise in this sport. The women's team has been the national cup holder for 2 consecutive years and thrice since the all India women's 7s 2009. Till date, the Pune Women's team has 13 and counting India international players
When the Elite Football League of India was introduced in August 2011, Pune was noted as one of eight cities to be awarded a team for the inaugural season, although the team's games will be played in Balewadi. All 56 games of EFLI's opening season will be played at the Shree Shiv Chhatrapati Sports Complex, which will be retrofitted to host the sport. Named the Pune Marathas, it will be Pune's first professional American football franchise.
Martial Arts. Japan Karate-Do Nobukawa-Ha Shito-Ryu Kai India JKNSKI (Shito-Ryu Karate-Do Academy of India) is a direct branch of Japan Karate-Do Nobukawaha Shito-Ryu Kai recognised by Japan Karate-Do Federation. In India the academy of also approved by Indian national federation of Karate. The JKNSKI is headed by Naresh Sharma who is an international martial arts title holder and advanced dan grade in the Japanese martial arts. An authentic institution in Pune to practice and train in Japanese martial arts Karate-Do.
- Mahatma Jyotiba Phule, Social reformer
- Pu La Deshpande, writer, dramatist
- Gajanan Digambar Madgulkar writer, poet
- Nilu Phule, actor
- Cyrus Poonawala, businessman
- Jayant Narlikar, astrophysicist
- P. A. Inamdar, educationalist, visionary
- Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Most prominent leader of Indian Independence
- Sharad Talwalkar, actor
- Shanta Shelke, writer
- Dhanraj Pillay, hockey player
- Chandu Borde, cricketer
- Bhimsen Joshi, Hindustani Classical vocalist and recipient of Bharat Ratna
- Prabha Atre, Musician
- Rahul Bajaj, Industrialist
- Anu Aga Industrialist
- Mahadeo Govind Ranade, Noted Lawyer and Social activitist
- Shahu Modak, Actor
- Raghunath Mashelkar, Scientist
|San Jose||United States|
Shopping and Entertainment
Shree Shiv Chattrapati Sports Complex (Football and Rugby). Also the main venue for the 2008 Commonwealth Youth Games.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Pune|
- Pune District Pune District Portal
- Government of India website for Pune City and District
- Technnovation Labs, Training in Technology
- CMS Website Development Company Pune
- Pune travel guide from Wikivoyage
- Pune Real Estate Portal