From top: Fergusson College, Mahatma Gandhi Road (left), Shaniwarwada (right), the HSBC Global Technology India Headquarters, and the National War Memorial Southern Command
|Nickname(s): Queen of the Deccan, Oxford of the East, Pensioners' paradise.|
|• Mayor||Chanchala Kodre|
|• Municipal Commissioner||Mahesh Pathak|
|• Member of Parliament||Anil Shirole (Lok Sabha)|
|• Metropolis||710 km2 (270 sq mi)|
|Elevation||560 m (1,840 ft)|
|• Metro rank||7th|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Postal Index Number||411 0xx|
|Vehicle registration||MH 12(Pune), MH 14(PCMC),(MH 53'Pune South'and MH 54 'Pune North')Upcoming.|
Pune (Marathi: पुणे ) (formerly known as Poona in British era, Punyanagari in old time English pronunciation: //; Marathi: [puɳeː] ( )) is the seventh largest metropolis in India and the second largest in the state of Maharashtra.
It is situated 560 metres (1,837 feet) above sea level on the Deccan plateau at the right bank of the Mutha river. Pune city is the administrative headquarters of Pune district and was once the center of power of the Maratha Empire.
Pune is known to have existed as a town since 847 AD. It was the first capital of the Maratha Empire under Chhatrapati Shivaji Raje Bhosale. In the 18th century, Pune became the political centre of Indian subcontinent, as the seat of Peshwas who were the prime ministers of the Maratha Empire.
Pune is sometimes considered the cultural capital of Maharashtra. Since the 1950-60s, Pune has had traditional old-economy industries which continue to grow. The city is now also known for Manufacturing, Automobile, Government & Private sector Research Institutes, Information technology (IT) as well as Educational, Management and Training institutes that attract migrants, students and professionals not only from India but also from South East Asia, Middle East and African countries.
- 1 Toponomy
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Climate
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Religion
- 7 Culture
- 8 Cuisine
- 9 Major tourist attractions
- 10 Economy
- 11 Industry
- 12 New and established industry majors in Pune region
- 13 Administration
- 14 Architecture
- 15 Education and research
- 16 Transport
- 17 Sports and recreation
- 18 Notable people
- 19 Sister Cities
- 20 See also
- 21 References
- 22 External links
The name Pune is derived from Modi Puṇyanagari (पुण्यनगरी) (City of Virtue). The oldest reference to this name was found on a Rashtrakuta Dynasty copper plate dated 937 C.E., which refers to the town as Punya-Vishaya or Poonak-Vishaya (पुण्य – विष्य).
By the 13th century, it had come to be known as Punawadi (पुनवडी). Till the 1960s the official name of the city was Poona which then changed to Pune.
Early and medieval
Copper plates dated 858 AD and 868 AD show that by the 8th century an agricultural settlement known as Punnaka existed where Pune is today. The plates indicate that this region was ruled by the Rashtrakuta dynasty. The Pataleshwar rock-cut temple complex was built during this era.
Pune was part of the Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri from the 9th century to 1327. In 1595, Maloji Raje Bhosale was appointed the jagirdar of Pune by the Mughal Empire. It was ruled by the Ahmadnagar Sultanate until being annexed by the Mughals in the 17th century.
In 1626, Shahaji Raje Bhosale (father of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj) appointed Rango Bapuji Dhadphale as the administrator of Pune. He was one of the first and the main developer of the town, overseeing many construction of some markets and residential areas like the Kasba Peth, Somwar Peth, Raviwar Peth and Shaniwar Peth. After the destruction of the town in raids by the Adil Shahi dynasty in 1630 and again in 1636 to 1647, Dadu Kondadev Kulkarni, an administrative servant of Shahaji, oversaw redevelopment and construction of the area. He stabilized the revenue and administration system of Pune and the neighboring towns of Maval . In addition, he developed effective methods to manage disputes and to enforce law and order. Construction began in 1631 on the Lal Mahal. The Lal Mahal was completed in 1640. Jijabai is said to have commissioned the building of the Kasba Ganapati temple. The Ganesha idol consecrated at this temple was and is regarded as the presiding deity (gramadevata) of the city.
Shivaji was crowned Chhatrapati in 1674 thus founding the Maratha Empire. He oversaw further development in Pune, including the construction of the Guruwar Peth, Somwar Peth, Ganesh Peth and Ghorpade Peth. Shivaji encouraged development of dams in Parvati and Kondhwa regions of Pune for agriculture purposes. Pune and surrounding villages later provided manpower for Shivaji's efforts to build an army during the period from 1645 to 1680. Between 1660 and 1670 the town was captured by Mughal General Shahista Khan, but was recaptured by the Marathas in 1670 after the battle of Sinhagad. During the 27-year long conflict between the Marathas and the Mughals, the town was occupied by Aurangzeb from 1703 to 1705; during this time the name of the town was changed to "Muhiyabad". Two years later, the Marathas recaptured Sinhagad fort and later Pune city from the Mughals as had been done in 1670.
In 1720, Baji Rao I was appointed Peshwa (Prime Minister) of the Maratha Empire, ruled by Chhatrapati Shahu of Satara. He selected Pune as his base and started construction of Shaniwar Wada on the right bank of the Mutha river. The construction was completed in 1730, ushering in the era of Peshwa control of the city. The patronage of the Maratha Peshwas resulted in the construction of many temples and bridges in the city, including the Lakdi Pul and the temples on Parvati Hill. Bajirao Peshwa also constructed an underground aqueduct to bring water from Katraj Lake to Shaniwar Wada. The aqueduct is still operational. Pune prospered as a city during the reign of Nanasaheb Peshwa. He developed Saras Baug, Heera Baug, Parvati Hill and new commercial, trading and residential localilties. Sadashiv Peth, Narayan Peth, Rasta Peth and Nana Peth were developed in this era. The Peshwas fell into decline after their defeat in the 1761 Battle of Panipat. In 1802, Pune was captured by Yashwantrao Holkar in the Battle of Pune, directly precipitating the Second Anglo-Maratha War of 1803–1805. During this period Sardar Apajiram Sahasrebudhe was the Kotwal of city (further adopted Kotwal as surname)
The Third Anglo-Maratha War broke out between the Marathas and the British in 1817. The Peshwas were defeated at the Battle of Khadki (then spelt Kirkee) on 5 November near Pune and the city was seized by the British. It was placed under the administration of the Bombay Presidency and the British built a large military cantonment to the east of the city (now used by the Indian Army). The Pune Municipality was established in 1858. Navi Peth, Ganj Peth and Mahatma Phule Peth were developed during the British Raj.
Pune was an important centre in the social and religious reform movements of the late 19th century. Prominent social reformers and freedom fighters lived here, including Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Vitthal Ramji Shinde, Dhondo Keshav Karve and Mahatma Jyotirao Phule and Dr. Raghunath Karve. Vinayak Damodar Savarkar resided in Pune when he enrolled in Fergusson College in 1902.
In late 1896, Pune was hit by bubonic plague. By the end of February 1897, the epidemic was raging with a mortality rate twice the norm and half the city's population fled. A Special Plague Committee was formed under the chairmanship of W.C. Rand, an Indian Civil Services officer. He brought troops to deal with the emergency. Although these measures were unpopular, the epidemic was under control by May. On 22 June 1897, during the Diamond Jubilee celebration of the coronation of Queen Victoria, Rand and his military escort were killed by the Chapekar brothers. A memorial to the Chapekar brothers exists at the spot on Ganeshkhind Road (University Road) between the Reserve Bank and the Agricultural College.
Pune was prominently associated with the struggle for Indian independence. In the period 1875 and 1910, the city was a major centre of agitation and social reforms led by Mahatma Jyotirao Phule, Gopal Krishna Gokhale and Bal Gangadhar Tilak, as well as feminist Tarabai Shinde. They demanded the abolition of caste prejudice, equal rights for women, harmony between the Hindu and Muslim communities, better schools for the poor and complete independence from Britain. Mohandas Gandhi was imprisoned at Yerwada Central Jail several times and placed under house arrest at the Aga Khan Palace in 1942–44, where both his wife and aide Mahadev Desai died.
After Indian independence in 1947 from Britain Pune saw a lot of development, such as the establishment of the National Defence Academy at Khadakwasla and the National Chemical Laboratory at Pashan. Pune serves as the headquarters of the Southern Command of the Indian Army. Industrial development started in the 1950s and '60s in Hadapsar, Bhosari, Pimpri, and Parvati. Telco (now Tata Motors) started operations in 1961, which gave a huge boost to the automobile sector.
In July 1961, the Panshet and Khadakwasla dams broke and their waters flooded the city, destroying most of the older sections of town, facilitating the introduction of modern town planning concepts and the development of parts of Pune. The economy of the city witnessed a boom in the construction and manufacturing sectors. By 1966, the city had expanded in all directions.
In 1990 Pune began to attract foreign capital, particularly in the information technology and engineering industries; new businesses like floriculture and food processing, Wineries started to take root in and around the city. In 1998, work on the six-lane Mumbai-Pune expressway began, the expressway being completed in 2001. IT Parks were established in Aundh, Hinjawadi and on Nagar Road. In 2008 the Commonwealth Youth Games took place in Pune, which encouraged additional development in the northwest region of the city.
On 13 February 2010, a bomb exploded at the German Bakery in the upmarket Koregaon Park neighbourhood on the east side of Pune, killing 17 and injuring 60. The explosion is now suspected to be an improvised explosive device using an ammonium nitrate fuel oil mix. The blast was a first in what was until then the relatively safe environment of Pune. During June first week of 2013, heavy rainfall caused casualties, landslide near Katraj Ghat very near to city limit believed to be "Modern South Gate" of the city. This unfortunate incident highlighted need of preservation of hills and prevention of encroachment on natural water resources .
Pune is located 560 m (1,840 ft) above sea level on the western margin of the Deccan plateau. It is situated on the leeward side of the Sahyadri mountain range, which forms a barrier from the Arabian sea. It is a hilly city, with its tallest hill, Vetal Hill, rising to 800 m (2,600 ft) above sea level. Just outside the city, the Sinhagad fort is located at an altitude of 1300 m. It lies between 18° 32"North latitude and 73° 51"East longitude.
Pune lies very close to the seismically active zone around Koyna Dam, about 100 km (62 mi) south of the city, and has been rated in Zone 3 (on a scale of 2 to 5, with 5 being the most prone to earthquakes) by the India Meteorological Department. Pune has experienced some moderate-intensity and many low-intensity earthquakes in its history.
Earthquakes felt in Pune with a magnitude of more than 3.0 are listed below.
|17 May 2004||3.2||Katraj Region, Pune, Maharashtra|
|30 July 2008||4.2||Koyna Dam, Koynanagar, Maharashtra|
|14 April 2012||4.9||Satara district, Maharashtra|
The city of Pune can be divided into the following zones:
|Old City||The seventeen Peths (markets) of Pune||These were established and developed during the Maratha and Peshwa rule, and are referred to as the old city.|
|New City – Inner District||Deccan Gymkhana, Erandwane and Shivajinagar in the west; Camp, Bund Garden and Koregaon Park in the east; Swargate, Parvati Hill, Sahakarnagar, Mukund Nagar, Maharshi Nagar, Gultekdi and Salisbury Park to the south.||Bounded on the north by the Mula-Mutha river.|
|New City – Outer District||Khadki, Aundh and Ganeshkhind in the northwest; Kothrud and Paud Road in the west; Dattawadi, Anandnagar, Sahakarnagar and Dhankawadi in the southwest; Bibwewadi and Lullanagar in the southeast; Yerwada, Chandan Nagar, Wadgaon Sheri(including Kalyani Nagar, Viman Nagar and Shastri Nagar), Kharadi in the northeast; Vishrantwadi in the north; Ghorpadi, Fatimanagar, Wanowrie and Hadapsar South to the east.||Several educational institutes are located in the Kothrud, Nagar Road, Bund Garden Road and Dhankawadi neighbourhoods|
|Suburbs||Baner, Balewadi and Pashan in the northwest; Bavdhan and Warje in the west; Wadgaon Budrukh in the southwest; Katraj, Wanawadi, NIBM, Lullanagar, Kondhwa, Undri and Mohammedwadi in the southeast; Wagholi, Mundhwa and Manjri in the east; Dhanori and Kalas to the north..||Kharadi and Hadapsar are home to large IT parks.|
|Proposed Expansion||Mahalunge, Sus, Bavdhan Budrukh, Kirkatwadi, Pisoli, Lohegaon, Kondhwe Dhavde, Kopare, Nande, Uttam Nagar, Khadakwasla, Sadesatra Nali, Manjri, Narhe, Shivane, Ambegaon Khurd, Undri, Dhayari, Ambegaon Budruk, Urali Devachi, Mantarwadi, Holkarwadi, Authade (Handewadi), Wadachiwadi, Shiwalewadi, Phursungi and Yeolewadi||28 new villages are to be merged in PMC limits|
|Pimpri and its surroundings||Pimpri industrial area, Pimprigaon, Chikhli, Kalewadi, Kasarwadi, Phugewadi and Pimple Saudagar||Pimpri industrial area and other residential areas are included in this zone. Pimple Saudagar has become new hub of residential area within the limits of Pimpri-Chinchwad because its proximity to Hinjewadi IT Park|
|Chinchwad and its surroundings||Chinchwadgaon, Thergaon, Tathawade||Industrial cum residential area|
|Dapodi and its surroundings||Old Sangvi, Wakad, Hinjawadi, Pimple Nilakh, Pimple Gurav and New Sangvi||Industrial area in Hinjawadi and other area are residential area. Information Technology (IT) parks at Hinjawadi area|
|Bhosari and its surroundings||Bhosari, Moshi, Dighi, Dudulgaon and Charholi Budruk||Industrial areas are at Moshi and Dighi others are residential areas|
|Nigdi, Akurdi and its surroundings||Akurdi, Nigdi, Ravet, Talawade||Residential area. Information Technology (IT) parks at Talawade area|
Pune experiences three seasons: summer, monsoon and a winter.
Typical summer months are from March to May, with maximum temperatures ranging from 30 to 38 °C (86 to 100 °F). The warmest month in Pune is April; although summer doesn't end until May, the city often receives heavy thundershowers in May (and humidity remains high). Even during the hottest months, the nights are usually cool due to Pune's high altitude. The highest temperature ever recorded was 42.3 °C (108.1 °F) on 30 April 1897.
The monsoon lasts from June to October, with moderate rainfall and temperatures ranging from 22 to 28 °C (72 to 82 °F). Most of the 722 mm (28.43 in) of annual rainfall in the city fall between June and September, and July is the wettest month of the year. Hailstorms are also common in this region.
Winter begins in November; November in particular is referred to as the Rosy Cold (literal translation) (Marathi: गुलाबी थंडी). The daytime temperature hovers around 28 °C (82 °F) while night temperature is below 10 °C (50 °F) for most of December and January, often dropping to 5 to 6 °C (41 to 43 °F). The lowest temperature ever recorded was 1.7 °C (35 °F) on 17 January 1935.
|Climate data for Pune|
|Record high °C (°F)||35.3
|Average high °C (°F)||30.3
|Daily mean °C (°F)||20.5
|Average low °C (°F)||11.4
|Record low °C (°F)||1.7
|Precipitation mm (inches)||0
|Avg. precipitation days||0.0||0.1||0.6||1.1||2.8||7.5||12.8||10.6||7.4||4.6||2.0||0.4||49.9|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||291.4||282.8||300.7||303.0||316.2||186.0||120.9||111.6||177.0||248.0||270.0||288.3||2,895.9|
|Source #1: Temperature and Precipitation: IMD (1951-1980) |
|Source #2: Sun hours and Humidity: NOAA (1971–1990)|
|Source: Census of India, Imperial Gazetteer of India|
As per the 2011 Census of India estimate, the population of the Pune urban agglomeration is 6,226,959. The population of Pune on May 19, 2014 is approximately 8,242,142. (Extrapolated from a population of 3,337,481 on July 31, 2009 and a population of 6,115,431 on September 30, 2012.) According to recent estimates, Growth of Population in Pune is 12% every year. This includes the towns of Khadki, Pimpri-Chinchwad and Dehu. Growth in the software and education sectors has led to an influx of skilled labour from across India. The population of the urban agglomeration was estimated to be around 4,485,000 in 2005. The migrating population rose from 43,900 in 2001 to 88,200 in 2005. According to the Pune Municipal Corporation, 40% of the population lived in slums in 2001. The sharp increase in censorial decade of 1991–2001 can be attributed to the absorption of 38 fringe villages into the city. Average literacy rate of Pune in 2011 were 86.15 compared to 80.45 of 2001.
Marathi is the official and most widely spoken language, while Hindi and English are understood and spoken. Pune has a great Marathi influence as it was the bastion of the Maratha Empire. Like most of the cities, Pune is also one of the cities in India having majority of Hindu population with 70% Hindus. Central Pune has Brahmin majority. Pune also has a good Muslim and Christian population. The city has proportionately large no. of students and young professional populations than Metros or any other city in India.
Hinduism, Islam, Buddhism and Jainism Zoroastrianism are major religions in Pune with 72%, 12%, 10%, 2.5% and 0.2% of the population following them. About 2% of the population follows Christianity. 52.3% of Pune's population is in the 15–59 years age category. Around 11% of the population is under 6 years of age.
Hinduism is the dominant religion in Pune. Many Churches, Masjids, Gurudwaras, Buddhist Viharas, Jain temples and other religious buildings are found throughout the city. The most prominent communities include Marathas, Mahars, Mali, Brahmin, Marwaris, Marwari Jains, Punjabi and Sindhi people, along with the local communities. The most prominent Hindu temple in Pune is the Parvati Temple, located on Parvati hill and visible from most of the inner suburbs. The most visited temple is likely the Chaturshringi Temple, located on the slopes of a hill in the northwest of the city. During Navratri, there is a large procession to this temple and worshippers gather from around the country to pray here. The presiding god of Pune city is the Kasba Ganpati, whose temple is found in Kasba Peth in central Pune. Sarasbaug Ganpati is also a prominent landmark in Pune.
Since 1894, Pune has celebrated Ganesh Chaturthi as a ten-day long festival, in which most neighbourhoods put up a pandal (tent) with an idol of Ganesha, often amidst a religious setting, complete with decorative lights and festive music. This festival culminates with a parade of Ganesh idols from across the city carried to the local rivers to be immersed (Ganesh visarjan). The Kasba Ganapati, as the presiding deity of the city, is the first in this parade. The idea of a public celebration was initiated by Bal Gangadhar Tilak in Pune, and has since spread to many other cities, particularly Mumbai, which now has a parade every year.
Religious persons, like Dnyaneshwar and the revolutionary spiritual poet Sant Tukaram Maharaj, were born near Pune. Their link to the city is commemorated with an annual pilgrimage to Pandharpur, 300 kilometres away, consisting of a litter of both figures being carried to the main temple of the Hindu god Vithoba. The pilgrimage is timed to end on the auspicious day of Aashadhi Ekadashi
Islam is the second largest religion in Pune. Pune has a large number of Mosques, the most prominent of which are Chand Tara Masjid, Jaama Masjid and Azam Campus Masjid. Chand Tara Masjid, located in Nana Peth, is one of the biggest and most important mosques in Pune as it is the city headquarters (markaz) for the Tabligi Jamaat. The Eid-gah Maidan located near Golibar Maidan on Shankar Sheth Road witnesses a large gathering of people for Eid namaz on Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha.
There are a significant number of Christians residing in Pune. The Roman Catholic Diocese of Pune (Latin: Poonen (sis)) is located here. It is a part of the Ecclesiastical province of Mumbai established in 1854 as the Apostolic Vicariate of Pune from the Apostolic Vicariate of Bombay. On 1 September 1886 it was promoted to the Diocese of Pune.
Protestantism arrived in the 18th century when the British took over from the Maratha Empire. American missionaries were the first to start evangelising local people, building many churches and schools in Pune. Pune's Christians are also called Marathi Christians because of their use of the Marathi language. The Vineyard Workers' Church is a popular place of Christian worship in Dapodi, a village near Pune.
Pune is known for its Marathi-speaking Jews. The Ohel David Synagogue (popularly known as Lal Deval in Marathi or Red Temple) built by David Sassoon is renowned. David Sassoon died in the city in 1864.
The Shrutisagar Ashram, located at Phulgaon off the Nagar road, houses the Vedanta Research Centre and a unique temple of Dakshinamurthy, located near the confluence of the Bhima, Bhama and Indrayani rivers. It was established in 1989 by Swami Swaroopanand Saraswati. Here one can find detailed explanations of śruti and smriti (including the Vedas, Bhagavad Gita, Upanishads and Puranas) in Marathi and English.
Pune has been associated with several significant spiritual teachers. Osho lived and taught in Pune for much of the 1970s and 1980s. The Osho International Meditation Resort, one of the world's largest spiritual centres, is located in the Koregaon Park area. It has visitors from over a hundred countries. Pune is also the birthplace of Meher Baba, although his followers usually travel to Meherabad to visit his tomb. Hazrat Babajan, identified by Meher Baba as one of the five Perfect Masters, lived the final 25 years of her life in Pune. She was an Afghan Muslim noted for her great age and outdoor existence. She established her final residence first under an 'Azadirachta indica tree near Bukhari Shah's mosque in Rasta Peth and later another A. indica tree in the then-dilapidated section of Pune called Char Bawdi where she remained the rest of her life. There is a shrine erected in her honour in Pune, around the tree under which she made her final home.
The ISKCON movement has a presence in the city at the Sri Radha Kunjbihari Mandir.
Though Punjabi population is less in Pune but still significant numbers are living in Pune. There are places of worship (called Gurudwaras) for Sikhs at Camp, Kharki, Aundh, Pimpri, Akrudi, Budhwar Peth are few to mention. Camp Gurudwara being one of the main, almost 300+ people visits every day. It is named as "Guru Nanak Darbar" and some people also call it as “Hollywood Gurudwara". This complex includes charitable hospital, community kitchen for Langar and Sarai for refugees. 
Pune is said to be the cultural capital of the state of Maharashtra. It epitomises Marathi culture, which lays emphasis on education, arts and crafts, music, and theatre. Pune has emerged as a center of modern architecture in India, with prize-winning buildings. Pune culture reflects a blend of traditions with modernity, along with hosting classical shows.
Sorghum and Pearl millet are the main ingredients of traditional Pune food. Specialties include Misal Pav, Puran Poli (a dessert bread), Pithla bhakri, Bhelpuri and Pav Bhaji. Mastani, a thick milkshake containing dried fruit, is a speciality of the city. Vada Pav, Misal Pav, Poha, Daabeli and Bhel Puri are common and famous street foods. Being a Metropolitan city, Pune also boasts a wide variety of restaurants, serving cuisines from all over the world.
Major tourist attractions
Shaniwar Wada: Shaniwar Wada was the palace of the great rulers Peshwa Dynasty in Pune. The structure was built by the Peshwa Baji Rao in 1730. The Palace was destroyed in a big fire in 1827; the mammoth structure of the walls survived the fire. Shaniwar Wada stands testimony to the Maratha culture and its architectural design shows influences of Mughal style and features of Maratha artistic styles too. The 21 feet tall massive door of the palace known as Delhi Darwaza is one of the remains of the grand old Palace.
Dagadusheth Halwai Ganapati Temple: The temple was founded in 1893 by Dagadusheth Halwai, a sweetmart seller who became a wealthy businessman. Halwai had lost his son the previous year, and at the request of his guru created murtis (image of a deity) of Ganesha and Dattatreya. He later established the Halwai Ganapati Trust. Bal Gangadhar Tilak, during the British Raj, gave a public form to the Ganesh festival celebrations as a way of getting around an order that barred public meetings.
Raja Dinkar Kelkar Museum: Raja Dinkar Kelkar Museum is located at the busy Bajirao Road in the heart of the Pune city. This museum displays a variety of artefacts which showcases the vastness and diversity of culture of the country and people. The Museum houses many items collected by Dr. D. G. Kelkar. The spectacular museum offers unique exhibits like the foot scrubber in the form an elephant-shape, images of Lord Ganesha, and a brass scorpion having a secret lock system. 'Mastani Mahal' which was reconstructed in the museum is a major attraction here. It also exhibits 20th century pottery, paintings of 17th century and carved doors of temples and palaces. It is a museum which is worth a visit.
Saras Baug: Saras Baug constructed by Nanasaheb Peshwa is located against the scenic background of Parvati Hills. The imposing garden is a popular relaxation spot and is exquisite with elegant fountains and lush green lawns. The garden houses a renowned temple constructed in 1774 by Madhav Rao Peshwa. The temple is dedicated to Lord Ganesha and there is a Ganesh Murthi Museum, enclosing large number of Ganesh statues. Saras Garden has been used by citizens of Pune as a walking and jogging track and it also serves as a beautiful hangout for the populace during the weekends and evenings.
Parvati Hill: Parvati hill is a picturesque spot perched atop Pune city. Parvati Hill Temple, believed to be built during the 17th century, is an important Hindu religious destination here. It enshrines the idols of Goddess Parvati, Lord Ganesha, Lord Vishnu, Devateshwar and Lord Karthikeya. This temple was solely used for the prayers by the Peshwa rulers in bygone era & was only later opened to the public. Steps with artistic stone work of the Maratha's lead to this hill temple. The Parvati Hill is an ideal location for trekkers. Nearby attractions include Parvati Museum enclosing old manuscripts, rare coins, weapons, the Sati Monument and Vetal Chabutra.
Osho Ashram: Ashram of Bhagwan Rajneesh (Osho Ashram), in a 32 acre beautiful campus, is in Koregaon Park area of Pune. The ashram is a prime attraction for tourists who are followers of Bhagwan Rajneesh ideologies & preaching. It is a resort for Meditation and Yoga.
Vishrambaug Wada: Vishrambaag Wada is a fine mansion situated at central Pune's Thorale Bajirao Road, was the luxurious residence of Peshwa Bajirao II, the last Peshwa of Maratha confederacy, in early nineteenth century. The 20,000 sq. ft. wada presently houses a post office on its ground floor, a few other offices of the municipal corporation and a small museum of Maratha artefacts put together by noted Maratha historian, Babasaheb Purandare. This structure is famous for its fine entrance and the balcony with carved woodwork.
Bund Garden, Pune: Bund garden in Pune is a place filled with natures beauty in abundance & scenically located on the banks of the rivers of Mula and Mutha. The Bund Garden was constructed by Sir Janshedji with an aim to provide water to the poor for farming. Bund Garden, also known as Mahatma Gandhi Udyan is an ideal place for visitors looking for some calm & peace away from busy city life.
Science Park at Chinchwad (in PCMC area) - A first of its kind science park (in India) that includes various educational galleries providing information about all the topics related to science that provide great learning experience for all age groups and especially it will help students to know various basic concepts in science and workings of various scientific gadgets in daily life through simple language and demonstrations. It is located at Chinchwad on Old Pune–Mumbai Highway stretch, open from 10 am to 5.30 pm daily and will be closed on Mondays.
Shirgaon Sai Temple - is popularly known as Prati-Shirdi among Sai devotees. There are lot of similarities in Shirgaon and Shirdi. The name itself resembles to Shirdi to great extent. The temple layout, Gabhara, Samadhi, Sai moorti makes one feel as if he is in Shirdi. Dwarkamai at Shirgaon holds Sai Dhuni which is enlightened 24 hours, 7 days a week. It is situated off old Old Pune–Mumbai Highway and is around 30 km (19 mi) from Pune railway station.
As one of the largest cities in India, and as a result of its many colleges and universities, Pune is emerging as a prominent location for IT and manufacturing companies to expand. Pune has the seventh largest metropolitan economy and the sixth highest per capita income in the country.
The automotive sector is prominent in Pune. It is home to the Automotive Research Association of India, which is responsible for the homologation of all vehicles available in India. All sectors of the automotive industry are represented, from two-wheelers and autorickshaws to cars, tractors, tempos, excavators and trucks. Automotive companies like Tata Motors, Mahindra & Mahindra, Mercedes Benz, Force Motors (Firodia-Group), Kinetic Motors have set ups in Pune. Automotive companies including General Motors, Land Rover, Jaguar, Renault, Volkswagen, and Fiat have set up greenfield facilities near Pune, leading The Independent to cite Pune as India's "Motor City". Several automotive component manufacturers like Saint-Gobain Sekurit, TATA Autocomp Systems Limited, Robert Bosch GmbH, ZF Friedrichshafen AG, Visteon, and Continental Corporation are located here.
India's largest engineering conglomerate, the Kirloskar Group, was the first to bring industry to Pune by setting up Kirloskar Oil Engines Ltd. in 1945 at Kirkee in Pune. The Group was originally set up in Kirloskarwadi. Kirloskar Brothers Limited (India's largest manufacturer and exporter of pumps and the largest infrastructure pumping project contractor in Asia), Kirloskar Oil Engines (India's largest diesel engine company), Kirloskar Pneumatics Co. Ltd. and other Kirloskar companies are based in Pune.
The Hinjawadi IT Park (officially called the Rajeev Gandhi IT Park) is a project being started by MIDC to house the IT sector in Pune. When completed, the Hinjawadi IT Park is expected to have an area of about 2,800 acres (11 km2). The estimated investment in the project is 600 billion (US$10 billion). To facilitate economic growth, the government made liberal incentives in its IT and ITES Policy, 2003 and leased properties on MIDC land. The IT sector employs more than 70,000 people. Software giant Microsoft intends to set up a 7 billion (US$120 million) project in Hinjewadi.
Pune Food Cluster development project is an initiative funded by the World Bank. It is being implemented with the help of SIDBI, Cluster Craft to facilitate the development of the fruit and vegetable processing industries in and around Pune.
The Meetings, Incentives, Conferencing, Exhibitions trade is expected to get a boost once the Pune International Exhibition and Convention Centre (PIECC) completes in 2017. The 97-hectare PIECC will boast a seating capacity of 20,000, with a floor area of 13,000m2. It will have seven exhibition centres, a convention centre, a golf course, a five-star hotel, a business complex, shopping malls and residences. The US$115 million project is developed by the Pimpri-Chinchwad New Town Development Authority. Nowadays a growing number of automotive dealerships are springing up all over the city. They include luxury car makers like Jaguar Land Rover, Mercedes Benz, BMW, Audi and bike manufacturers like Kawasaki, KTM and Harley Davidson
Pune is majorly known for IT COMPANIES various well known companies like GATITAA,Infosys in well known area like Pune Mumbai Highway are there.
The emergence of industrial Pune began in the early 1960s, with mechanical engineering industries arriving. Pune's proximity to Mumbai, good climate and availability of talent made it a destination for large firms like Tata Motors (TELCO then), Thermax, Buckau Wolf (Thyssen Krupp now), Kirloskar Group, KSB Pumps, Hindustan Antibiotics and several others.
Today, Pune has a diverse industrial population. It is one of India's most important automotive hubs, with some domestic and international auto giants manufacturing here, including Daimler Benz, MTU FN and Volkswagen. Pune also has hundreds of large IT companies such as GATITAAKPIT, Patni Computers, Opus Software Solutions of and thousands of small IT companies and start-ups which thrive in the highly skilled resource pool from this city's engineers.
Pune is the largest hub in India for German companies. According to the Indo-German Chamber of Commerce, Pune has been the single largest hub for German companies for the last 60 years. Over 225 German companies have set up their businesses here.
New and established industry majors in Pune region
Pune is one of the premier industrial centres of India. It is home to one of the world's three largest two-wheeler manufacturers, Bajaj Auto. Other global automobile names like Telco, Mercedes Benz and Bajaj Tempo also have huge manufacturing facilities here. Apart from the auto giants, a large number of engineering, electronic and electrical industries have set up base in the large, medium and small scale sectors. The industrial township of Pimpri Chinchwad, adjacent to the main city, is dotted with over 4,000 manufacturing units.
The city of Pune is managed by the Pune Municipal Corporation (PMC). The Corporation consists of 149 directly elected councillors, who are led by the Mayor of Pune, a titular position mainly acting as an ambassador and representative of the city. Actual executive power is vested in the Municipal Commissioner, an officer of the Indian Administrative Service who is appointed by the Government of Maharashtra.
Apart from the PMC, four other administrative bodies are active within the Pune Metropolitan Area:
- Pimpri-Chinchwad Municipal Corporation (PCMC), responsible for Pimpri-Chinchwad and its surroundings
- Khadki Cantonment Board (KCB), responsible for Khadki
- Pune Cantonment Board (PCB), responsible for Pune Cantonment
- Dehu Road Cantonment Board, responsible for the Dehu Road area
A plan to establish a single Pune Metropolitan Regional Development Authority (PMRDA), consisting of the combined municipal councils, corporations, and other local governments of Pune, Pimpri-Chinchwad, Lonavala, Talegaon, Bhor, Shirur, Saswad, the three cantonments and hundred villages near the city, has been considered since 1997, but has still not been put into place. This body would be the executing authority which would acquire and develop reserve land to improve the infrastructure of the Pune metropolitan area.
Pune was the largest military camp for the British forces during the Raj and the architecture in the cantonment area is very evocative of the era. The majority of the old Cantonment land in the city is now occupied by the Indian Army for the housing of its garrisons and officers. The Southern Command, a World War II Indian Army formation, has its headquarters in Pune cantonment. The city is home to Lohegaon Aerodrome (previously RAF Station Pune), the city's airport and Indian Air Force airfield for the Sukhoi-30MKI multi-role strike fighters.
The National Defence Academy (NDA) is an integrated military training center that provides education up to the graduation level and joint training for cadets of the Army, the Navy and the Air Force. The NDA estate is spread over 8,028 acres (3,249 ha) of land in Khadakwasla near Pune and contains apart from NDA facilities, a mini sanctuary and Peacock Bay, one of the lakes that provide water to Pune city. Pune also hosts College of Military Engineering, also commonly referred to as CME, which trains students in Engineering subjects related to the military. It also has the Armed Forces Medical College (AFMC), Pune for Medical Study along with Nursing Courses for the Indian army.
The city is known for its British Raj and the Garden city movement layout of the Cantonment in the early twentieth century. Notable architects who have worked in Pune include B.V.Doshi, Charles Correa, Achyut Kanvinde and Christopher Charles Benninger. Modern master pieces in Pune include the IUCAA by Correa and a number of campuses by Benninger, including his studio complex called India House. His award winning campuses include the Mahindra United World College of India, the YMCA Campsite at Mulshi, the Samundra Institute of Maritime Studies, and Suzlon One Earth.
Museums, parks and zoos
Prominent museums in Pune include the Raja Dinkar Kelkar Museum, Mahatma Phule Museum, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Museum and the Pune Tribal Museum. The College of Military Engineering has an archive and an equipment museum which has a rail exhibit with a metre-gauge train. A large railway museum is also coming up in Lonavala about 60 km (37 mi) away from the city on the Mumbai railway line.
Celebrity WAX Museum consist famous faces of India such as freedom fighters, Bollywood stars, social activists and many more. It is situated about 40 km (25 mi) from Pune on old old Pune-Mumbai highway approaching toward Lonawala which already beckon tourist attraction. 
Pune has public gardens, such as the Kamala Nehru Park, Sambhaji Park Shahu Udyan, Peshwe Park, Saras Baug, Empress Garden, Taljai Hills and Bund Garden. 'Pu La Deshpande Udyan(The Pune-Okayama Friendship Garden) is a replica of the Korakuen Garden in Okayama, Japan. The Aga Khan Palace was built by Sultan Muhammed Shah Aga Khan III in Pune, India. Built in 1892, it is one of the biggest landmarks in Indian history. The palace was an act of charity by the Sultan who wanted to help the poor in the neighbouring areas of Pune, who were drastically hit by famine.
Aga Khan Palace is a majestic building and is considered to be one of the greatest marvels of India. The palace is closely linked to the Indian freedom movement as it served as a prison for Mahatma Gandhi, his wife Kasturba Gandhi, his secretary Mahadev Desai and Sarojini Naidu. It is also the place where Kasturba Gandhi and Mahadev Desai died. In 2003, Archeological Survey of India (ASI) declared the place as a monument of national importance.[
The Rajiv Gandhi Zoological Park is located at Katraj, close to the city. The zoo, earlier located at Peshwe Park, was merged with the reptile park at Katraj in 1999. Besides this, certain spots in Pune such as Hanuman Tekdi, Vetaal Tekdi and Taljai forest are popular haunts for nature lovers.
As the agro-pharmaceutical business has dwindled in recent decades, immigration from erstwhile tribal peoples now accounts for seventy percent of population growth and education syllabi have not adjusted in accordance with other industrialised regions. This has created what has become an exclusive environment in the government's expansion of education infrastructure, and Marathi literati have received a number of grants in areas that were previously ignored. Both experimental (प्रायोगिक रंगभूमी) and professional theatre receive extensive patronage from the Marathi community. The Tilak Smarak Mandir, Bala Gandharva Rangmandir, Bharat Natya Mandir, Yashwantrao Chavan Natyagriha and Sudarshan Rangmanch are prominent theatres in the city. Ganesh Kala Krida Rangamanch is the largest closed theatre in the city, with a seating capacity of 45,000.
The Sawai Gandharva Sangeet Mahotsav, one of the most prominent and sought-after Indian classical music festivals in India is held in Pune every year in December. It commemorates the life and achievements of Pt. Sawai Gandharva. The concept of Diwāḷī Pahāṭ originated in Pune as a music festival on the morning of the festival of Diwali.
Education and research
Pune has more than a hundred educational institutes and nine universities, students from all over the world studying at the colleges of the University of Pune. Pune has a large student population, and a large number of quality academic and research institutes.
Basic and special education
Public schools (known locally as "municipality schools") are run by the Pune Municipal Corporation, and are affiliated with the Maharashtra State Board of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education. Private schools are run by educational trusts or individuals. The five schools are older than any other schools of Pune; those are Bhave school, Nutan Marathi Vidyalay, Camp Education Society School, The Bishop's School and New English School. They are usually affiliated to either the state board or to national education boards, such as the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education, CBSE or NIOS boards.
Pune is the largest centre for Japanese learning in India. Other languages including German (taught at the Max Muller Bhavan) and French (at the Alliance Française de Pune) are popular in the city.
The College of Engineering Pune, now autonomous institute of government of Maharashtra, founded in 1854, is the third oldest engineering college in Asia. The Deccan Education Society was founded by several local citizens in 1884, including social and political activist Bal Gangadhar Tilak, and was responsible for founding Fergusson College in 1885. This society maintains and operates 32 institutes in Pune.
Symbiosis International University, which operates 33 colleges and institutions in the city, includes colleges such as Symbiosis Institute of Business Management(SiBM, Pune), Symbiosis Centre for Management and Human Resource Development (SCMHRD) and Symbiosis Institute of International Business (SIIB) which are ranked amongst the top management institutes in the country and Symbiosis Institute of Computer Studies and Research (SICSR) which is one of the few colleges in India that promotes open source technology. Pune is also home to Symbiosis Institute of Technology of the Symbiosis family.
ILS Law College, established by the Indian Law Society, is one of the top ten law schools in India.[according to whom?] Established medical schools such as the Armed Forces Medical College (AFMC) and Byramjee Jeejeebhoy Medical College train students from all over Maharashtra and India and are amongst the top medical colleges in India. The AFMC consistently ranks among the top five medical colleges in India. Film and Television Institute of India at law college road.
The Lalit Kala Kendra is an undergraduate department of Music, Dance and Drama on the University of Pune campus that has been operational since 1987. This department features a combination of Gurukul and formal education systems.
Another important institution for students who are working part-time during the day is the St. Vincent College of Commerce as it gives them an opportunity to study in the evening hours. This college was founded by the Society of Jesuits and is located in Pune Camp.
Pune is home to some of India's important research institutes. Some of the major research centres are:
- National Chemical Laboratory (NCL): one of the leading chemical research establishments in India
- Lupin Limited - Research Park, Situated at Nande Village is leading Pharma Research Institute, Spread in 19 acre of land.
- Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Pune (IISER, Pune)
- Inter-university Centre for Astronomy & Astrophysics (IUCCA)
- National Centre for Radio Astrophysics (NCRA)
- Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC)
- Electronics Test and Development Centre (ETDC): under the STQC directorate, it is a leading testing and certification centre.
- National Institute of Virology (NIV)
- National Research Centre for Grapes (NRCG)
- Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics
- Central Water & Power Research Station (CWPRS)
- National Centre for Cell Science (NCCS)
- Automotive Research Association of India (ARAI)
- Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM): scientists at IITM has made significant achievements in tropical weather
- National Informatics Centre (NIC)
- Armament Research Development Establishment (ARDE)
- High Energy Materials Research Laboratory (HEMRL)
- Centre for Materials for Electronics Technology (CMET)
- Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute (BORI)
- National AIDS Research Centre (NARI)
- Agharkar Research Institute (ARI)
- National Institute of Bank Management (NIBM)
- Army Institute of Technology (AIT)
- National Institute of Construction Management and Research (NICMAR)
Several military and armament research organisations are located in Pune (see the Military establishments section in this article).
Pune International Airport is an international airport at Lohegaon, operated by the Airports Authority of India. It shares its runways with the neighbouring Indian Air Force base. In addition to domestic flights to all major Indian cities, this airport serves international direct flights to Dubai (operated by Air India Express) and to Frankfurt (operated by Lufthansa).
The Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation is responsible for the design and construction of a New Pune International Airport. The area between Chakan and Rajgurunagar, around the villages of Chandus and Shiroli, is being considered as a construction site. If constructed here, it will be at a distance of 40 km (25 mi) from central Pune. They have passed tendor for Pune International Airport at Chakan Pune. This project it will be complete till Dec-17.
Local trains (EMUs) connect Pune to the industrial town of Pimpri-Chinchwad and the hill station of Lonavala, while daily express trains connect Pune to Mumbai, Hyderabad, Delhi, Nagpur, Thiruvananthapuram, Kochi, Coimbatore, Chennai, Bangalore, Kanpur, Howrah, Jammu Tawi, Darbhanga, Goa, Varanasi, Patna, and Jamshedpur. At Pune, there is diesel locomotive shed and electric trip shed. A rapid transit system has been proposed in Pune and is scheduled to begin operations in 2013. Pune Metro Rail is being planned in consultation with Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Limited, the corporation which built and operates the Delhi Metro. It will be a combination of elevated and underground sections, with initial routes being planned between Pimpri-Swargate and Vanaz-Ramwadi.
Both public and private transport are popular in Pune. Public buses within the city and its suburbs are operated by the Pune Mahanagar Parivahan Mahamandal Limited (PMPML). The PMPML operates the Pune Bus Rapid Transit system, the first of its kind in India, in which dedicated bus lanes were supposed to allow buses to travel quickly through the city. In reality the project has turned out to be a failure receiving little to no patronage from the local citizenry. Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation runs buses from its main stations in Shivajinagar, Pune station and Swargate to all major cities and towns in Maharashtra and neighbouring states. Private companies too run buses to major cities throughout India.
Pune is well-connected to other cities by Indian highways and state highways. National Highway 4 (NH 4) connects it to Mumbai, Bangalore and Kolhapur. NH 9 to Hyderabad, and NH 50 to Nashik. State highways connect it to Ahmednagar, Aurangabad, and Alandi.
The Mumbai-Pune Expressway, India's first six-lane high-speed expressway, was built in 2002, and has reduced travel time between Pune and Mumbai to almost two hours. A ring road is being planned for the convenience of heavy traffic.
Pune is served by two intra-city highways: Old Pune-Mumbai Highway and Katraj-Dehu Road Bypass, a part of National Highway 4. The Nashik City-Pune Highway NH 50 will be part of the golden triangle (Nashik-Pune-Mumbai). One can easily move around Pune by Road by hiring cars on rent from Ezeecabs, Ali Cabs, and Hudson Cabs.
Metro Rail Project has been proposed in Pune Metropolitan Area. The project is expected to be operational by 2021 and will be operated by Pune Metro Rail Corporation (PMRC). It will have 4 lines with a total planned length of 82 km, which will be built in 2 phases.
Sports and recreation
Popular games and sports in Pune include Athletics, Cricket, Basketball, Badminton, Field Hockey, Football, Tennis, Kabaddi, Paragliding, Kho-Kho, Rowing and Chess. The Pune International Marathon is an annual Marathon conducted in Pune. The 2008 Commonwealth Youth Games were held in Pune.
Today's popular badminton game that is played worldwide was incepted in Pune. It was created by British military officers stationed in Poona (now Pune) can be traced in mid-1800s. Initially, balls of wool referred as ball badminton were preferred by the upper classes in windy or wet conditions, but ultimately the shuttlecock stuck. This game was further developed in England and rules were set out, and what we see today is international badminton rules. 
Cricket is played between clubs affiliated with the Maharashtra Cricket Association, which maintains a domestic cricket team (the Maharashtra cricket team). This team, one of three based in the state of Maharashtra, competes in interstate matches and leagues, such as the Ranji Trophy. Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, is where National and One Day International matches take place. It has been named after the First Prime Minister of Independent India, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru.
An Indian Premier League cricket team based in Pune began play in 2011. The team is named as Pune Warriors India and was brought for Rs. 17.02 billion or $370 million. It is the most expensive team in the Indian Premier League, and it is owned by Sahara Group. This team was later drowned before the IPL-7 started. A new stadium Subrata Roy Sahara Stadium built in Gahunje on Mumbai – Pune express way, inaugurated on 1 April 2012, is the Home Ground of Pune Warriors. The Subrata Roy Sahara Stadium has a seating capacity of 55,000 and is built on the Mumbai Pune Expressway.
Blades of Glory, India's first cricket museum, is based out of Pune. Run by Rohan Pate, a former Maharashtra Under-19 cricketer, inaugurated during IPL V by Sachin Tendulkar and located in the quaint Sahakar Nagar.
Bal Gandharva Ranga Mandir is a theatre auditorium and exhibition hall located in Pune which hosts Marathi dramas. The theatre is named after the great Marathi singer and stage actor Bal Gandharva.
Pune is also famous for The Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute. It was founded on 6 July 1917 to honour the life and work of Dr. Ramakrishna Gopal Bhandarkar (1837–1925), long regarded as the founder of Indology (Orientalism) in India. The institute is well known for its collection of old Sanskrit and Prakrit manuscripts.
FC Pune City is an Indian Super League football franchise in Pune, Maharashtra that will begin play in September 2014 during the inaugural season of the Indian Super League.The team will be owned and operated by Bollywood actor Salman Khan and the Wadhawan Group.
The Elite Football League of India (ELFI) – an American gridiron football competition slated for a Fall 2012 kickoff – has announced that the Pune Marathas will be a member-franchise.
The National Education Foundation organises Enduro3, a cross country adventure race in Pune. It is normally a two or three-day event with activities like cycling, trekking, river-crossing and rifle shooting. The city has been host to the 2009 FIVB Men's Junior World Championship.
The Pune Race course, located in Pune Cantonment, was built in 1830 over 118.5 acres (0.480 km2) of land. The land is controlled by the Indian Army. The racing season is from July to October every year. The Royal Western India Turf Club manages the race course. The course has two training tracks and two racing surfaces. Major racing events include The Pune Derby, RWITC Invitational, Independence Cup and the Southern Command Cup.
The beginnings of badminton can be traced to mid-19th century Pune . During a party, a few guests fastened feathers onto champagne corks and used the bottles as bats. They called this game Poonai. The first rules of the game were written in Pune in 1873, by the British.
Garware Balbhavan- It is a well known playground and a recreational center located in the heart of the Pune city. It is known for its interesting and meaningful work in the field of child development since 1985.
The Gliding Centre, is an undertaking of the Directorate General of Civil Aviation, Civil Aviation Department, Government of India. This uses two seater Sailplanes, LET L-23 Super Blanik and other LET Gliding Planes. The flying season starts from October and continues up to May or early June. Then club is closed during the monsoons.
Prominent sporting institutions in Pune include the Nehru Stadium, the Deccan Gymkhana, the PYC Hindu Gymkhana, The Poona Golf Club, The Poona Cricket Club and the Shree Shiv Chhatrapati Sports Complex at Balewadi. The Nehru Stadium is the home ground of the Maharashtra cricket team, and has hosted many prominent cricket events, including one of the matches in the 1996 Cricket World Cup. The Deccan Gymkhana has hosted Davis Cup matches on several occasions. The facility at Balewadi hosted the National Games in 1994 as well as the 2008 Commonwealth Youth Games. The Royal Connaught Boat Club is one of several boating clubs on the Mula-Mutha river. A new cricket stadium, Pune International Cricket Centre renamed as Subroto Roy Cricket Stadium, is under construction in Gahunje on the Mumbai-Pune Expressway near Pune. This stadium will be the headquarters for the Maharashtra Cricket Association and home for the Maharashtra cricket team. It will be a state-of-the-art stadium, and will host the home matches of Sahara Pune Warriors, IPL team of Pune.
Prominent sportspersons hailing from Pune include cricketer D. B. Deodhar, Chandu Borde, father-son cricketing duo Hemant and Hrishikesh Kanitkar, tennis players Radhika Tulpule, Gaurav Natekar and Nitin Kirtane, and table-tennis player Sujay Ghorpade. Abhijit Kunte and Pravin Thipse are chess grandmasters and national champions. Dhanraj Pillay is ex-captain of the Indian national field hockey team.
Pune has a rugby team, men's and women's, registered with the IRFU as Rugby Football Sports Pune (RFS Pune). As of November 2010, RFS Pune has qualified for First Division Rugby, while placing second in the Callaghan Cup Held in Chennai in the same month. Pune offers much promise in this sport. The women's team has been the national cup holder for 2 consecutive years and thrice since the all India women's 7s 2009. Till date, the Pune Women's team has 13 and counting India international players
When the Elite Football League of India was introduced in August 2011, Pune was noted as one of eight cities to be awarded a team for the inaugural season, although the team's games will be played in Balewadi. All 56 games of EFLI's opening season will be played at the Shree Shiv Chhatrapati Sports Complex, which will be retrofitted to host the sport. Named the Pune Marathas, it will be Pune's first professional American football franchise.
Martial Arts. Japan Karate-Do Nobukawa-Ha Shito-Ryu Kai India JKNSKI (Shito-Ryu Karate-Do Academy of India) is a direct branch of Japan Karate-Do Nobukawaha Shito-Ryu Kai recognised by Japan Karate-Do Federation. In India the academy of also approved by Indian national federation of Karate. The JKNSKI is headed by Naresh Sharma who is an international martial arts title holder and advanced dan grade in the Japanese martial arts. An authentic institution in Pune to practice and train in Japanese martial arts Karate-Do.
- Anu Aga, industrialist
- Pankaj Advani, leading billiards and snooker player
- Bal Gangadhar Tilak, leader of Pune's Brahmins
- Bhimsen Joshi, Hindustani classical vocalist
- Chandu Borde, cricketer
- Cyrus Poonawala, businessman
- Deepika Samson, television actress
- Dhanraj Pillay, hockey player
- Mahatma Jyotiba Phule, social reformer
- Nilu Phule, actor
- P. A. Inamdar, educationalist, visionary
- Pu La Deshpande, writer
- Raghunath Mashelkar, scientis
- Rahul Bajaj, industrialist
- Hrishikesh Kanitkar, cricketer
- Sanjay Kirloskar, industrialist
- Shaiju Mathew, author, film director
- Shanta Shelke, writer
- Shantanurao Laxmanrao Kirloskar, industrialist
- Sharad Talwalkar, actor
- Baba Kalyani, industrialist
- Milind Date, flautist, composer, producer
- Girish Doshi, Architect
- "Fifteenth Lok Sabha Members Bioprofile". Retrieved 25 April 2014.
- "About Pune". Retrieved 12 July 2013.
- "Cities having population 1 lakh and above". Census of India 2011. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 29 December 2012.
- "Major Agglomerations". censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved 25 January 2014.
- "Definition of Pune". The Free Dictionary. Retrieved 2013-12-09.
- "Definition of Poona". The Free Dictionary. Retrieved 2013-12-09.
- "Define Pune". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 2013-12-09.
- "Define Poona". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 2013-12-09.
- Nalawade, S.B. "Geography of Pune Urban Area". Ranwa. Archived from the original on 22 December 2007. Retrieved 4 April 2008.
- "Shaniwarwada was centre of Indian politics: Ninad Bedekar". Daily News and Analysis. 29 November 2011. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
- "Pune". Maharashtratourism.gov.in. Retrieved 2014-05-14.
- "Some Important Years in the History of Pune". Retrieved 4 April 2008. Pune's Timeline
- "Pune History – Origin & History of Pune – History of Puna India – History of Pune City". Pune.org.uk. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
- "Monuments in Pune". Pune district administration. Archived from the original on 25 March 2008. Retrieved 4 April 2008.
- "पुणे जिल्हा ऐतिहासिक महत्त्वाचे". Manase.org. Retrieved 2014-05-14.
- "Shaniwarwada was centre of Indian politics: Ninad Bedekar – Mumbai – DNA". Dnaindia.com. Retrieved 17 October 2013.
- History of Foundation[dead link]
- Ramachandra Guha, "The Other Liberal Light," New Republic 22 June 2012
- "Southern Command in India".
- "Historical Events in Pune". http://pune.gov.in. NIC – District-Pune. Archived from the original on 13 June 2008. Retrieved 29 October 2009.
- "The Mumbai-Pune expressway". The Financial Express. Retrieved 29 October 2009.
- "Pune to get piped compressed natural gas before CYG". The Punekar. Retrieved 29 October 2009.[dead link]
- "Latest News: Swine Flu in India". news.rediff.com. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
- Harmeet Singh (13 February 2010). "Eight killed in India restaurant blast". CNN. Retrieved 14 February 2010.
- PTI (13 February 2010). "9 killed, 40 injured in Pune bomb blast". The Hindu (Chennai, India). Retrieved 14 February 2010.
- Sakaal news service (14 February 2010). "पुण्यावर दहशतवादी हल्ला; नऊ ठार, ५७ जखमी" (in Marathi). sSakal.com. Retrieved 14 February 2010.
- "M3.2 Katraj-Pune Earthquake, 2004". Archived from the original on 18 December 2007. Retrieved 15 April 2008.
- "M4.3 Gokul-Waghini Earthquake, 2008". Retrieved 28 November 2009.[dead link]
- "M4.9 Satara District, 2012". Retrieved 14 April 2012.
- Stocks Unplugged. (19 October 2012). "28 new villages into the Pune Municipal Corporation's limits". Globalstockmakers.blogspot.in. Retrieved 17 October 2013.
- "City sweats as mercury hits season's high". The Times of India. 17 April 2003. Retrieved 10 May 2008.
- "Brrr... it's almost March, and Pune's shivering!". The Times of India. 23 February 2005. Retrieved 10 May 2008.
- "Pune Climatological Information 1951-1980". India Meteorological Department. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
- "Extreme Temperatures in India up to 2010". India Meteorological Department. Retrieved 21 May 2013.
- "Pune Climate Normals 1971–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 24 December 2012.
- "Revised Action Plan for Control of Air Pollution in Pune" (PDF). Census of India, Government of India (2001). Maharashtra Pollution Control Board. Retrieved 29 December 2008.
- Imperial Gazetteer of India 20. p. 181.
- "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above". Census of India 2011. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 3 January 2013.
- "Demographics of Pune". Punepages.com. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
- "Pune's GDP at Rs 46,000 is 50 pc higher than India's". The Indian Express. 28 July 2006. Retrieved 24 March 2007.
- "Annexure I". Fire Hazards Response and Mitigation Plan. Pune Municipal Corporation. 2001. p. 10. Retrieved 29 June 2012.
- "Pune to become 7th metro city in India: Assocham – Economy and Politics". livemint.com. 30 October 2008. Retrieved 26 March 2011.
- "Pune District Population Census 2011, Maharashtra literacy sex ratio and density". Census2011.co.in. Retrieved 2014-05-14.
- "Pune Religions". Retrieved 14 November 2010.
- "Osho Meditation Resort". Osho International Foundation. Retrieved 24 July 2008.[not in citation given]
- "Photo of Babajan's Samadhi tomb shrine in Pune". Trustmeher.com. Retrieved 26 March 2011.
- "Pune Culture". Pune.org.uk. Retrieved 8 February 2010.
- "Pune Cuisines – Pune India Food". Retrieved 4 April 2008.
- Manavi Deopura (29 March 2008). "Mastani Mania". The Indian Express. Retrieved 8 February 2010.
- "Top Ten Wealthiest Towns of India". Maps of India. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
- "The boom is over in Detroit. But now India has its own motor city". The Independent (London). 20 April 2008. Retrieved 22 April 2008.
- "K. K. Swamy appointed MD of Volkswagen India". The Indian Express. Retrieved 14 December 2009.
- "Kirloskar Brothers restructure group". CNBC-TV18. Retrieved 14 December 2009.
- "Kirloskar Oil Engines". India Business Insight. 31 August 2004. Retrieved 14 December 2009.
- "Hinjawadi IT park". The MegaPolis. Retrieved 13 November 2009.[dead link]
- Bari, Prachi (7 December 2007). "Hinjewadi, the land of opportunity". The Economic times (India). Retrieved 13 November 2009.
- "PuneFoodHub.com – Food Cluster Pune". Retrieved 15 October 2009.
- "PuneFoodHub.com – Project Partners". Retrieved 15 October 2009.
- "Pune gets green light for massive MICE centre". TTGmice. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
- "DNA 17th Nov 2010".
- "Business Standard 26th Oct 2011".
- "Automobile Two Four Wheelers Dealers Industries in Around Pune Hero Honda Motors Mercedes Benz India Ltd Mahindra Mercedes Indian Maharashtra Pune Automobile Batteries Automobile Body Builders Automobile Components, Parts, Spares Accessories Automobile De". Punediary.com. Retrieved 8 July 2013.
- "About the Pune Municipal Corporation". Retrieved 21 April 2008.
- "Pimpri-Chinchwad Municipal Corporation Web Portal". Retrieved 22 August 2008.
- "Kirkee Cantonment Board: A Brief Profile". Retrieved 22 August 2008.[dead link]
- "Pune Cantonment Board: Overview". Retrieved 22 August 2008.
- "Just hold on, PMRDA not far off". The Indian Express. 5 January 2008. Retrieved 3 September 2008.
- "Pune: Gap year destination". GapGuru.com.[dead link]
- Makoto Iokibe (27 February 2010). "Trip to Indian defense academy bring thought-provoking discussions on Asian security". The Mainichi Daily News.[dead link]
- Lyla Bavadam (13 March 1999). "The evolution of the NDA". Khadakwasla: The Frontline. Retrieved 2 March 2010.[dead link]
- "A Japanese paradise in Pune". The Times of India. 4 September 2004. Retrieved 24 July 2008.
- "By July, bigger enclosures, battery-operated vehicles for Katraj zoo". The Indian Express. 29 March 2007. Retrieved 24 July 2008.
- Pordié, Laurent; Lalitha, N. (24 May 2006). Research Update: Transversal Themes of Indian Society and Medicines (PDF). Department of Social Sciences, The French Institute of Pondicherry.
- PDF (183 KB)
- Abhijit Atre (19 June 1998). "City's largest open-air theatre gets a roof". The Indian Express. Retrieved 8 February 2010.
- TNN, 25 November 2008, 12.16 am IST (25 November 2008). "Sawai Gandharva music fest to start from Dec 11 – Pune – City – The Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
- Prachi Bari. "Diwali Pahat puts Pune in the mood". Indiatimes. Archived from the original on 19 May 2006. Retrieved 12 February 2010.
- Kaul, Sanat (May 2006). Higher Education in India: Seizing the Opportunity (working paper) (PDF). Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations, New Delhi, India. Retrieved 4 April 2008.
- "Express India". Cities.expressindia.com. Retrieved 26 March 2011.
- "List of Deemed Universities". University Grants Commission. Retrieved January 2014.
- "History". Deccan Education Society. Archived from the original on 7 June 2008. Retrieved 22 July 2008.
- "One city, many faces". Frontline.[dead link]
- "India's best B-schools". Business Today. 10 September 2007. Retrieved 1 February 2011.
- "Symbiosis Institute of technology"
- "Chap". Sainik Samachar.
- Devayani Shahane (17 June 2003). "Performing arts degree slowly taking centre stage". Times of India. Retrieved 12 February 2010.
- "Iitm-Home". Tropmet.res.in. Retrieved 15 June 2011.
- "Pune City". St. Thomas Evangelical Church of India.
- TNN (13 December 2005). "Pune goes global". The Times of India. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
- Express News Service (1 July 2008). "City gears up for its first all-biz class Frankfurt-Pune flight". The Indian Express. Retrieved 2 March 2010.
- TNN (19 February 2009). "Chakan airport gets state nod". Times of India. Retrieved 3 February 2010.
- TNN (21 April 2009). "Accolades for Pune division of Central Railway". The Indian Express.
- "Three routes for metro rail in city identified". The Times of India. 27 September 2007. Retrieved 24 April 2008.
- "Welcome to Central Railways" (in Hindi). Central Railways.
- Manish Umbrajkar (5 March 2009). "2 years on, country's first BRTS remains incomplete". Times of India.
- "Maharashtra State Road Transport". IndiaTransit.com. Retrieved 5 March 2010.
- TNN (19 June 2003). "PCMC grants Rs 6 crore for ring road project". The Times of India.
- Pune Warriors India – The Team[dead link]
- "Blades of Glory: Cricket history in a room". Wisden India. Retrieved 4 July 2012.
- "Pune Basketball". Open Salon.
- "J D Walsh – Press release point".
- "Pump up the adrenaline – Pune Times". Times of India. 23 January 2003.
- "RWITC – The Pune Race Course".[dead link]
- "Origin of Badminton". 21 September 2006. Retrieved 4 January 2010.
- Phillips, Rachel (7 May 2002). "Badminton – From Where did it originate?". Badders.com: The Independent Voice of Badminton. Archived from the original on 2 May 2008. Retrieved 19 May 2008.
- Singh, Ramendra (11 January 2011). "Wrong 'un on e way". Pune Mirror. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
- "Topic Galleries". Chicago Tribune.[dead link]
- Sean Gregory (4 August 2011). "'They Need TV Product': Why American Football Is Coming To India". Time.
- "San Jose Sister City". Retrieved 2014.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pune.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Pune.|
- Pune at Wikipedia books
- Official website for Pune City and District
- for Pune Corporate City
- Pune Master Plan Maps