|This article is part of the series|
|This article is part of the series|
- 1 Background and overview
- 2 Rakh-Rikhao ( Etiquette )
- 3 Structure of the meal
- 4 Cooking methods
- 5 Clarified butter
- 6 Food additives and Condiments
- 7 Typical dishes
- 8 Desserts
- 9 Bread preparations
- 10 Spices
- 11 Snacks and Chaat
- 12 Drinks
- 13 Fermented Foods
- 14 See also
- 15 References
- 16 External links
Background and overview
One of the main features of Punjabi cuisine is its diverse range of dishes. Home cooked and restaurant cuisine sometimes vary in taste. Restaurant style uses large amounts of ghee. Some food items are eaten on a daily basis while some delicacies are cooked only on special occasions.
Rakh-Rikhao ( Etiquette )
Every Punjabi household follow certain regional etiquette while eating. But it is not uniform in every region. Etiquette is known as Rakh Rikhao in the culture of Punjab. Rakh Rikhao spans from the placements of the dishes to the way of serving and eating. Also in Punjabi rakh-rikhao bringing and sending fresh fruits, sweets and food items as gifts to family members is a norm. Moreover food items are distributed among neighbors as well on special occasions and as a sign to show hospitality. Sharing fruit baskets or crates among family members during the spring season is also considered a part of social etiquette.
During the certain fruit seasons friends and family members are invited to feast on fruits. Mango is considered a delicacy and produced widely in Punjab, and mango parties are common during the fruit's harvest season. Also Water Melon and spiced Mooli ( Daikon ) at food stalls is shared among friends as well.
Structure of the meal
Cooking methods vary from region to region but cooking traditional Roti, Rumali Roti and Khamiri ( Also known as Naan ) requires Tawa and Tandoor. The Traditional name of the stove in Punjabi language is Chulla. Outdoor cooking and grilling have many different types of Chullas. Traditional houses also have Ovens ( Local name is Wadda Chulla or Band Chulla ) that are made from bricks, stones and in many cases with clay. The older communities in Punjab also used Earth ovens ( Khadda Chulla ) but this tradition is dying out now.
Clarified butter, Paneer and normal butter are mostly used for traditional cooking. Clarified butter most known variant is Ghee that is widely used as well. Also in some regions Suet is used for cooking purposes.
Food additives and Condiments
Food additives and Condiments are usually added to enhance the flavor of the food. The most common additives are vinegar, monosodium glutamate ( Sometimes known as Chinese salt ) and soy sauce . Food coloring as additive is added in sweet dishes and desserts. For example in sweet rice dish, color known as Zarda (food) is added to enhance the color. Starch is used as a bulking agent. The typical condiments includes black pepper, coriander and cumin. South Asian cuisine has typical condiment mixes as well and they are known as chutneys.
Usual Breakfast Menu
- Chana masala, Chole bhature or Cholay
- Halwa poori or Bhatoora
- Masala chai
Meat and Fish
- Shami Kebab
- Punjab di Karhi ( The Chicken yogurt curry of Punjab )
- Lamb: Rogan Josh, Bhuna Gosht, Kadhai Gosht, Raan Gosht, Dal Gosht, Saag Gosht, Nihari Gosht, Rara Gosht, Paye da Shorba
- Freshwater fish dishes like Amritsari Fish, Tandoori Fish, Fish Tikka, Fish Pakora
- Kebabs: lamb, chicken and beef chunks
- Biryanis: lamb, chicken, and beef variations
- Kheema: braised minced lamb or beef meat, commonly served with naan
- Kunna Gosht: meat prepared in Kunna (mitti ka bartan)
- Paye: Siri Paye
- Pulse, bean and/or lentil preparations:
- Baingan bharta
- Arvi ( Colocasia esculenta roots are prepared with spices and curry )
- Kadhi Pakora (traditional curry with pakoras) and rice
- Kadhi is a type of curry made by cooking garamflour with curd or buttermilk. Fried lumps (pakoras) of gramflour with salt and chillies are also added.
- Paneer dishes like Shahi Paneer, Khoya Paneer
- Sweet dishes like Phirni, Jalebi, Malpua, Sheer korma
- Snacks like pakoras which is eaten with green chutney also called as Pudina Chutney, samosas
Raita and Chutney
Along with all types of main dishes Raita and Chutney is served as well that is known to add the taste in food. The notable local chutneys are made with imli, pudina, anar, mango and dhaniya to name a few.
Various types of desserts are prepared based on different occasions. Typical desserts include local variants of pies, ice creams and puddings. Fruit is also included in the dessert as well. Pudding made from rice known as Kheer along with Rabri is especially famous. Semolina based desserts are also pretty famous. South Asian sweets are distributed and eaten on all local occasions. Kulfi is especially famous among local ice cream delights.
Breads are of various types and forms. Flat (unleavened) breads as well as raised breads are eaten on a daily basis. Other variants of bread are made on an occasional basis. Raised breads are known as 'Khamiri Roti'. Sunflower and Flax seeds are also added in some breads occasionally. The breads may be made of different types of flour and can be made in various ways:
- Baked in the tandoor like naan, Tandoori roti, Kulcha, or Lachha Paratha
- Dry baked on the Tava (Indian griddle) like Phulka or Chapati, jowar ki roti, baajre ki roti and Makki ki roti (these are also smeared with white butter)
- Shallow fried like Paratha, Keema Paratha, Potato or Radish Paratha
- Deep fried like Puri and Bhatoora (a fermented dough)
The Indian spices are used as Punjab is historically Indian region.
The South Asian cuisine has a peculiar salty and savory snacks that is known as Chaat. Apart from that other types of snacks are very common and are eaten between the meals. Snacks are very diverse and it spans from biscuits, cakes, pastries etc. Fruits and vegetables are also considered good snacks as well.
Punjab have diverse beverages as well. Some are derived from animal fats like lassi. Mango lassi, Mango Milkshake, Chaas etc. Others are juices derived from vegetables and fruits. Water Melon shake, carrot juice, tamarind juice ( Imli ka paani) are famous among fruit juices. Shikanjvi and neembu paani drinks are specifically famous in hot summer season.
The local regional drinks in Punjab also includes Doodh soda ( Milk Soda) and bantay ( local soda drink ) in Pakistan.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cuisine of Punjab.|
- http://www.punjabflowers.com/fruits.html : Sending food items within Punjab
- http://www.punjabflowers.com/sweets.html : Sending sweets to family members
- http://trtapakistan.org/sector-products/horticulture/mangoes/ :Mango Production in Punjab Pakistan
- http://clayoven.wordpress.com/2008/08/29/1-building-a-clay-oven-the-basics/ : Clay Oven
- http://nomnompaleo.com/post/15235810877/d-i-y-ghee : Ghee making
- http://www.khanapakana.com/recipe/7aace454-0612-4d69-93eb-0f4b46c12c9e/zarda-sweet-yellow-rice: Zarda Recipe
- http://allrecipes.com/recipe/sweet-rice-zarda/ :Zarda Recipe
- http://www.khanapakana.com/cooking-video/7b402de4-c9da-434c-9d3b-670dbbe18591/halwa-puri-and-chanay : Halwa Puri
- http://showmethecurry.com/curries/punjabi-kadhi.html :Yogurt curry
- http://indianfood.about.com/od/vegetarianrecipes/r/bainganbharta.htm : Baingan Ka Bharta Recipe
- http://indianfood.about.com/od/vegetarianrecipes/r/chatpatiarvi.htm : Arvi Recipe
- http://chefinyou.com/2008/12/tadka-dal-recipe/ :Tarka Daal Recipe
- http://www.vegrecipesofindia.com/moong-dal-tadka/ :Moong Daal
- http://www.vegrecipesofindia.com/whole-masoor-dal-recipe-north-indian-style/ :Masoor Daal Recipe
- http://www.vegrecipesofindia.com/maa-ki-dal-kaali-dal/ : Maah Daal
- http://www.bbc.co.uk/food/recipes/indianricepuddingkhe_90219 :Kheer ( Rice Pudding Recipe)
- http://cooks.ndtv.com/recipe/show/suji-ka-halwa-100564 : Suji Ka Halwa
- http://www.vahrehvah.com/chaat-recipes :Chaat (Savory Foods )
- http://www.vegrecipesofindia.com/sweet-lassi-punjabi-lassi/ : Lassi recipe
- http://www.simplyrecipes.com/recipes/mango_lassi/ : Mango Lassi Recipe
- http://www.bbc.co.uk/food/recipes/mangolassi_74038 :BBC Food Mango Lassi Recipe
- http://www.vegrecipesofindia.com/mango-milkshake-recipe/ :Mango Milkshake
- http://whatscookingamerica.net/Beverage/MangoLassi.htm : Mango Milkshake
- http://www.vegrecipesofindia.com/chaas-recipe-buttermilk-recipe/ : Salted Chaas Recipe
- http://www.vegrecipesofindia.com/pudina-chaas-recipe/ : Pudina Chaas
- http://www.vegrecipesofindia.com/watermelon-juice-fresh-watermelon-juice/ : Water Melon Shake
- http://maayeka.blogspot.de/2013/03/gobhigajar-aur-shalgum-ka-achar-punjabi.html : Punjabi Mix Vegetable Pickle Recipe
- http://www.vegrecipesofindia.com/punjabi-mango-pickle/ :Mango Pickle Recipe
- http://www.jopreetskitchen.com/2013/06/punjabi-mango-pickle-aam-ka-achaar.html : Mango Pickle Recipe