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Punjabi cuisine is associated with food from the Punjab region of India and Pakistan. It shares several characteristics with the cuisine of Kashmir and other adjacent states. Punjabi cuisine is diverse, and varies regionally. The local cuisine is influenced by the agriculture and farming lifestyle that has been prevalent throughout Punjab for centuries, and supported by locally grown staple foods. Many of the most popular elements of Indian cuisine as it is marketed to non-Indian customers (such as tandoor, naan, pakora, and vegetable dishes with paneer) are derived from Punjab.
Food cooked in the villages Punjab are often cooked in animal fats. While many Punjabi dishes are common in other regions of India and Pakistan, some dishes are exclusive to Punjab, including sarson da saag, tandoori chicken, shami kebab, and makki di roti.
- 1 Staple foods
- 2 Dairy products
- 3 Food additives and condiments
- 4 Common dishes
- 5 Sweets and desserts
- 6 Bread
- 7 Herbs and spices
- 8 Snacks
- 9 Drinks
- 10 Fermented foods
- 11 Canning, bottling and smoking
- 12 Cooking methods
- 13 Religious influence
- 14 Etiquette
- 15 See also
- 16 References
- 17 External links
Punjab is a major producer of wheat, rice and dairy products. The region has one of the highest capita usage of dairy products in both Pakistan and India.
Staple foods are usually sold at food stalls usually known as dhaba.
Some north Punjab villages have also developed a local cheese variant known as dhaag, but the tradition of making dhaag is dying out.
Food additives and condiments
Food additives and condiments are usually added to enhance the flavor of the food. The most common additives are vinegar, monosodium glutamate (sometimes known as Chinese salt) and soy sauce . Food coloring as additive is used in sweet dishes and desserts. For example in a sweet rice dish, a color known as zarda is added. Starch is used as a bulking agent. The typical condiments include black pepper, coriander, cumin and dried maithi leaves. South Asian cuisine has typical condiment mixes as well known as chutneys.
Some types of breakfast, especially halwa poori are eaten on weekends only.
- Chana masala
- Halwa poori
- Makhni doodh
- Masala chai
- Dahi vada
|Shami Kebab||Chicken karahi|
|Punjab di Karhi ( The Chicken yogurt curry of Punjab )||Tandoori Chicken|
|Butter Chicken||Chicken Tikka|
|Lamb||It includes Rogan Josh, Bhuna Gosht, Kadhai Gosht, Raan Gosht, Dal Gosht, Saag Gosht, Nihari Gosht, Rara Gosht, Paye da Shorba||Kebab||braised minced lamb or beef meat, commonly served with naan|
|Biryani||lamb, chicken, and beef variations||Kheema||Braised minced lamb or beef meat, commonly served with naan|
|Kunna Goshtmeat prepared in Kunna (mitti ka bartan)|
Since Punjab is known as the land of five rivers, so freshwater fishes are famous in cuisine as well. But fishes of sea water are not used as much since Punjab is not in close proximity to the sea.. Carp, rohu and catfish are the most commonly prepared fish. Other fish types include thela machi, and tilapia Recently shrimp and prawn have been introduced.
- Pulse, bean and lentil.
- sarson da saag (a dish prepared from green mustard leaves) and with makki di roti, a bread made by corn flour
- Baingan bharta
- Arvi ( Colocasia esculenta roots are prepared with spices and curry )
- Mushroom and bean sabzi
- Dal makhani (lentils with cream and butter)
- rajma (red kidney bean) and rice
- rongi (Black-eyed pea)
- choley (eaten with naan or kulcha)
- aloo (eaten with puri)
- Kadhi Pakora (traditional curry with pakoras) and rice
- Kadhi is a type of curry made by cooking garamflour with curd or buttermilk. Fried lumps (pakoras) of gramflour with salt and chillies are also added.
- Paneer dishes like Shahi Paneer, Khoya Paneer
- Zeera rice Cooked rice with cumin seeds.
- Sweet dishes like Phirni, Jalebi, Malpua, Sheer korma
- Snacks like pakoras which is eaten with green chutney also called as Pudina Chutney, samosas
Tarka is a fried garnish of spices and aromatic substances used to add to the taste of the dal. Mostly fried onions, garlic, Jeera, hari mirchain, hara pudina and garlic are the most commonly used products in tarka.
Raita and chutney
Along with all types of main dishes raita and chutney is served as well that is known to add the taste and texture in food. Also many type of dairy products and chutneys are used as dipping sauces as well. The notable local chutneys are made with imli, pudina, anar, mango, dhaniya and Imli to name a few.
Sweets and desserts
Various types of desserts are prepared depending on different occasions. Typical desserts include local variants of pies, ice creams and puddings. Fruits are also added in the dessert as well. Pudding made from rice known as Kheer along with Rabri is especially famous. Semolina based desserts are also pretty famous. Mithyai is distributed and eaten on all local occasions. Kulfi is a popular ice-cream-like dessert. Khoya is popular in Punjab.
Breads exists in various types and forms. Flatbreads and raised breads are eaten on a daily basis. Raised breads are known as khamiri roti. Sunflower and flax seeds are also added in some breads occasionally. The breads may be made of different types of flour and can be made in various ways:
- Baked in the tandoor like naan, tandoori roti, kulcha, or lachha paratha
- Dry baked on the tava (Indian griddle) like phulka or chapati, jowar ki roti, baajre ki roti and makki ki roti (these are also smeared with white butter)
- Shallow fried like paratha, keema (minced meat) paratha, aloo (potato) or radish paratha
- Deep fried like puri and bhatoora (a fermented dough)
- Salt-rising bread: Salt rising bread is a unique bread found only in the Salt Range region of Punjab, Pakistan. Since rock salt is readily available in salt range so many people in the past made use of salt instead of yeast to leaven the bread.
Herbs and spices
The Indian spices are used in Punjab is historically the part of North Indian region. Most of the spices are mixed with the help of Food processor and other old methods that is known as Ghotna is also used to grind spices as well.
The South Asian cuisine has a peculiar salty and savory snacks that is known as Chaat. Apart from that other types of snacks are very common and are eaten between the meals. Snacks are very diverse and it spans from biscuits, cakes, pastries etc. Fruits and vegetables are also considered good snacks as well. Chaat masala is especially added to enhance the taste in different varieties of chaat.
Punjab have diverse beverages as well. Some are derived from animal fats like lassi. Mango lassi, Mango Milkshake, Chaas etc. Others are juices derived from vegetables and fruits. Water Melon shake, carrot juice, tamarind juice ( Imli ka paani) are famous among fruit juices. Shikanjvi and neembu paani drinks are specifically famous in hot summer season. Jal-jeera is also common as well.
The local regional drinks in Punjab also includes Doodh soda ( Milk Soda) and bantay ( local soda drink ) in Pakistan.
Canning, bottling and smoking
Canning and bottling for preservation purpose is a common practice in houses. It increase the longevity of the food products for many months. Also in the old infrastructure smoke houses are a common occurrence that are used for smoking the meat products that increase the shelf life of the meat and also add taste in it as well. Smoked meat is known as Bhaapi gosht as well.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cuisine of Punjab.|
The traditional name of the stove in the Punjabi language is chulla. Outdoor cooking and grilling have many different types of chullas. Traditional houses also have ovens (wadda chulla or band chulla) that are made from bricks, stones, and in many cases clay. Older communities in Punjab also used earth ovens (khadda chulla), but this tradition is dying out now.
Punjab is home to many religious groups, including Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, and Hindus, among others. Based on religious obligations certain restrictions are practiced in cooking as well. Followers of Hinduism don't use animals fats for cooking purposes and they use vegetable oils only. The followers of other religions make use of both animal fats and vegetable oils while cooking. Muslims practice the dietary restrictions of halal, being selective in the way of slaughtering animals and avoiding alcohol consumption.
Every Punjabi household follows certain regional etiquette. Though it varies regionally, there are many ettiquette practices that are common trhoughout Punjab.
Bringing and sending fresh fruits, sweets and food items as gifts to family members is a common occurrence in Punjab, particularly during the spring season. Food items are distributed among neighbors as well on special occasions and as a sign to show hospitality. Mango is considered a delicacy and produced widely in Punjab, and mango parties are common during the fruit's harvest season. Watermelon and spiced mooli (daikon) at food stalls are shared among friends as well.
Major features of Punjabi ettiquette include:
- The invited guest or elder person is given special respect.
- Invitations to a meal or tea are generally distributed a few days beforehand.
- It is considered rude to start eating food without asking any others participating in a meal. It is customary to offer food before eating.
- Chewing food with one's mouth open and burping in front of others are considered to be rude.
- In the villages of Punjab Pakistan, an additional common plate is usually placed on the table for any bones left from the consumption of chicken or beef. Placing left overs on the floor or on the table floor is considered a bad etiquette.
- After eating the hosts and all the guests join in the cleaning of the place of eating. It is not required but usually it is considered a good practice in villages of Punjab.
- Discussing regional and internal politics, history, science and technology is common at meals, however but religious discussion is general avoided.
- "Punjab records highest per capita milk availability: Report". Times of India. 30 June 2014. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
- "Silver Spoon Breakfast". http://www.silverspoononline.com/halwa-puri-breakfast/.
- http://www.khanapakana.com/cooking-video/7b402de4-c9da-434c-9d3b-670dbbe18591/halwa-puri-and-chanay : Halwa Puri
- http://showmethecurry.com/curries/punjabi-kadhi.html :Yogurt curry
- "New tech gives a boost to shrimp farming in Punjab & Haryana". Business Standard.
- http://indianfood.about.com/od/vegetarianrecipes/r/bainganbharta.htm : Baingan Ka Bharta Recipe
- http://indianfood.about.com/od/vegetarianrecipes/r/chatpatiarvi.htm : Arvi Recipe
- http://chefinyou.com/2008/12/tadka-dal-recipe/ :Tarka Daal Recipe
- http://www.vegrecipesofindia.com/moong-dal-tadka/ :Moong Daal
- http://www.vegrecipesofindia.com/whole-masoor-dal-recipe-north-indian-style/ :Masoor Daal Recipe
- http://www.vegrecipesofindia.com/maa-ki-dal-kaali-dal/ : Maah Daal
- "Tarka Daal". http://www.bbc.co.uk/food/recipes/tarkadal_90055. http://www.bbc.co.uk/.
- "http://www.tarladalal.com/". http://www.tarladalal.com/glossary-cumin-seeds-381i. http://www.tarladalal.com/.
- http://www.bbc.co.uk/food/recipes/indianricepuddingkhe_90219 :Kheer ( Rice Pudding Recipe)
- http://cooks.ndtv.com/recipe/show/suji-ka-halwa-100564 : Suji Ka Halwa
- http://www.vahrehvah.com/chaat-recipes :Chaat (Savory Foods )
- http://www.vegrecipesofindia.com/sweet-lassi-punjabi-lassi/ : Lassi recipe
- http://www.simplyrecipes.com/recipes/mango_lassi/ : Mango Lassi Recipe
- http://www.bbc.co.uk/food/recipes/mangolassi_74038 :BBC Food Mango Lassi Recipe
- http://www.vegrecipesofindia.com/mango-milkshake-recipe/ :Mango Milkshake
- http://whatscookingamerica.net/Beverage/MangoLassi.htm : Mango Milkshake
- http://www.vegrecipesofindia.com/chaas-recipe-buttermilk-recipe/ : Salted Chaas Recipe
- http://www.vegrecipesofindia.com/pudina-chaas-recipe/ : Pudina Chaas
- http://www.vegrecipesofindia.com/watermelon-juice-fresh-watermelon-juice/ : Water Melon Shake
- http://maayeka.blogspot.de/2013/03/gobhigajar-aur-shalgum-ka-achar-punjabi.html : Punjabi Mix Vegetable Pickle Recipe
- http://www.vegrecipesofindia.com/punjabi-mango-pickle/ :Mango Pickle Recipe
- http://www.jopreetskitchen.com/2013/06/punjabi-mango-pickle-aam-ka-achaar.html : Mango Pickle Recipe
- http://trtapakistan.org/sector-products/horticulture/mangoes/ :Mango Production in Punjab Pakistan