Punjabi diaspora

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Pakistan Punjabi Diaspora India
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ, پنجابی
AyeshaJalal.jpg James Caan (entrepreneur).jpgKalpana Chawla, NASA photo portrait in orange suit.jpg
Amir Khan 2007.jpgSaman Hasnain 1.jpg
Sajid Mahmood 2007.jpgMonty Panesar.jpg
List of Punjabis:
1st row: Ayesha Jalal, James Caan, Kalpana Chawla
2nd row: Amir Khan, Saman Hasnain
3rd row:Sajid Mahmood, Monty Panesar
Total population
10 million[1]
Regions with significant populations
 Pakistan India Europe United States Canada Australia
Languages
PunjabiEnglish
Religion
Allah-green.svg IslamKhanda1.svg SikhismOm.svg HinduismChristian cross.svg ChristianityJainismnon-religious
Related ethnic groups
Indian Diaspora, Pakistani diaspora, South Asian Diaspora

The Punjabi diaspora refers to the descendants of ethnic Punjabis who emigrated out of the Punjab region to the rest of world. Punjabis are one of the largest ethnic groups in both the Pakistani and Indian diasporas. The Punjabi diaspora numbers around 10 million, mainly concentrated in Britain, North America, Southeast Asia and the Middle East.[1]

Australia[edit]

Further information: Indian Australian and Pakistani Australian

Punjabis migrated to Australia from other parts of the Punjabi diaspora, as well from the state of Punjab itself. The Majority were Sikh & Hindu Punjabis instead of Muslims being the majority.[2]

Canada[edit]

Further information: Indian Canadian and Pakistani Canadian

85% of Indo-Canadians in British Columbia are Punjabi Sikhs,[3] including former premier of British Columbia, Ujjal Dosanjh.

Gulf states[edit]

In the Gulf states, the largest group among Pakistani expatriates are the Punjabis, then Pashtuns.[4]

Hong Kong[edit]

Among Hong Kong Indian adolescents, Punjabi is the most common language other than Cantonese.[5] The Punjabis were influential in the military, and in line with the British military thinking of the time (namely, the late 19th century and early 20th century) Punjabi Sikhs,Punjabi Hindus and Punjabi Muslims formed two separate regiments.The regiments were as follows:

  • Punjab regiment-25,000 soldiers(50% Muslim,40% Hindu and 10% Sikh)
  • Sikh Regiment-10,000 soldiers(80% Sikh,20% Hindu)

In 1939, Hong Kong's police force included 272 Europeans, 774 Indians (mainly Punjabis) and 1140 Chinese.[6] Punjabis dominated Hong Kong's police force until the 1950s.[7]

From the 2006 Government by-census results, it shows a population of roughly 20,444 Indians and roughly 11,111 Pakistanis residing at the former British territory. .[8]

Kenya[edit]

Most Kenyan Asians are Gujaratis, but the second largest group are Punjabis.[9]

Malaysia[edit]

Although most Malaysian Indians are Tamils, there were also many Punjabis that immigrated to Malaysia. According to Amarjit Kaur as of 1993 there were 60, 000 Punjabis in Malaysia.[10] Robin Cohen estimates the number of Malaysian Sikhs as 30, 000 (as of 1995).[6] Recent figures state that there are 130,000 Sikhs in Malaysia.[11]

New Zealand[edit]

In New Zealand, Punjabis are one of the largest group of Indian New Zealanders.[12]

Singapore[edit]

The third largest group among Indo-Singaporeans in 1980 were Punjabis (after Tamils - who form a majority of Indo-Singaporeans - and Malayalis), at 7.8% of the Indo-Singaporean population.[13]

Thailand[edit]

Most Indians in Thailand are Punjabis.[14]

United Kingdom[edit]

British sign from Southall in English and Punjabi

In the United Kingdom, around two-thirds of direct migrants (excluding South Asians that immigrated from the Caribbean, Fiji and other regions) from South Asia were Punjabi. The remaining third is mostly Gujarati and Bengali.[15] They form a majority of both the South Asian British Sikh and Muslim communities.

Most "twice-migrants" were also Punjabi or Gujarati.[16]

Population of Sikhs by UK Censuses[edit]

Year Population
1951 10,000
1961 26,000
1971 120,000
1981 216,020
1991 269,000
2001 336,000

[17]

United States[edit]

Punjabis in the US by State
Main article: Punjabi American

The earliest South Asian immigrants to the United States were Punjabis, who mostly immigrated to the West Coast, particularly California.[18] Half of Pakistani Americans are Punjabis.[19] 85% of the early Indian immigrants to the US were Sikhs, although they were branded by White Americans as "Hindoos".[20] 90% of Indians who settled in the Central Valley of California were Punjabi Sikhs.[21]

Native speakers of Punjabi per country[edit]

Rank Country Population
3  United Kingdom 2,300,000
4  Canada 1,100,000
5  United Arab Emirates 720,000
6  United States 640,000
7  Saudi Arabia 620,000
8  Malaysia 185,000
9  South Africa 140,000
10  Burma 120,000
11  France 90,000
12  Italy 80,000
13  Thailand 75,000
14  Japan 75,000
15  Australia 71,000
16  Mauritius 70,000
17  Singapore 70,000
18  Oman 68,000
19  Libya 65,000
20  Bahrain 60,000
21  Kenya 55,000
22  Tanzania 45,000
23  Kuwait 40,000
24  Germany 35,000
25  Hong Kong 26,000

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b http://apnaorg.com/articles/ishtiaq8/ - Punjabis Without Punjabi
  2. ^ Tony Ballantyne. Between Colonialism and Diaspora: Sikh Cultural Formations in an Imperial World. 
  3. ^ Mahendra Gaur. Foreign policy annual. p. 317. 
  4. ^ Ayesha Jalal (1995). Democracy and Authoritarianism in South Asia: A Comparative and Historical Perspective. Cambridge University Press. 
  5. ^ Martha Carswell Pennington (1998). Language in Hong Kong at Century's End. Hong Kong University Press. p. 219. 
  6. ^ a b Robin Cohen (1995). The Cambridge Survey of World Migration. Cambridge University Press. p. 70. 
  7. ^ Carol R. Ember, Melvin Ember, Ian A. Skoggard. Encyclopedia of Diasporas: Immigrant and Refugee Cultures Around the World. Volume I: Overviews and Topics; Volume II: Diaspora Communities. Springer year=2004. 
  8. ^ Hong Kong SAR Government. Census and Statistics Department 2006 Population By-census: Section A, Table A105. Hong Kong SAR Government year=2007. 
  9. ^ Wilfred Whiteley. Language in Kenya. 
  10. ^ Amarjit Kaur (1993). Historical Dictionary of Malaysia. Scarecrow Press. 
  11. ^ http://apnaorg.com/articles/ishtiaq8/
  12. ^ "Indians - Indian communities - Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand". 
  13. ^ Language Change Via Language Planning: Some Theoretical and Empirical Aspects with a Focus on Singapore. p. 77. 
  14. ^ Kernial Singh Sandhu, A. Mani. Indian Communities in Southeast Asia. 
  15. ^ Roger Ballard, Marcus Banks (1994). Desh Pardesh. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. pp. 19–20. 
  16. ^ Peter J. Claus, Sarah Diamond, Margaret Ann Mills. South Asian Folklore: An Encyclopedia : Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka. p. 158. 
  17. ^ http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=GDMTeC_WB0oC&pg=PA23&dq=british+sikhs+1951
  18. ^ Parmatma Saran, Edwin Eames. The New Ethnics: Asian Indians in the United States. 
  19. ^ http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Le-Pa/Pakistani-Americans.html - Under "Language"
  20. ^ David M. Reimers (2005). Other Immigrants: The Global Origins of the American People. NYU Press. p. 61. 
  21. ^ Margaret A. Gibson. Accommodation Without Assimilation.