List of Punjabis:
1st row: Ayesha Jalal, James Caan, Kalpana Chawla
2nd row: Amir Khan, Saman Hasnain
3rd row:Sajid Mahmood, Monty Panesar
|Regions with significant populations|
|• Pakistan • India • Europe • United States • Canada • Australia|
|• Punjabi • English|
|• Islam • Sikhism • Hinduism • Christianity • Jainism • non-religious|
|Related ethnic groups|
|• Indian Diaspora, Pakistani diaspora, South Asian Diaspora|
The Punjabi diaspora refers to the descendants of ethnic Punjabis who emigrated out of the Punjab region to the rest of world. Punjabis are one of the largest ethnic groups in both the Pakistani and Indian diasporas. The Punjabi diaspora numbers around 10 million, mainly concentrated in Britain, North America, Southeast Asia and the Middle East.
In the Gulf states, the largest group among Pakistani expatriates are the Punjabis, then Pashtuns.
Among Hong Kong Indian adolescents, Punjabi is the most common language other than Cantonese. The Punjabis were influential in the military, and in line with the British military thinking of the time (namely, the late 19th century and early 20th century) Punjabi Sikhs,Punjabi Hindus and Punjabi Muslims formed two separate regiments.The regiments were as follows:
- Punjab regiment-25,000 soldiers(50% Muslim,40% Hindu and 10% Sikh)
- Sikh Regiment-10,000 soldiers(80% Sikh,20% Hindu)
From the 2006 Government by-census results, it shows a population of roughly 20,444 Indians and roughly 11,111 Pakistanis residing at the former British territory. .
Although most Malaysian Indians are Tamils, there were also many Punjabis that immigrated to Malaysia. According to Amarjit Kaur as of 1993 there were 60, 000 Punjabis in Malaysia. Robin Cohen estimates the number of Malaysian Sikhs as 30, 000 (as of 1995). Recent figures state that there are 130,000 Sikhs in Malaysia.
In the United Kingdom, around two-thirds of direct migrants (excluding South Asians that immigrated from the Caribbean, Fiji and other regions) from South Asia were Punjabi. The remaining third is mostly Gujarati and Bengali. They form a majority of both the South Asian British Sikh and Muslim communities.
Population of Sikhs by UK Censuses
The earliest South Asian immigrants to the United States were Punjabis, who mostly immigrated to the West Coast, particularly California. Half of Pakistani Americans are Punjabis. 85% of the early Indian immigrants to the US were Sikhs, although they were branded by White Americans as "Hindoos". 90% of Indians who settled in the Central Valley of California were Punjabi Sikhs.
Native speakers of Punjabi per country
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (April 2014)|
|5||United Arab Emirates||720,000|
- http://apnaorg.com/articles/ishtiaq8/ - Punjabis Without Punjabi
- Tony Ballantyne. Between Colonialism and Diaspora: Sikh Cultural Formations in an Imperial World.
- Mahendra Gaur. Foreign policy annual. p. 317.
- Ayesha Jalal (1995). Democracy and Authoritarianism in South Asia: A Comparative and Historical Perspective. Cambridge University Press.
- Martha Carswell Pennington (1998). Language in Hong Kong at Century's End. Hong Kong University Press. p. 219.
- Robin Cohen (1995). The Cambridge Survey of World Migration. Cambridge University Press. p. 70.
- Carol R. Ember, Melvin Ember, Ian A. Skoggard. Encyclopedia of Diasporas: Immigrant and Refugee Cultures Around the World. Volume I: Overviews and Topics; Volume II: Diaspora Communities. Springer year=2004.
- Hong Kong SAR Government. Census and Statistics Department 2006 Population By-census: Section A, Table A105. Hong Kong SAR Government year=2007.
- Wilfred Whiteley. Language in Kenya.
- Amarjit Kaur (1993). Historical Dictionary of Malaysia. Scarecrow Press.
- "Indians - Indian communities - Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand".
- Language Change Via Language Planning: Some Theoretical and Empirical Aspects with a Focus on Singapore. p. 77.
- Kernial Singh Sandhu, A. Mani. Indian Communities in Southeast Asia.
- Roger Ballard, Marcus Banks (1994). Desh Pardesh. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. pp. 19–20.
- Peter J. Claus, Sarah Diamond, Margaret Ann Mills. South Asian Folklore: An Encyclopedia : Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka. p. 158.
- Parmatma Saran, Edwin Eames. The New Ethnics: Asian Indians in the United States.
- http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Le-Pa/Pakistani-Americans.html - Under "Language"
- David M. Reimers (2005). Other Immigrants: The Global Origins of the American People. NYU Press. p. 61.
- Margaret A. Gibson. Accommodation Without Assimilation.